General Motors Building (Manhattan)
|General Motors Building|
|Location||767 5th Ave, New York City, NY 10153, USA|
|Roof||705 ft (215 m)|
|Floor area||1.7 million square feet (160×103 m2)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Edward Durell Stone & Associates
Emery Roth & Sons
|Developer||Macklowe Properties, Inc.|
|Engineer||The Office of James Ruderman|
The General Motors Building is a 50-story, 705-foot (215 m) office tower in Manhattan, New York City, facing Fifth Avenue at 59th Street. The building is one of the few structures in Manhattan that occupies a full city block. The building, which has about 1,774,000 rentable square feet, stands on a 200-by-420-foot (84,350 square feet) plot that was formerly the site of the Savoy-Plaza Hotel. The tower was designed in the international style by Edward Durell Stone & Associates with Emery Roth & Sons.
General Motors had a strong architectural and design presence in New York at both of its World's Fairs. Here it introduced the Futurama exhibit[A] at the 1939 New York World's Fair. The architecture of this exhibition is attributed to Norman Bel Geddes and was a major piece of Streamline Moderne featuring sinuous ramps, and a guided circuitous route through the exhibition. The design of the General Motors office building was completed in the year of the 1964 New York World's Fair. More architecturally experimental than the office tower, this building was designed like a car with a ride and exhibitions contained inside. Behind a tilted and curved façade likened to a tail fin, Futurama II featured travel via pods and rovers to the moon, under ice and water, to the jungle and desert, the city of tomorrow, and exhibitions of futuristic cars. At General Motors' home in Detroit, many of its buildings had been designed by Albert Kahn including the high-rise Cadillac Place, also known as the "General Motors Building".
Construction on the GM building began after the Savoy-Plaza was demolished in 1965, and was completed in 1968. The building was originally built and developed by Cecilia Benattar President and Chief Executive Officer of the North American holdings of the vast British holding company London Merchant Securities PLC. Mrs Benattar was known as the most sophisticated and toughest woman in real estate. The façade is an expression of unbroken verticality in "glistening white Georgia marble" and sheets of glass. Both architectural firms were prolific skyscraper designers contributing to much of Manhattan's urban fabric; however, the property has been more attractive as a piece of real estate and as a home to its corporate tenants, than it has to architecture critics. Paul Goldberger and Ada Louise Huxtable both wrote negative critical reviews of the building and even the first edition of the AIA Guide to New York City (1968), an unabashed apologia for International Modernism, noted, "The hue and cry over the new behemoth was based, not on architecture but, rather, first on the loss of the hotel's[B] elegant shopping amenities in favor of automobile salesmanship (an auto showroom is particularly galling at the spot in New York most likely to honor the pedestrian)."
In 1998, the General Motors building was purchased for $878 million by Conseco and Donald Trump, who installed his name in four-foot gold letters. Trump raised the controversial sunken plaza where few pedestrians had ventured, which had been criticised by Huxtable.
In February 2008, due to a credit crisis among lenders, the Macklowe Organization put the GM Building up for sale. It was sold in May for an estimated $2.8 billion to a joint venture between Boston Properties, Goldman Sachs Real Estate Opportunities Fund (backed by funds from Kuwait and Qatar), and Meraas Capital (Dubai-based real estate private equity firm). It was the largest single asset transaction of 2008.
Its street-level lobby originally featured a showroom for General Motors vehicles. Today, the lobby is FAO Schwarz's flagship toy store, which was featured in the film Big and which won an award for its lighting in 2005.
The building was home to CBS's The Early Show from 1999 to 2012.
Also in the building is the flagship Apple Store, whose entrance is a 32 ft (9.8 m) glass cube that has been likened to the Louvre Pyramid and which allows a descent into the store via glass elevator and spiral staircase. This addition was designed by Apple and the firm of Bohlin Cywinski Jackson. Other prominent tenants of the General Motors Building include the prestigious Perella Weinberg Partners, Estée Lauder Companies, international sports, entertainment & media giant IMG, the hedge fund York Capital Management, the holding company Icahn Enterprises, and the law firm of Weil, Gotshal & Manges
- A. ^ The namesake of the comic retro-futuro animation series Futurama.
- B. ^ The site had contained the Savoy Hotel, with a limestone ground-floor façade and Beaux-Arts classical style that completed the former architectural unity of the Grand Army Plaza.
- Glass, Amy. "Dubai firm in New York GM building deal". ArabianBusiness.com. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
- Daniels, Lee A. (1984-01-29). "A Major New Landlord in the City". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-15. "In 1982, the General Motors building on Fifth Avenue across from the Plaza Hotel, which has 1,700,000 square feet (160,000 m2), changed hands in an unusual sale leaseback estimated to be worth $500 million."
- Synergy Real Estate Group. "General Motors Building". Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- Press releases and documentation made available at http://www.nywf64.com General Motors Accessed 9 January 2008.
- General Motors Building National Parks Service. Accessed 9 January 2008.
- AIA Guide to New York City first edition, 1968.
- Paul Goldberger. On the Rise: Architecture and Design in a Post Modern Age. Penguin. 1985. ISBN 0-14-007632-8
- Francis Morrone Trying to Rescue A Sunken Plaza New York Sun. May 24, 2007.
- AIA Guide 1968:157.
- Charles V. Bagli. Heavenly Match Becomes Real Estate War Over the G.M. Building New York Times. February 20, 2002.
- Jim Yardley. Trump Buying The Landmark G.M. Building New York Times. May 31, 1998.
- George H. Ross, Andrew James McLean Contributors Andrew James McLean, Donald J. Trump. Trump Strategies for Real Estate: Billionaire Lessons for the Small Investor. John Wiley and Sons. 2005. Page 129. ISBN 0-471-73643-0
- David W. Dunlap. "Commercial Property; Courtyard Is Rising With New Look" New York Times. June 30, 1999.
- Charles V. Bagli. "G.M. Building Sells for $1.4 Billion, a Record". New York Times. August 30, 2003.
- Elaine Misonzhnik. "Macklowe pays $1.4B for GM building, highest ever paid in North America - Macklowe Properties buys building from Conseco" Real Estate Weekly. Sept 3, 2003.
- "Lumen Award Winners 2005". Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
- David W. Dunlap (2005-03-02). "A Cube in the Land of the Wheel". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
- Peter Slatin. Apple's Big Apple Splash Forbes. May 18, 2006.
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