Gender representation in video games
The portrayal of men and women in video games, as in other media, is a subject of research in gender studies. While 48% of all game players are women, men are featured much more often in games than women. The way men and women are portrayed in games often reflects gender roles or popular stereotypes, such as that of the damsel in distress for women.
- 1 Portrayal of women
- 1.1 Roles of women
- 1.2 Depiction of women
- 1.3 Reactions
- 2 Portrayal of men
- 3 Portrayal of LGBT characters
- 4 Effect of gender representation in games
- 5 See also
- 6 Footnotes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Portrayal of women
The portrayal of women in video games is the subject of academic study and controversy. Recurring themes in both include the level of independence of female characters from their male counterparts, as well as their sexual objectification and sexualization.
Studies have shown that women who play video games with sexualized female main characters identify with these stereotypes and base their appearance off of them. When the unrealistic appearance shown in the game cannot be achieved, this leads to issues with self-esteem and self confidence. This is similar to how men are portrayed as heroic and masculine with bulging muscles, which cause young men who play video games to identify with these characters and attempt to achieve similar body types. 
Roles of women
Female player characters
The vast majority of female characters have been found to be non-playable, meaning they cannot be played by the gamer. This suggests a female secondary status in video games. When playable female characters do appear in video games, it is most likely they are scantily dressed and over-sexualized in unrealistic ways. 
According to data gathered by Electronic Entertainment Design and Research (EEDAR), few video games have exclusively female heroes. This is in part because, according to EEDAR, "there's a sense in the industry that games with female heroes won’t sell", which Penny Arcade attributed in part to these games receiving much smaller marketing budgets than games with male heroes.
In a sample of 669 action, shooter, and role-playing games selected by EEDAR in 2012, only 24 (4%) had an exclusively female protagonist, and 300 (45%) provided the option of selecting one. Examining the sales data and review scores of these games, EEDAR found that the games that included the option of selecting a female hero obtained better scores, but the ones with male-only protagonists sold better than the others. However, games with a female-only protagonist had, on average, only 50% of the marketing budget of female-optional games, and 40% of the marketing budget of games with male-only protagonists.
Samus Aran, the heroine of Metroid (1986) and its successors, is often cited as "the first playable human female character in a mainstream videogame". However, other earlier games featured female player characters, such as Toby Masuyo ("Kissy") from Baraduke (1985).
Lara Croft, the protagonist of Tomb Raider (1996), is among the best-known strong, fictional women in a variety of media. April Ryan from The Longest Journey (1999) has been compared to Lara Croft in that respect, as she shows less prominent physical feminine attributes than Lara but more feminine psychological traits, as contrasted with Lara's masculine connotations like aggressiveness and force. Contrarily, Jade, the protagonist of Beyond Good & Evil (2003), was widely recognized as a strong and confident female character lacking any overt sexualisation.
Nonetheless, female player characters remain the exception rather than the norm. By 2014, the developers' choice to omit playable women in the latest iterations of the top-tier gaming franchises Assassin's Creed and Far Cry became a focus of discussions in gaming media. This indicated, according to game industry professionals cited by Polygon, a shift in the industry's attention towards issues of diversity in gaming, in conjunction with video games as a whole growing beyond their former core audience of younger men.
Female supporting characters
A number of games feature a female character as an ally or sidekick to the male hero. Some of them, like Ada Wong and Mona Sax, were turned into player characters in later instances of their series. Alyx Vance, a supporting protagonist of Half-Life 2, was praised for her "stinging personality" and intelligence, developing a close bond with the player without simply being "eye candy".
However, female characters are often cast in the role of the damsel in distress, with their rescue being the objective of the game. Princess Zelda in the early The Legend of Zelda series and Princess Peach through much of the Mario series are paradigmatic examples. Both of them, however, became playable in the later games of their series or had the pattern altered.
The Dark Queen in Battletoads (1991) and its successors is one of the first major female villains in video games. SHODAN, an artificial intelligence with a female voice and a female face, was the main villain of the game System Shock (1994), praised as one of the most recognizable female characters in gaming. Another prominent female villain is Ultimecia, the main antagonist in Final Fantasy VIII (1999). At PAX Prime 2013, she was voted among the best female antagonists in video gaming history. Similarly, GLaDOS from Portal (2007), an insane computer with a female voice, was praised by critics as one of the best new characters of the 2000s.
Depiction of women
Objectification and sexualization
Many recent games have increased the sexualized portrayal of women so as to appeal to a male audience. In 2012, for instance, Dead or Alive director, Yohei Shimbori, admitted the developers received complaints from fans who had played the Dead or Alive 5 demo packaged with Ninja Gaiden 3. According to Shimbori, "We actually got a lot of feedback from people who were playing it, saying, 'We want bigger breasts. Make the characters more like that.' That was kind of surprising."
Female video game characters have been criticized as tending to suffer from a particularly extreme manifestation of the male gaze. A print ad for the fighting game Soul Calibur V received some controversy for simply being a close up of a female characters breasts with a tagline.
Since her introduction in 1996, the character of Lara Croft from the Tomb Raider series in particular has been criticized for her unrealistic breast size; Lara was claimed to personify "an ongoing culture clash over gender, sexuality, empowerment, and objectification." However, the game's creators maintain that she was not designed with marketing in mind, and have claimed to be rather surprised at her pinup-style adoration. In Tomb Raider: Legend, Lara underwent a radical redesign, ostensibly to make her less sexualized.
In two sequels of fighting games Soul Calibur and Tekken that take place several years after the original issue, recurring male characters were allowed to age but all female characters were kept the same age or replaced by their daughters.
In their 2005 study, Dill and Thill distinguish three major stereotypical depictions of women in gaming: (1) sexualized, (2) scantily clad, and (3) a vision of beauty. The study revealed that over 80% of women in video games represented one of these depictions. More than one quarter of female characters embodied all of the three stereotypical categories at once. Dill and Thill also note that another prevalent theme with which women were depicted was a combination of aggression and sex, referred to as eroticized aggression.
Women in scanty armor
A recurrent representation of women in fantasy settings, originating in the 1960s, is the woman warrior dressed in unrealistically scanty armor. They feature armor designs which have been described by such terms as chainmail bikinis, largely consisting of small decorative plaques that reveal large portions of the body skin to the weather and that expose vital organs, thus being completely noneffective as protection. The prevalence of this portrayal is an instance of the common sexualization of women in the geek culture including video games, comic and movies. In reaction to this, the art blog "Women Fighters in Reasonable Armor" compiles depictions of women fighters wearing realistic armor.
In comparison to male characters
According to Anita Sarkeesian, many early female video game characters (such as Ms. Pac-Man) are identical to an existing male character, except for a visual marker of their femininity, such as pink bows, lipstick and long eyelashes.
In a study done in Southwestern Oklahoma State University comparing the appearances of male and female characters on video game covers, a few things were discovered. On covers, male characters were five times more likely to represented as the main character in the game, and women were merely portrayed as side kicks or accessories. Also, both male and female character's physiques were overexaggerated on video game covers; however, females were more physically altered (especially in the bust) than their male counterparts, and even more so if the female was the main character of the game. 
Violence against women
The 1982 game Custer's Revenge was first noted for containing elements of rape and some Native American groups and the National Organization for Women have criticised this as well as alleged racism.[dead link]
The 2013 reboot of Tomb Raider series drew controversy with a depiction of an attempted rape on its main protagonist. Executive producer Ron Rosenberg claimed rape was utilized as means of her "evolution" and character development. Crystal Dynamics later denied that the scene depicted an attempted rape, contradicting Rosenberg's earlier statement.
Violence in video games is a hotly debated topic, especially with regards to the Grand Theft Auto series; however, some sources have specifically condemned the series and similar games for promoting violence against women.
Ubisoft has formed a group of female gamers called the Frag Dolls; the intent is to create "role models for a whole legion of girls out there who may have been too intimidated to play games online - or even play at all".
Portrayal of men
|This section requires expansion. (January 2014)|
Video games tend to show men as big in all aspects. They are portrayed as being tall, having larger heads, and more muscles than real men. For instance, men in video games have chests that are about 2 inches (6%) larger than in reality, heads that are about 13 inches bigger, waists that are 5 inches wider, and hips that are 7 inches wider. GamesRadar writer David Houghton, writing in an article on sexism in video games, was highly critical of many stereotypes that came with male protagonists, outlining them as "the primeval hunter/gatherer type [with] arm-cripplingly ripped biceps, necks too muscley to turn, emotion dials stuck on “aggressive grimace” and a 50% lack of chest coverings." Chris Redfield, a protagonist of the Resident Evil series, came in for criticism from Gamespot for his heavily-muscled appearance in Resident Evil 5.
Portrayal of LGBT characters
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) characters have been depicted in video games since the 1980s. Common depictions include comical gender confusion, transgender characters, gay characters in fighting and action games, and gay romance in role-playing games.
In the history of video games, LGBT content has been subject to changing rules and regulations, which are generally examples of heterosexism, in that heterosexuality is normalized, while homosexuality is subject to additional censorship or ridicule. Companies Nintendo, Sega and Maxis policed the content of games with content codes in which LGBT themes were toned down or erased.
Sexual orientation and gender identity have served a significant role in some video games, with the trend being toward greater visibility of LGBT identities. Speaking on the Ubisoft blog, Lucien Soulband, who is openly gay and was the writer for Far Cry 3: Blood Dragon, said that openly gay or lesbian characters would not appear in video games for a long while as anything other than a one-off or something that was created through user choice as seen in the Mass Effect and Dragon Age games.
Effect of gender representation in games
Impact on children
|This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (March 2014)|
Video game characters have the potential to shape players’ perceptions of gender roles. Through social comparison processes, players learn societal expectations of appearances, behaviors and roles.
Girls may expect that they will continue to be victims and needy and that their responsibilities include maintaining beauty and sexual appeal while boys may determine that their role is to protect and defend women and to possess them even through the use of violence.[verification needed]
Thus, the roles internalized by the child, including gender, become for the child, and later for the adult, a basis for other roles and for action. The gender role that is internalized by the individual when he or she is young has a significant impact upon the perspective of that individual and the additional roles he or she assumes in later life. Feminine and masculine symbols become a part of a child’s identity. Boys and girls may come to see Barbie as a feminine symbol and Spider-Man as a masculine symbol.
Men are characterized as either good guys or bad guys and aggressive behavior is exhibited and expected in either of these roles. At the same time, women are depicted in stereotypical roles that typically pertain to sexuality in which the woman focuses upon beauty/physical attractiveness and traditional family roles.
- LGBT characters in video games
- Portrayal of women in comics
- Sexual harassment in video gaming
- Tropes vs. Women in Video Games
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