Girdler sulfide process
The Girdler sulfide (GS) process, also known as the Geib–Spevack (GS) process, is an industrial production method for making heavy water (deuterium oxide = D2O) which is used as coolant and moderator in Heavy water reactors. Karl-Hermann Geib and Jerome S. Spevack independently invented the process in the early 1940s. The name derives from the Girdler company, which built the first American plant using the process.
The method is an isotopic exchange process between H2S and H2O ("light" water), that produces heavy water over several steps. It is a highly energy intensive process. Seawater contains 180 parts per million of D2O.
Until its closure in 1997, the Bruce Heavy Water Plant in Ontario (located close to the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station) was the world's largest heavy water production plant, with a capacity of 700 tonnes per year. It used the Girdler sulfide process to produce heavy water, and required 340,000 tonnes of feed water to produce one tonne of heavy water.
Presently, India has seven heavy water production plants. The first of these to use the Girdler process is located at Rawatbhata near Kota, Rajasthan.
Each of a number of steps consists of two sieve tray columns. One column is maintained at 30 °C and is called the cold tower and the other at 130 °C and is called the hot tower. The enrichment process is based on the difference in separation between 30 °C and 130 °C.
Hydrogen sulfide gas is circulated in a closed loop between the cold tower and the hot tower (although these can be separate towers, they can also be separate sections of one tower, with the cold section at the top). Demineralised and deaerated water is fed to the cold tower where deuterium migration preferentially takes place from the hydrogen sulfide gas to the liquid water. This "enriched" water from the cold tower is fed to the hot tower where deuterium transfer takes place from the liquid water to the hydrogen sulfide gas. An appropriate "cascade" setup accomplishes enrichment. Using one tower instead of a cascade is possible, but in practice it never occurs, as the tower size and process inventory would be much larger.
- U.S. Patent 4,620,909, Method for isotope replenishment in an exchange liquid used in a laser induced isotope enrichment process
- Federation of American Scientists, Heavy Water Production, accessed 1 Feb 2007.
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- "Heavy Water Board – A unit under Department of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India<".
- Boris M. Andreev (2001). "Separating of Hydrogen Isotopes in H2O-H2S System". Separation Science and Technology 36 (8–9): 1949–89. doi:10.1081/SS-100104764.
- "FAS Special Weapons Primer: Heavy water production".