Genetics and abortion
||This article needs attention from an expert in Abortion. (February 2009)|
The genetics and abortion issue is an extension of the abortion debate and the disability rights movement. Since the advent of forms of prenatal diagnosis, such as amniocentesis and ultrasound, it has become possible to detect the presence of congenital disorders in the fetus before birth, leading most women faced with this situation to opt for abortion instead.
Legality of selective abortion
In many countries, abortion is available upon request up to a certain point in the pregnancy. Many countries do not take into account why the mother wants the abortion. However, any country that restricts abortion, also restricts abortion even if the child has a genetic defect. In a small number of countries, all abortions are prohibited. These abortions even include pregnancies that risk the mothers life. These countries include, The Vatican City, El Savador, Chile, and Malta. These countries do not allow abortion on any level, including if the mother's life is at risk because of the pregnancy. Most countries that even allow abortion do not allow abortions because the child has genetic defects. Countries that allow abortion if the mother is at risk but do not allow abortion if the child has a genetic defect include countries such as Iran, Ireland, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic.
Not all genetic markers which can be checked are for disease, leaving open the possibility that where legal, parents may choose an abortion based on personal preference rather than avoidance of disease. In some jurisdictions, Sex-selective abortion is specifically prohibited, to maintain social stability against cultural norms which prefer one sex over the other.
The entire genetic code for a fetus can be determined at 18 weeks. The genetic testing is determined by taking the mother's blood and a swab of saliva from the father. In time the genetic testing will be able to identify over 3,500 different diseases but at this time can only test for four different diseases. Those diseases include Down Syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis, Muscular Dystrophy, and Spina Bifida. Down Syndrome and Cystic Fibrosis are both large scale genetic diseases but Muscular Dystrophy and Spina Bifade can have hereditary elements. Many pro-life activists are concerned with genetic testing believing that women will be given excuses to get abortions. Genetic testing however, is used for more reasons than just genetic diseases. It is believed that eventually genetic testing will be able to provide a wealth of knowledge on the future health of the child.
Genetic Testing of Down Syndrome
Today screening for Down Syndrome is offered as a routine part of parental care. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends offering various screening tests for Down syndrome to all pregnant women, regardless of age. Genetic testing however, is not completely accurate but it can help to determine if further tested should be administered or if there should be concern. Testing for Down Syndrome can be conducted at different times of the pregnancy. Most women chose the first trimester choice which is done in two parts at the 11th and 13th week of prenancy. These tests include an ultrasound to measure a certain area on the back of the baby's neck. If there is a problem with the baby than there will be an excess of fluid in this area. The second part of the test is a blood test which looks for abnormal levels of PAPP-A and HCG which may indicate a problem with the baby. Of all women who test for Down Syndrome only 5 percent are identified as being at risk. Of those 5 percent far fewer are actually carrying children with Down Syndrome. Screening tests are actually better for testing what women are at risk compared to how many women are actually carrying children with Down Syndrome.
Statistics today conclude that 90 percent of fetus' that are diagnosed with Down Syndrome via fetal genetic testing are aborted. However, only 2-3 percent of women agree to completing genetic testing, CVS or amniocentesis, the current tests for chromosomal abnormalities. When taking this into account, it is believed that approximately 50 percent of fetuses with Down Syndrome are aborted.
Opposition to abortion for genetic reasons
- The European Blind Union has stated its opposition to compulsory abortion for genetic indications in its manifesto: "the right to life shall include the prohibition of compulsory abortion at the instance of the State, based on the pre-natal diagnosis of disability".
- According to an article in Disability Studies Quarterly, the disability rights movement in Germany has disapproved of abortion in cases in which the fetus is found to have a congenital defect. This issue for the German disability-rights movement has continuity going back to the early eugenics movement, through to the Nazi era, when Nazi eugenic practices became a concern, and on into the present.
- A report given to the NSW Anti-Discrimination Board and NSW Law Reform Commission by the AIS Support Group of Australia (AISSGA) reviewed the Australian incidence of abortion in cases when the fetus was diagnosed with an intersex condition. Between 1983 to 1998, the Victorian Department of Human Services reported that 98 out of 213 fetuses detected to have Turner syndrome had been aborted, 28 out of 77 found to have Klinefelter syndrome, and 39 out of 189 fetuses with sex chromosome anomalies had been aborted. The AISSGA proposed that parents expecting children with sex chromosome anomalies be advised by a genetic counselor, and be given contact with support groups for people with these conditions, so as to gain a better understanding of the actual effects of the conditions.
- European Blind Union. (February 26, 2004). European Disability Forum Consultation on International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
- Köbsell, Swantje. (2006). Towards Self-Determination and Equalization: A Short History of the German Disability Rights Movement. Disability Studies Quarterly, 26 (2). Retrieved March 13, 2007.
- Briffa, Anthony. (2003). Submission to the NSW Anti-Discrimination Board and NSW Law Reform Commission Regarding Discrimination against People affected by Intersex Conditions. Retrieved March 13, 2007.