Generalissimo (Italian: Generalissimo, Spanish: Generalísimo, Portuguese: Generalíssimo, Latin: Generalissimus) is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries in which they are used.
Historically this rank was given to a military officer leading an entire army or the entire armed forces of a nation, usually only subordinate to the sovereign. Other usage of the rank has been for the commander of the united armies of several allied powers.
List of generalissimos
|Chiang Kai-shek||National Revolutionary Army||Republic of China||1935||His rank was Tèjíjiàng (特級上將), or "General Special Class"|
|Joffre, JosephJoseph Joffre||French Army||France||1914||His rank was Marshal of France, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Army was généralissime.|
|Suvorov, AlexanderAlexander Suvorov||Russian Imperial Army||Russian Empire||1799|
|Menshikov, AlexanderAlexander Menshikov||Russian Imperial Army||Russian Empire||1727–1728|||
|Foch, FerdinandFerdinand Foch||French Army||France||1918||Généralissime was the title used to describe Ferdinand Foch's Allied Command, starting 26 March 1918. He actually held the rank of général de division, and later the dignity of Marshal of France.|
|Gamelin, MauriceMaurice Gamelin||French Army||France||1939||His rank was général d'armée, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces was généralissime.|
|Weygand, MaximeMaxime Weygand||French Army||France||1939||His rank was général d'armée, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces was généralissime.|
|de Miranda, FranciscoFrancisco de Miranda||Venezuelan Army||Venezuela||1812|
|Hidalgo y Costilla, MiguelMiguel Hidalgo y Costilla||Revolutionary Army of Mexico||América Mexicana||1810 September – 1811 February|||
|Morelos, Jose MariaJose Maria Morelos||Revolutionary Army of Mexico||América Mexicana||1812-1815|
|Iturbide, Agustin deAgustin de Iturbide||Trigarante Army of Mexico||Imperio Mexicano||1821-1823|
|Franco, FranciscoFrancisco Franco||Spanish Armed Forces||Spain||1936–1975||generalísimo|
|Gómez, MáximoMáximo Gómez||Republic of Cuba Army||Cuba||1895|||
|Emilio Aguinaldo||Philippine Revolutionary Army||Philippines||1898–1901||Heneralismo |
|Ihsan Nuri||Ararat Forces||Kurdish Republic of Ararat||1927–1930|||
|Crown Prince Charles John||Royal Swedish Army||Sweden||1810–1818|||
|Stalin, JosephJoseph Stalin||Soviet Armed Forces||Soviet Union||1945||Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (declined)|
|Kim Il-sung||Korean People's Army||North Korea||1992||Taewonsu|
|Kim Jong-Il||Korean People's Army||North Korea||2012||Taewonsu|
|Trujillo, RafaelRafael Trujillo||Dominican Army||Dominican Republic||1930|||
|Sun Yat-sen||Republic of China||1921||Technically as grand marshal (source does not support this)|
|Johann t’Serclaes von Tilly||30 Year's War||Holy Roman Empire via the "Principal Decree of the Imperial Deputation"||1630|||
|Albrecht von Wallenstein||30 Year's War||Holy Roman Empire via the "Principal Decree of the Imperial Deputation"||1625|||
|Ernst Gideon von Laudon||Habsburg Monarchy||1790|||
|Pershing, JohnJohn Pershing||American Expeditionary Forces||United States of America||1919|||
|Washington, GeorgeGeorge Washington||Continental Army
United States Army
|United States of America||1776||Promoted posthumously |
|da Fonseca, DeodoroDeodoro da Fonseca||Brazilian Army||Brazil||1890||First president of Brazilian Republic and
responsible for the fall of the Brazilian empire.
- Highest military ranks
- Generalissimus of the Soviet Union
- Supreme commander
- General of the armies
- Chiang Kai-shek was a 特級上將 ("general special class") of the Republic of China, cf. 特級上將授任條例
- The Napoleonic Marshal of France Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo, was elected Crown Prince of Sweden by the Riksdag of the Estates and King Charles XIII in 1810. Given his exalted French military rank, the rank of generalissimus was likely granted him in order to give him precedence over "mere" Swedish field marshals. Once he became King of Sweden and Norway in 1818, the generalissimus rank became superfluous.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)|
- Webster's Third New International Dictionary., French Larousse Étymologique.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- "Define Generalissimo at Dictionary.com". Reference.com.
- "Generalissimo – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster.
- "Definition of generalissimo – Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionary of English.
- Jay Taylor:The Generalisimo:Chiang Kai-shek and the struggle for modern China (2009) Harvard Press
- "Menschikow und Stalin waren die einzigen Heerführer der russischen Geschichte, die sich „Generalissimus" nennen ließen." [Menshikov and Stalin were the only military leaders in Russian history who declared themselves "generalissimus".] Jena, Detlev (1996): Die russischen Zaren in Lebensbildern, Graz, p. 520.
- John McGroarty :The Gray Man of Christ: Generalissimo Foch (1919) Los Angeles, Walter A Abbott
- , Documentos Historicos de Mexico, 24 Oct 1810
- Cover, TIME magazine, 18 Oct 1943
- Technically as the first Philippine president
- Bletch Chirguh, La Question Kurde: ses origines et ses causes, Le Caire, Impimerie Paul Barbey, 1930, front cover, IHSAN NOURI PACHA Généralissime des forces nationales Kurdes (French)
- (Swedish) Ancienneté och Rang-Rulla öfver Krigsmagten år 1813
- Joseph Stalin was appointed Generalissimus of the Soviet Union. See: Ivan Aleksandrovich Venediktov, Selskokhozyaystvennaya yentsiklopediya, Vol. 4, Gos. izd-vo selkhoz, 1956, p. 584. (Russian)
- The Daily Yomuiri, 29 September 2010, Kim Jong Un spotlighted / 'Heir apparent' promoted to general, makes DPRK media debut
- The Australian, 15 February 2012, Late Kim Jong-il awarded highest honour by North
- Stanley Walker : Generalissimo Rafael L. Trujillo (1955) Caribbean Library
- Linda Pomerantz-Zhang (1992). Wu Tingfang (1842–1922): reform and modernization in modern Chinese history. Hong Kong University Press. p. 255. ISBN 962209287X. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
-  A short history of Germany. ;Ernest Flagg Henderson, 1908
-  Tilly und Wallenstein – ein Vergleich zweier Heerführer. ;Harry Horstmann, 2010 (German)
- Public Law 66-45 of September 3, 1919 to revive the office of General of the Armies
- Public Law 94-479 of January 19, 1976 to provide for the appointment of George Washington to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States