Gemini 10

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Gemini X
Agena Firing - GPN-2000-001355.jpg
Gemini 10 is boosted into a higher orbit by its Agena Target Vehicle
Operator NASA
COSPAR ID 1966-066A
SATCAT № 2349
Mission duration 2 days, 22 hours, 46 minutes, 39 seconds
Orbits completed 43
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft Gemini SC10
Manufacturer McDonnell
Launch mass 3,762.6 kilograms (8,295 lb)
Landing mass 1,930 kilograms (4,254 lb)
Crew
Crew size 2
Members John W. Young
Michael Collins
EVAs 2
EVA duration 1 hour, 28 minutes
Start of mission
Launch date July 18, 1966, 22:20:26 (1966-07-18UTC22:20:26Z) UTC
Rocket Titan II GLV, s/n #62-12565
Launch site Cape Canaveral LC-19
End of mission
Landing date July 21, 1966, 21:07:05 (1966-07-21UTC21:07:06Z) UTC
Landing site 26°44.7′N 71°57′W / 26.7450°N 71.950°W / 26.7450; -71.950 (Gemini 10 splashdown)
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 159.9 kilometers (86.3 nmi)
Apogee 268.9 kilometers (145.2 nmi)
Inclination 28.87 degrees
Period 88.79 minutes
Epoch First orbit
Docking with GATV-5005
Docking date July 19, 1966, 04:15:00 UTC
Undocking date July 20, 1966, 19:00:00 UTC
Time docked 1 day, 14 hours, 45 minutes

Ge10Patch orig.png Gemini10crew.jpg
(L-R) Young, Collins


Project Gemini
← Gemini 9A Gemini 11

Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X)[1] was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the 8th manned Gemini flight, the 16th manned American flight and the 24th spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 kilometres (62 mi)).

Crew[edit]

Position Astronaut
Command Pilot John W. Young
Second spaceflight
Pilot Michael Collins
First spaceflight

Backup crew[edit]

Position Astronaut
Command Pilot Alan L. Bean
Pilot Clifton C. Williams, Jr.

Support crew[edit]

Mission parameters[edit]

Docking[edit]

  • Docked: July 19, 1966 - 04:15:00 UTC
  • Undocked: July 20, 1966 - 19:00:00 UTC

Space walk[edit]

  • Collins - EVA 1 (stand up)
    • Start: July 19, 1966, 21:44:00 UTC
    • End: July 19, 1966, 22:33:00 UTC
    • Duration: 0 hours, 49 minutes
  • Collins - EVA 2
    • Start: July 20, 1966, 23:01:00 UTC
    • End: July 20, 1966, 23:40:00 UTC
    • Duration: 0 hours, 39 minutes

Objectives[edit]

Gemini 10 established that radiation at high altitude was not a problem. After docking with their Agena booster in low orbit, Young and Collins used it to climb another 763.8 kilometers to meet with the dead, drifting Agena left over from the aborted Gemini 8 flight—thus executing the program's first double rendezvous. With no electricity on board, the second Agena the rendezvous was accomplished with eyes only—no radar. After the rendezvous, Collins spacewalked over to the dormant Agena at the end of a 15.24 meter tether, making Collins the first person to meet another spacecraft in orbit. He retrieved a cosmic dust-collecting panel from the side of the Agena, but returned no pictures of his close encounter; in the complicated business of keeping his tether clear of the Gemini and Agena, Collins' Hasselblad camera worked itself free and drifted off into orbit.

Gemini 10 was designed to achieve the objectives planned for the last two missions—rendezvous, docking and EVA. As well as this it was also hoped to dock with the Agena Target Vehicle from the Gemini 8 mission. This Agena's battery power had failed many months earlier and this would demonstrate the ability to rendezvous with a dormant object. It would be also the first mission to fire the Agena's own rocket, allowing them to reach higher orbits.

Flight[edit]

The Agena launched perfectly for the second time, after problems had occurred with the targets for Gemini 6 and 9. Gemini 10 followed 100 minutes later and entered into a 159.9 x 268.9 kilometres (167.1 mi) orbit. They were 1,800 kilometres (1,100 mi) behind the Agena.

Gemini 10 Agena Info
Agena GATV-5005
NSSDC ID: 1966-065A
Mass 3,175 kilograms (7,000 lb)
Launch site LC-14
Launch date July 18, 1966
Launch time 20:39:46 UTC
1st perigee 294.7 kilometres (183.1 mi)
1st apogee 302.8 kilometres (188.2 mi)
Period 90.46 m
Inclination 28.85
Reentered December 29, 1966


First rendezvous[edit]

Collins discovered that he was unable to use the sextant for navigation as it did not seem to work as expected. At first he mistook airglow as the real horizon when trying to make some fixes on stars. Then the image didn't seem right. He tried another instrument that they had on board but this was not practical to use as it had a very small field of view.

They fortunately had a backup in the form of the computers on the ground. They made their first burn to put them into a 265 by 272 kilometer orbit. However Young didn't realize that during the next burn, he had the spacecraft turned slightly which meant that they introduced an out of plane error. This meant two extra burns were necessary, and by the time they had docked with the Agena, 60% of their fuel had been consumed. It was decided to keep the Gemini docked to the Agena as long as possible, as this would mean that they could use the fuel on board the Agena for attitude control.

The first burn of the Agena engine they made was 80 seconds long and put them in a 294 by 763 kilometer orbit. This was the highest a person had ever been (until the next mission when Gemini 11 went to over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)). This burn was quite a ride for the crew. Because the Gemini and Agena docked nose to nose, the forces experienced were "eyeballs out" as opposed to "eyeballs in" for a launch from Earth. The crew took a couple of pictures when they reached apogee but were more interested in what was going on in the spacecraft — checking the systems and watching the radiation dosage meter.

After this they had their sleep period which lasted for eight hours and then they were ready for another busy day. The crew's first order of business was to make a second burn with the Agena engine to put them into the same orbit as the Gemini 8 Agena. This was at 20:58 UTC on July 19 and lasted 78 seconds and took 105 meters per second off their speed, putting them into a 294 by 382 kilometres (237 mi) orbit. They made one more burn of the Agena to circularize their orbit to 377.6 kilometres (234.6 mi).

EVA 1[edit]

It was now time for the first of two EVAs on Gemini 10. This was to be just a standup EVA, where Collins would 'stand' in the open hatch and take some photographs of stars as part of experiment S-13. They used a 70 mm general purpose camera to image the Southern Milky Way in ultraviolet. After orbital sunrise, Collins then photographed a color plate on the side of the spacecraft (MSC-8) to see whether film reproduced colors accurately in space. They reentered the spacecraft six minutes early when they both found their eyes were irritated, which was caused by a minor leak of lithium hydroxide in the astronauts' oxygen supply.[2] After repressurizing the cabin, they ran the oxygen at high rates and flushed the environment system.

Young and Collins were both tired after the exercise of the EVA and slept well on their second 'night' in space. The next 'morning' they started preparing for the second rendezvous and another EVA.

Second rendezvous[edit]

After undocking from their Agena, the crew thought they sighted the Gemini 8 Agena. It however turned out to be their own Agena 5.5 kilometres (3.4 mi) away, while their target was 176 kilometres (109 mi) away. It wasn't until just over 30 kilometres (19 mi) away that they saw it as a faint star. After a couple more correction burns, they were stationkeeping three meters away from the Gemini 8 Agena. They found the Agena to be very stable and in good condition.

EVA 2[edit]

At 48 hours and 41 minutes into the mission, the second EVA began. Collins' first task was to retrieve a Micrometeorite Collector (S-12) from the side of the spacecraft. This he accomplished with some difficulty (similar to that encountered by Eugene Cernan on Gemini 9A). However, the collector floated out of the cabin some time later during the EVA and was lost.

He next travelled over to the Agena. He tried to grab onto the docking cone but found this impossible as it was smooth and had no grip. He used a nitrogen-propelled Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) to move himself towards the Gemini and then back to the Agena. This time he was able to grab hold of some wire bundles and retrieved the Micrometeorite Collector (S-10) from the Agena. He decided against replacing it as he could lose the one he had just retrieved.

His last task on this EVA was to test out the HHMU. However this stopped working and meant they finished the EVA after only 39 minutes. During this time, it took the crew eight minutes to close the hatch as they had some difficulty with the 50 feet (15 m) umbilical. It was jettisoned along with the chestpack used by Collins an hour later when they opened the hatch for the third and final time.

Experiments[edit]

There were ten other experiments that the crew performed during the mission. Three were interested in radiation: MSC-3 was the Tri-Axis Magnetometer which measured levels in the South Atlantic Anomaly. There was also MSC-6, a beta spectrometer, which measured potential radiation doses for Apollo missions, and MSC-7, a bremsstrahlung spectrometer which detected radiation flux as a function of energy when the spacecraft passed through the South Atlantic Anomaly.

S-26 investigated the ion and electron wake of the spacecraft. This provided limited results due to the lack of fuel for attitude control, but found that electron and ion temperatures were higher than expected and it registered shock effects during docking and undocking.

The S-5 and S-6 experiments were performed, which were previously carried on Gemini 9A; these were Synoptic Terrain and Synoptic Weather photography respectively. There was also S-1 which was intended to image the Zodiacal light. All of these experiments were of little use as the film used was only half as sensitive as Gemini 9A and the dirty windows lowered the transmission of light by a factor of six.

The crew also tried to perform D-5, a navigation experiment. They were only able to track five stars, with six needed for accurate measurements. The last experiment, D-10, was to investigate an ion-sensing attitude control system. This experiment measured the attitude of the spacecraft from the flow of ions and electrons around the spacecraft in orbit. The results from this experiment showed the system to be accurate and responsive.

Re-entry[edit]

Splashdown of Gemini 10.

The last day of the mission was short and retrofire came at 70 hours and 10 minutes into the mission. They landed only 5.6 kilometres (3.5 mi) away from the intended landing site and were recovered by the USS Guadalcanal.

The Gemini 10 mission was supported by the following U.S. Department of Defense resources; 9,067 personnel, 78 aircraft and 13 ships.

Insignia[edit]

The patch is simple in design but highly symbolic. The main feature is a large X with a Gemini and Agena orbiting around it. The two stars have a variety of meanings: the two rendezvous attempts, Castor and Pollux in Gemini or the two crew members. This is one of the few crew patches without the crew's name. It is able to be displayed "upside down" but is correctly shown with the spacecraft to the right. It was designed by Young's first wife, Barbara.

Spacecraft location[edit]

For many years the spacecraft was the centerpiece of a space exhibition at Norsk Teknisk Museum, Oslo, Norway. It was returned on request in 2002.

The spacecraft is currently on display at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, Hutchinson, Kansas. When the restoration of the Gemini 6A spacecraft is completed, then Gemini 10 will be restored in full view of the public. At the end of this restoration it will be put back on full display at the Cosmosphere. One of the hatches is displayed at Virginia Air and Space Center, Hampton, Virginia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hacker, Barton C.; Grimwood, James M. (September 1974). "Chapter 11 Pillars of Confidence". On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini. NASA History Series. SP-4203. NASA. p. 239.  With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
  2. ^ Collins, Michael (1974). "8". Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journeys (eBook). Cooper Square Press. ISBN 9781461660880. 

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.