In biological research, transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are model organisms used to study the effects of genetic changes on development. Fruit flies are often preferred over other animals due to their short life cycle, low maintenance requirements, and relatively simple genome compared to many vertebrates.
The first release of modified mosquitoes were performed in the 1970s. It was mosquitoes of the species that transmit the dengue virus that where sterilised by irradiation (sterile insect technique).
The British company Oxitec use a technique called RIDL that produce fertile adults but induce a high mortality of the descendants. The adults generated with this technique and released in the environment are not sterile but their descendants have a survival rate of only about 5% (or much higher in presence of tetracycline).