Gender roles in Islam
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- This article is about gender roles in relationships between Islamic men and women, and their families. For related topics including Islamic women's clothing and juridical differences between the sexes, see Women in Islam.
The Islamic God subscribes to gender equality in the complementarian sense. Chapter 49, verse 13 of the Qur'an reads: "O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allâh is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa. Verily, Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Aware."
While neither the Qur'an nor the Hadith specifies separate roles for female believers, Islamic law and practice recognize gender disparity, in part, by assigning separate rights and obligations.
In many Islamic societies, a woman’s space is in the private sphere of the home, and a man’s is in the public sphere. Women must primarily fulfill marital and maternal responsibilities, whereas men are financial and administrative stewards of their families.
 According Sayyid Qutb's scholarly analysis, the Qur'an "gives the man the right of 'guardianship' or 'superiority' over the family structure in order to prevent dissension and friction between the spouses. The equity of this system lies in the fact that God both favoured the man with the necessary qualities and skills for the 'guardianship' and also charged him with the duty to provide for the structure's upkeep."
The Qur'an states that unless she openly commits sexual transgression, a believer should not treat his wife harshly, even if he dislikes her. In fact, the Qur'an implies by the word Asā (‘عَسَى’) that if a believer behaves well toward his wife while disliking her then God promises great reward.
- "Fear Allâh in respect of women."
- "The best of you are they who behave best to their wives."
- "A Muslim must not hate his wife, and if he be displeased with one bad quality in her, let him be pleased with one that is good."
- "The more civil and kind a Muslim is to his wife, the more perfect in faith he is."
Gender roles in prayer and worship
For Friday prayers, by custom, Muslim congregations segregate men, women, and children in separate groups. Families pray in the home together on each other day. Considered heads of household, men lead these prayers; wives and children must stand behind them as they pray.
Gender roles within marriage
Muhammad values mothers in both major Hadith collections (Bukhari and Muslim). He indicates high regard for mothers in this famous account.
"A man asked the Prophet: 'Whom should I honor most?' The Prophet replied: 'Your mother.' 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother.' 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother!' 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your father.'"
Islamic culture considers motherhood a woman's great achievement.
In Islam, the term mukhannathun describes gender-variant people, usually male-to-female transsexuals. Neither this term nor the equivalent for "eunuch" occurs in the Qur'an. The former term does appear in the Hadith, a secondary text collecting the sayings of Muhammad. Moreover, Islamic tradition endorses using scholarship to elaborate, refine, and extend religious doctrines. Scholar and Hadith collecter An-Nawawi so extends doctrine by a passage containing a trans-positive message.
A mukhannath is the one ("male") who carries in his movements, in his appearance and in his language the characteristics of a woman. There are two types; the first is the one in whom these characteristics are innate, he did not put them on by himself, and therein is no guilt, no blame and no shame, as long as he does not perform any (illicit) act or exploit it for money (prostitution etc.). The second type acts like a woman out of immoral purposes and he is the sinner and blameworthy.
- Domestic violence and Islam
- Islamic feminism
- Women in Islam
- Sex segregation and Islam
- Polygyny in Islam
- Karin van Nieuwkerk. Women Embracing Islam: Gender and Conversion in the West. University of Texas Press. Retrieved 2007-12-31. "Secular feminists in Muslim societies demanded full equality in the public sphere, calling for access to education, work, and political participation as part of women's self-development and the empowering of the society in the decolonizing process. Within this feminist framework, women accepted the notion of complementarity in the private sphere, upholding the notion of male predominance, regarded as benevolent predominance in the family. They called upon men to fulfill their duties, protecting and providing in ways that upheld the rights and dignity of women."
- http://askamufti.com/Answers/ViewQuestion.aspx?QuestionId=1632&CategoryId=35&CategoryName=Women Issues (احكام النساء)
- http://askamufti.com/Answers/ViewQuestion.aspx?QuestionId=1631&CategoryId=35&CategoryName=Women Issues (احكام النساء)
- Hessini, L., 1994, Wearing the Hijab in Contemporary Morocco: Choice and Identity, in Göçek, F. M. & Balaghi, S., Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East: Tradition, Identity & Power, New York, Columbia University Press
- Ahmed, L., 1992, Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate, New Haven, Yale University Press.
- Qur'an, [Quran 4:34]
- Haddad/Esposito pg.37/38
- "O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should you treat them with harshness that you may take away part of the dower you have given them – except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary, live with them according to the norms [of the society]. If you take a dislike to them it may be that you dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good." Qur'an, [Quran 4:19]
- Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, 2nd ed., vol. 2, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), p. 292
- Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Mizan, Chapter:The Social Law of Islam
- Jamal Badawi, The status of women in Islam. Modern scholars draw upon verses such as "If they [husband and wife] desire to wean the child by mutual consent and after consultation, there is no blame on them." Qur'an, [Quran 2:233]
- Heba G. Kotb M.D., Sexuality in Islam, PhD Thesis, Maimonides University, 2004.