Gendarmerie General Command

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Gendarmerie General Command
Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı
Common name Jandarma
Seal of the Jandarma.jpg
Logo of the Gendarmerie General Command.
Flag of Turkish General Command of Gendarmerie.svg
Flag of Turkish General Command of Gendarmerie
Agency overview
Formed 1846 (Official claim)
June 10, 1930 (as Gendarmerie Organisation)
1956 (as Gendarmerie General Command)[1]
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
National agency Turkey
General nature
Specialist jurisdiction Paramilitary law enforcement, counter insurgency, armed response to civil unrest, counter terrorism, special weapons operations.
Operational structure
Personnels 186,320 [2]
Elected officer responsible Efkan Ala, Minister of Interior
Agency executive Gen. Bekir Kalyoncu, Commander
Parent agency Turkish Armed Forces
Facilities
Armored and utility vehicles 1,475
Helicopters 59
Website
http://www.jandarma.gov.tr/
British Officers in the Ottoman Gendarmerie, 1904

The Gendarmerie General Command (Turkish: Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı) or Turkish Gendarmerie (Turkish: Türk Jandarması) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas), as well as assuring internal security and general border control along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations. The Gendarmerie is essentially a governmental armed security and law enforcement force of military nature.

It also operates the Askeri İnzibat provost service, policing the armed forces and two special forces brigades called Jandarma Özel Harekat and Jandarma Özel Asayiş Komutanlığı .

As a part of the Turkish Armed Forces, the General Command of the Gendarmerie is subordinate to the Turkish General Staff in matters relating to training and education in connection with the Armed Forces, and to the Ministry of the Interior in matters relating to the performance of the safety and public order duties. The Commander of the Gendarmerie reports to the Minister of the Interior.

The Gendarmerie has its roots in the Ottoman Empire military law enforcement organization "Subaşı" (later known as the "Zaptiye"), which carried out security and safety services. A similar, earlier force was called "Şurta" during the medieval Seljuq Empire.

History[edit]

Ottoman era[edit]

After the abolition of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire in 1826, military organizations called Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Mansûre, Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Hâssa, and, in 1834, Asâkir-i Redîfe were established to deliver security and public order services in Anatolia and in some provinces of Rumelia.

Since the term Gendarmerie was noticed only in the Assignment Decrees published in the years following the declaration of Tanzimat in 1839, it is assumed that the Gendarmerie organization was founded after that year, but the exact date of foundation has not yet been determined. Therefore, taking the June 14 of "June 14, 1869", on which Asâkir-i Zaptiye Nizâmnâmesi was adopted, June 14, 1839 was accepted as the foundation date of the Turkish Gendarmerie.[4]

After 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, Ottoman prime minister Mehmed Said Pasha decided to bring some officers from Britain and France to establish a modern law enforcement organization. After the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Gendarmerie achieved great successes, particularly in Rumelia. In 1909, the Gendarmerie was affiliated with the Ministry of War, and its name was changed to the Gendarmerie General Command (Ottoman Turkish: Umûm Jandarma Kumandanlığı).

Gendarmerie units both sustained their internal security duties and took part in the national defence at various fronts as a part of the Armed Forces during the World War I and the Turkish War of Independence.

Republic of Turkey[edit]

The Gendarmerie organization achieved its current legal status after Law No. 1706 entered into force on June 10, 1930. In 1939, the Gendarmerie organization was restructured, having three groups: Fixed Gendarmerie Units, Mobile Gendarmerie Units, and Gendarmerie Training Units and Schools.

Law No. 6815, which entered into force in 1956, assigned the Gendarmerie General Command duties such as protecting borders, coasts and territorial waters, and fighting smuggling, which had been previously carried out by the Gümrük Umum Kumandanlığı that was a military organization at the level of division in affiliation to the Ministry of Customs and Monopoly.

In 1957, Gendarmerie Border Units were transformed into brigades, and Gendarmerie Training Brigades were established.

In 1961, Gendarmerie Regional Commands were established.

In 1968, the first Gendarmerie Aviation Unit was established in Diyarbakır under the name of Light Helicopter Company Command.

In 1974, Gendarmerie Commando Units and Gendarmerie Aviation Units took part in the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.

Law No. 2692 which entered into force in 1982 assigned the duty of protecting the coasts and territorial waters to the Coast Guard Command.

Law No. 2803 on the Organization, Duties and Responsibilities of the Gendarmerie entered into force in 1983.

Law No. 3497 entering into force in 1988 assigned the duty of protecting the land borders and ensuring their security to the Land Forces Command, but Gendarmerie General Command still holds the responsibility for some parts of the Iranian and Syrian borders and the whole Iraqi border.

Gendarmerie Criminal Department was founded in Ankara in 1993 and Gendarmerie Regional Criminal Laboratory Superiorities were founded respectively in 1994 in Van, in 1998 in Bursa and in 2005 in Aydın. Crime Scene Examination Teams, Explosive Material Disposal Units, Fingerprints and Palm Prints Branches and Crime Scene Examination Units were also established.

Since 1984, Gendarmerie units have been the most important element of the conflict against Kurdish separatists.

Structure[edit]

The Turkish Gendarmerie comprises the following commands:[5]

  • Personnel
  • Intelligence
  • Operations
  • Logistics

The General Command is composed of:[6][7]

Equipment[edit]

Handguns[edit]

Shotguns[edit]

Submachine Guns[edit]

Assault and Battle Rifles[edit]

Machine Guns[edit]

Sniper Rifles[edit]

Rocket and Grenade Launchers[edit]

Mortars[edit]

Vehicles[edit]

Turkish Gendarmerie
Armored personnel carriers[11]
323 BTR-60PB (8x8) (upgraded)
35 RN-94 (6x6) (out of service)
250+ Otokar Akrep (4x4)
200+ Otokar Cobra (4x4)
60 Dragoon 300 (AFV) (4x4)
25 Condor (APC) (4x4)
35 UR416 (4x4)(out of service)
200 Cadillac V150/S (4x4)
300+ Shorland S55 (4x4)
200+ BMC Kirpi (4x4)
47 Sisu Nasu
Helicopters
28 S-70A Blackhawk (Avionics upgraded by Aselsan)
13 AB-205 (Avionics upgraded by Aselsan)
18 Mi-17 IVA (Avionics upgraded by Aselsan)

Insignia[edit]

NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student Officer
Turkey Turkey
(Edit)
OF-10 Mareşal TA.jpg OF-9 Orgeneral TA.jpg OF-8 OF-8 Korgeneral TA.jpg OF-7 OF-7 Tümgeneral TA.jpg No
Insignia
Mareşal Orgeneral Korgeneral Tümgeneral Tuğgeneral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Harbiyeli
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkey Turkey
(Edit)
Army-TUR-OR-09.svg Army-TUR-OR-08.svg Army-TUR-OR-07a.svg Army-TUR-OR-07b.svg Army-TUR-OR-06a.svg Army-TUR-OR-06b.svg TR-Army-OR5a.svg Army-TUR-OR-05.svg TR-Army-OR4a.svg Army-TUR-OR-04.svg No Insignia
Astsubay Kıdemli
Başçavuş
Astsubay
Başçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Üstçavuş
Astsubay
Üstçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Çavuş
Astsubay
Çavuş
Uzman
Çavuş
Çavuş Uzman
Onbaşı
Onbaşı Er


  • Non-Turkish speakers might like to know that OF3, OF2 & OR2 literally translates to "Head of 1000", "Head of 100" & "Head of 10" respectively.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]