|Part of a series on|
Genderqueer (GQ; alternatively non-binary) is a catch-all category for gender identities other than man and woman, thus outside of the gender binary and cisnormativity. Genderqueer people may identify as one or more of the following:
- having an overlap of, or indefinite lines between, gender identity and sexual and romantic orientation.
- two or more genders (bigender, trigender, pangender);
- without a gender (nongendered, genderless, agender; neutrois);
- moving between genders or with a fluctuating gender identity (genderfluid);
- third gender or other-gendered; includes those who do not place a name to their gender;
Some genderqueer people also desire physical modification or hormones to suit their preferred expression. Many genderqueer people see gender and sex as separable aspects of a person and sometimes identify as a male woman, a female man, or a male/female/intersex genderqueer person. Gender identity is defined as one's internal sense of being a woman, man, both, or neither, while sexual orientation refers to an individual's enduring physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to others. As such, genderqueer people may have a variety of sexual orientations, as with transgender and cisgender people.
In addition to being an umbrella term, genderqueer has been used as an adjective to refer to any people who transgress distinctions of gender, regardless of their self-defined gender identity, i.e. those who "queer" gender, expressing it non-normatively. Androgynous is frequently used as a descriptive term for people in this category, though genderqueer people may express a combination of masculinity and femininity, or neither, in their gender expression and not all identify as androgynous. However, the term has been applied by those describing what they see as a gender ambiguity.
Some genderqueer people prefer to use gender-neutral pronouns such as one, ze, sie, hir, co, ey or singular "they", "their" and "them", while others prefer the conventional binary pronouns "her" or "him". Some genderqueer people prefer to be referred to alternately as he and she, and some prefer to use only their name and not use pronouns at all.
In July 2012, Gopi Shankar, a gender activist and a student at The American College in Madurai coined the regional terms for genderqueer (Tamil: பால்புதுமையினர்) people in Tamil during Asia's first genderqueer Pride Parade. According to Shankar, Tamil is the only language besides English that has been given names for all the genders identified so far.
Designed by Marilyn Roxie and completed in 2011, the genderqueer and non-binary pride flag composes of three horizontal stripes and is designed to complement existing gender and sexuality flags.
Lavender stands as a mixture of blue and pink, traditionally associated with men and women, and so represents androgyny as well as 'queerness', as it has long-standing connections to non-heterosexual communities. White stands for agender, reflecting the use of white on the transgender flag for 'gender neutral', and dark chartreuse green stands as the inverse of lavender, representing all whose identity is outside or without connection to the gender binary.
In 2013, Roxie clarified that the similarity shared between the colours of the pride flag and those of the Women's Social and Political Union, a United Kingdom suffrage organisation, was unintentional.
Out genderqueer people
- Justin Vivian Bond, American entertainer, identifies as neither male or female, but trans. Bond prefers the title "Mx" and the pronoun "V".
- Jiz Lee, a pornographic performer, stated in a personal blog post to have become more candid about being genderqueer at about age 29.[non-primary source needed]
- Richard O'Brien, a British actor and filmmaker who lives in New Zealand, identifies as third gender and takes estrogen.
- Chris Pureka, an American folk music singer-songwriter, came out publicly as genderqueer in a 2005 interview with Off Our Backs.
- Ruby Rose, Australian model and DJ, came out as gender-fluid in 2014. She identifies as both male and female and prefers female pronouns.
- Gopi Shankar, a gender activist and a student of The American College in Madurai. Shankar wrote the first book on gender-variant people in Tamil and ze is the founder of Srishti Madurai genderqueer group.
- Rae Spoon, a Canadian singer-songwriter, identified as a trans man for many years before adopting a gender-neutral identity in 2012.
- Hida Viloria, American writer and intersex activist, speaks about being genderqueer in the 1999 film Gendernauts. As the New York Times film review stated, "Hida Viloria, a voluble hermaphrodite with exquisite cheekbones, can pass effortlessly from exquisite femininity to sullen machismo. Having lived credibly as a woman and as a man, Hida... now seems happiest occupying 'the middle ground' between them."
Discrimination and legal status
The majority of respondents to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey chose "A gender not listed here." The Q3GNLH (Question 3 Gender Not Listed Here) respondents reported being 9 percentage-points (33%) more likely to forgo healthcare due to fear of discrimination than the general sample (36% compared to 27%). 76% reported being unemployed, 90% reported experiencing anti-trans bias at work, and 43% reported having attempted suicide.
First reported in January 2003, Australians can use "X" as their gender. Alex MacFarlane is believed to be the first person in Australia to obtain a birth certificate recording sex as indeterminate, and the first Australian passport with an 'X' sex marker in 2003. This is stated by the West Australian to be on the basis of a challenge by MacFarlane, using an indeterminate birth certificate issued by the State of Victoria. The West Australian newspaper reported in January 2003 that the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade "had decided to accommodate people whose birth certificates recorded their sex as indeterminate ... Alex is also believed to be the first Australian issued with a birth certificate acknowledging a gender other than male or female. Alex's says “indeterminate - also known as intersex”. It was issued in Alex's birth State of Victoria, which unlike WA, changed its policy to allow the category".
In 2011, the Australian Passport Office introduced new guidelines for issuing of passports with a new gender, and broadened availability of an X descriptor to all individuals with documented "indeterminate" sex. The revised policy stated that "sex reassignment surgery is not a prerequisite to issue a passport in a new gender. Birth or citizenship certificates do not need to be amended."
Australian Commonwealth guidelines on the recognition of sex and gender, published in June 2013, now extend the use of an 'X' gender marker to any adult who chooses that option, in all dealings with the Commonwealth government and its agencies. The option is being introduced over a three year period. The guidelines also clarify that the federal government collects data on gender, rather than sex.
Norrie May-Welby is popularly - but erroneously - often regarded as the first person in the world to obtain officially indeterminate, unspecified or "genderless" status. May-Welby became the first transsexual person in Australia to pursue a legal status of neither a man nor a woman, in 2010. That status is subject to an appeal by the State of New South Wales.
- Usher, Raven, ed. (2006). North American Lexicon of Transgender Terms. San Francisco. ISBN 9781879194625. OCLC 184841392.
- Brill, Stephanie A.; Pepper, Rachel (28 June 2008). The Transgender Child: A Handbook for Families and Professionals. San Francisco: Cleis Press. ISBN 9781573443180. OCLC 227570066.
- Winter, Claire Ruth (2010). Understanding Transgender Diversity: A Sensible Explanation of Sexual and Gender Identities. CreateSpace. ISBN 9781456314903. OCLC 703235508.
- Beemyn, Brett Genny (2008). "Genderqueer". glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. Chicago: glbtq, Inc. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- "Transgender (adj.)". Stylebook Supplement on LGBT Terminology. National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- "Transgender Glossary of Terms". GLAAD Media Reference Guide. Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- Walsh, Reuben (December 2010). "More T, vicar? My experiences as a genderqueer person of faith". All God's Children (Lesbian and Gay Christian Movement) 2 (3).
- Stryker, Susan (2008). Transgender History. Berkeley: Seal Press. ISBN 9781580052245. OCLC 183914566.
- Dahir, Mubarak (25 May 1999). "Whose Movement Is It?". The Advocate (Here Media): 52.
- Girshick, Lori B. (2008). Transgender Voices: Beyond Women and Men. Hanover: University Press of New England. ISBN 9781584656456. OCLC 183162406.
- Weber, Peter (February 21, 2014). "Confused by All the New Facebook Genders? Here's What They Mean.". Slate. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Feinberg, Leslie (1996). Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807079409. OCLC 33014093.
- Ruth Pearce (July 21, 2011). "Non-gendered titles see increased recognition". Lesbilicious. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Madurai student pens book on gender variants". The Times of India. 2013-06-04. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- Karthikeyan, D. (2012-07-30). "Cities / Madurai : Madurai comes out of the closet". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- A. Shrikumar (2013-10-18). "No more under siege". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- "Genderqueer - The Minority among minorities". Tinpahar. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- M. Gopi Shankar (2012-07-05). "Making themselves heard". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- "Out of college as an author - The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- "Why is lavender often associated with the gay/lesbian/bisexual/transgender rights movements?". Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- "About the Flag". Genderqueer Identities. April 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- "On the Genderqueer and Non-Binary Flag and Suffragette Colours in the UK". Genderqueer Identities. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- Albo, Mike (April 12, 2011). "The Official Justin Bond". Out. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Lee, Jiz (15 December 2010). "What Is Genderqueer?". Jiz Lee – Blog. jizlee.com. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Richard O'Brien: 'Society should not dictate gender' PinkNews.co.uk, 18 August 2009.
- Young, Angie (1 July 2005). "An Interview with Chris Pureka". Off Our Backs (Arlington).
- Kellaway, Mitch (July 31, 2014). "Australian Model Ruby Rose Comes Out as Gender Fluid". The Advocate. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
- M. Gopishankar (2012-06-20). "Voices unheard". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- V Devanathan, TNN Dec 25, 2013, 03.49AM IST (2013-12-25). "Madurai gender-queer activists to offer course on gender and sexuality - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- Winter, Gopi Shankar (2014). Maraikkappatta Pakkangal: மறைக்கப்பட்ட பக்கங்கள். Srishti Madurai. ISBN 9781500380939. OCLC 703235508.
- "Clipping of The New Indian Express-Madurai, 25-12-2013 :readwhere". Epaper.newindianexpress.com. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- "New LGBT Website Aims at Gender Awareness". The New Indian Express. 2013-12-25. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- TNN Jul 10, 2013, 12.20AM IST (2013-07-10). "24-hour helpline launched for LGBTs in Madurai - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- He said/she said?, SEE Magazine, 2003-05-08, retrieved 2007-09-22
- "Elisha Lim and Rae Spoon: Talking Shop". No More Potlucks, January 2012.
- "Rae Spoon: Powerful album reignites the pronoun debate". NOW, January 26, 2012.
- Scott, A.O. (February 4, 2000). Gendernauts film review. The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Harrison, Jack; Grant, Jaime; Herman, Jody L. "A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey" (PDF).
- "X marks the spot for intersex Alex", West Australian, via bodieslikeours.org. 11 January 2003
- "Ingrid Holme, "Hearing People's Own Stories", in Science as Culture, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2008"
- "Neither man nor woman", Sydney Morning Herald. 27 June 2010
- Newsletter of the Sociology of Sexualities Section of the American Sociological Association, American Sociological Association Sexualities News, Volume 6, Issue 1, Summer 2003
- Ten years of ‘X’ passports, and no protection from discrimination, Organisation Intersex International (OII) Australia, 19 January 2013
- Sex Files: the legal recognition of sex in documents and government records. Concluding paper of the sex and gender diversity project (2009), Australian Human Rights Commission, March 2009.
- "Getting a passport made easier for sex and gender diverse people". The Hon Kevin Rudd MP. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- On Australian passports and “X” for sex, Organisation Intersex International (OII) Australia, 9 October 2011
- "Sex and Gender Diverse Passport Applicants". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Australian Government. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Australian Government Attorney General's Department, June 2013, "Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender"
- On the historic passing of the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013, OII Australia, 25 June 2013
- LGBTI groups welcome the passage of “historic” national discrimination laws, OII Australia, NSW Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Transgender Victoria, A Gender Agenda, Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, 26 June 2013
- "No sex for me, please! Ex-transsexual Australian Norrie May-Welby is first legally genderless person", New York Daily News. 16 March 2010.
- "Briton is recognised as world's first officially genderless person", The Telegraph. 15 Mar 2010.
- "Norrie May-Welby's battle to regain status as the world's first legally genderless person", Daily Life Australia. 8 November 2013
- "I’m not a man... or a woman". Scottish Sun. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
- "Norrie May-Welby: The World's First Legally Genderless Person", The Huffington Post. 18 March 2010.
- Bernstein Sycamore, Mattilda, ed. (2006). Nobody Passes: Rejecting the Rules of Gender and Conformity. Emeryville: Seal Press. ISBN 9781580051842. OCLC 50389309.
- Bornstein, Kate; Bergman, S. Bear, eds. (2010). Gender Outlaws: The Next Generation (Reprint ed.). Berkeley: Seal Press. ISBN 9781580053082. OCLC 837948378.
- Fine, Cordelia (2011). Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference (Reprint ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393340242. OCLC 449865367.
- Hines, Melissa (2005). Brain Gender. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195188363. OCLC 846105995.
- Nestle, Joan; Howell, Clare; Wilchins, Riki Anne, eds. (2002). GenderQueer: Voices from Beyond the Sexual Binary. Los Angeles: Alyson Books. ISBN 9781555837303. OCLC 50389309.
- Peterson, Tim Trace; Tolbert, T. C., eds. (2013). Troubling the Line: Trans and Genderqueer Poetry and Poetics. Callicoon: Nightboat Books. ISBN 9781937658106. OCLC 839307399.
- Scout, Ph.D. (23 July 2013). "(A) Male, (B) Female, (C) Both, (D) Neither". The Huffington Post (AOL). Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Stryker, Susan; Whittle, Stephen, eds. (2006). The Transgender Studies Reader. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781580051842. OCLC 50389309.