General Zionists

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General Zionists
ציונים כלליים
Founded 1922
Dissolved 8 May 1961
Merged into Liberal Party
Newspaper HaBoker
Ideology General Zionism
Most MKs 23 (1951–1955)
Fewest MKs 7 (1949–1951)
Election symbol
Politics of Israel
Political parties

The General Zionists (Hebrew: הַצִיּוֹנִים הַכְּלָלִיים, translit. HaTzionim HaKlaliym) were centrists within the Zionist movement and a political party in Israel. Their political arm is an ancestor of the modern-day Likud.


General Zionism was initially the term to refer to the beliefs of the majority of members of the Zionist Organization [ZO] who had not joined a specific faction or party and belonged to their countrywide Zionist organizations only.[1]

In 1922, various non-aligned groups and individuals established the Organization of General Zionists as a non-ideological party within the Zionist Organization (later the World Zionist Organization) at a time when the Zionist movement was becoming polarized between Labour Zionists and Revisionist Zionism.

However, eventually the General Zionists became identified with European liberal and middle class beliefs in private property and capitalism. From 1931 to 1945 the General Zionist movement was divided into two factions due to differences over social issues, economics and labour issues (e.g. the Histadrut). The "General Zionists A" favored the economic policies of Labour Zionism and were supportive of Chaim Weizmann's compromising approach to relations with the British. The "General Zionists B" were skeptical of socialism and more outspoken against British policy in Palestine.[2]

After the independence of the State of Israel, the gap between the two groups widened. The General Zionists A formed the Progressive Party, won 5 seats in 1949 Knesset elections, and entered the Mapai-led governing coalition. The General Zionists B, running as the General Zionists, won 7 seats and chose to remain in the opposition.[2] In the years following the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, the General Zionists moved towards the right in opposition to the hegemony of Mapai and other Labour Zionist movements in Israeli politics.

In 1936 the General Zionists established a daily newspaper, HaBoker, which was edited for the first ten years of its existence by Peretz Bernstein. It ceased publication in 1965.

Political activity in Israel[edit]

The General Zionists entered the elections for the first Knesset in 1949. They won 5.2% of the vote and seven seats, and were not included in either of David Ben-Gurion's coalition governments.

The 1951 elections were a huge success, with the party winning 20 seats, making it the second largest in the Knesset. The party was enlarged soon after the elections when the Sephardim and Oriental Communities party and the Yemenite Association merged into it (though the one Yemenite Association MK left the party again before the end of the session). Although they were not included in the coalition for the third government, they were brought into the fourth government after Ben-Gurion had sacked the Ultra-orthodox parties, Agudat Israel and Agudat Israel Workers, over the dispute over religious education that had brought down the previous government. They were also included in Moshe Sharett's fifth government, but not the sixth.

In the 1955 elections the party slumped to 13 seats, and were not included in either of the third Knesset's coalition governments.

A further slump to eight seats in the 1959 elections and exclusion from the coalition made the party rethink their strategy. Eventually the party decided to merge with the 6-seat Progressive Party to form the Liberal Party. Nevertheless, the party helped bring down the government in 1961 when it and Herut tabled a motion of no confidence in the government over the Lavon Affair.

In the 1961 elections the new Israel Liberal Party won 17 seats, making it the third largest in the Knesset. During the session, ten MKs (mostly former General Zionists) merged with the right-wing Herut to form Gahal while the other seven (most from the Progressive Party) set up the Independent Liberals. Gahal later became Likud.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ General Zionism Jewish Virtual Library
  2. ^ a b Rafael Medoff, Chaim I. Waxman (2013). Historical Dictionary of Zionism. Routledge. p. 62. 

External links[edit]