Geneva Protocol

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Geneva Protocol
Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare
Drafted 17 June 1925[1]
Signed 17 June 1925[1]
Location Geneva[1]
Effective 8 February 1928[1]
Condition Ratification by 65 states[2]
Signatories 38[1]
Parties 138[3]
Depositary Government of France[1]
Geneva Protocol to Hague Convention at Wikisource

The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts. It was signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925 and entered into force on 8 February 1928. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 7 September 1929.[4] The Geneva Protocol is a protocol to the Convention for the Supervision of the International Trade in Arms and Ammunition and in Implements of War signed on the same date, and followed the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.

It prohibits the use of "asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices" and "bacteriological methods of warfare". This is now understood to be a general prohibition on chemical weapons and biological weapons, but has nothing to say about production, storage or transfer. Later treaties did cover these aspects — the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).

A number of countries submitted reservations when becoming parties to the Geneva Protocol, declaring that they only regarded the non-use obligations as applying to other parties and that these obligations would cease to apply if the prohibited weapons were used against them.

The main elements of the protocol are now considered by many to be part of customary international law.

Negotiation history[edit]

British troops blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 1918

In the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, the use of dangerous chemical agents were outlawed. In spite of this, the First World War saw large-scale chemical warfare. France used teargas in 1914, but the first large-scale successful deployment of chemical weapons was by the German Empire in Ypres, Belgium in 1915, when chlorine gas was released as part of a German attack at the Battle of Gravenstafel. Following this, a chemical arms race began, with the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria-Hungary, the United States, and Italy joining France and Germany in the use of chemical weapons. This resulted in the development of a range of horrific chemicals affecting lungs, skin, or eyes. Some were intended to be lethal on the battle field, like hydrogen cyanide, and efficient methods of deploying agents were invented. At least 124,000 tons was produced during the war. In 1918, about one grenade out of three was filled with dangerous chemical agents. Around 1.3 million casualties of the conflict were attributed to the use of gas and the psychological affect on troops may have had a much greater effect.[5] As protective equipment developed, the technology to destroy such equipment also became a part of the arms race. The use of deadly poison gas was not only limited to combatants in the front but also civilians as nearby civilian towns were at risk from winds blowing the poison gases through. Civilians living in towns rarely had any warning systems about the dangers of poison gas as well as not having access to effective gas masks. The use of chemical weapons employed by both sides had inflicted an estimated 100,000-260,000 civilian casualties during the conflict. Tens of thousands of more (along with military personnel) died from scarring of the lungs, skin damage, and cerebral damage in the years after the conflict ended. In the year 1920 alone, over 40,000 civilians and 20,000 military personnel died from the chemical weapons effects.[5][6]

The Treaty of Versailles included some provisions that banned Germany from either manufacturing or importing chemical weapons. Similar treaties banned the First Austrian Republic, the Kingdom of Bulgaria, and the Kingdom of Hungary from chemical weapons, all belonging to the losing side, the Central powers. Russian bolsheviks and Britain continued the use of chemical weapons in the Russian Civil War and possibly in the Middle East in 1920.

Three years after World War I, the Allies wanted to reaffirm the Treaty of Versailles, and in 1922 the United States introduced the Treaty relating to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare at the Washington Naval Conference.[7] Four of the war victors, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan, gave consent for ratification, but it failed to enter into force as the French Third Republic objected to the submarine provisions of the treaty.[7]

At the 1925 Geneva Conference for the Supervision of the International Traffic in Arms the French suggested a protocol for non-use of poisonous gases. The Second Polish Republic suggested the addition of bacteriological weapons. It was signed on 17 June.[8]

Violations[edit]

Rabbit used to check for leaks at a sarin production plant in 1970

Several countries have deployed or prepared chemical weapons in spite of the treaty. Spain and France did so in the Rif War before the treaty came into effect in 1928, Italy used mustard gas against Abyssinia in 1935 and Japan used chemical weapons against China from 1938 to 1941.

In the Second World War, the U.S., Great Britain, and Germany prepared the resources to deploy chemical weapons, stockpiling tons of them, but refrained from their use due to the balance of terror: the probability of horrific retaliation. There was an accidental release of mustard gas in Bari, Italy causing many deaths when a U.S. ship carrying CW ammunition was sunk in the harbor during an air raid. After the war, thousands of tons of shells and containers with tabun, sarin and other chemical weapons were disposed of at sea by the Allies.

Early in the Cold War, Great Britain collaborated with the U.S. in the development of chemical weapons. The Soviet Union also had the facilities to produce chemical weapons but their development was kept secret.

During the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War and the 1991 uprisings in Iraq, the government of Saddam Hussein used several different chemical agents, including mustard gas, sarin, and VX, against Iran and against Iraqi rebels in instances such as the Halabja chemical attack.

Both the Syrian government and opposition forces accused each other of using chemical weapons in 2013 in Ghoula and Khan al-Assal during the Syrian civil war, though as any such use would be within Syria's own borders, rather than in warfare between state parties to the protocol, the legal situation is less certain.[9] A 2013 United Nations report confirmed the use of sarin, but did not investigate which side used chemical weapons.[10] In 2014, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons confirmed the use of chlorine gas in the Syrian villages of Talmanes, Al Tamanah and Kafr Zeta, but did not say which side used the gas.[11]

Historical assessment[edit]

Eric Croddy, assessing the Protocol in 2005, took the view that the historic record showed it had been largely ineffectual. Specifically it did not prohibit:[8]

  • use against not-ratifying parties
  • retaliation using such weapons, so effectively making it a no-first-use agreement
  • use within a state’s own borders in a civil conflict
  • research and development of such weapons, or stockpiling them

Despite the U.S. having been a proponent of the protocol, the U.S. military and American Chemical Society lobbied against it, causing the U.S. Senate not to ratify the protocol for 50 years.[8][12]

Subsequent interpretation of the protocol[edit]

In 1966, United Nations General Assembly resolution 2162B called for, without any dissent, all states to strictly observe the protocol. In 1969, United Nations General Assembly resolution 2603 (XXIV) declared that the prohibition on use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts, as embodied in the protocol - though restated in a more general form, were generally recognized rules of international law.[13] Following this, there was discussion of whether the main elements of the protocol now form part of customary international law, and now this is widely accepted to be the case.[12][14]

There have been differing interpretations over whether the protocol covers the use of harassing agents, such as adamsite and tear gas, and defoliants and herbicides, such as Agent Orange, in warfare.[12][15] The 1977 Environmental Modification Convention prohibits the military use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects. Many states do not regard this as a complete ban on the use of herbicides in warfare, but it does require case-by-case consideration.[16] The 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention effectively banned riot control agents from being used as a method of warfare, though still permitting it for riot control.[17]

In recent times, the protocol has been interpreted to cover internal conflicts as well international ones. In 1995, an appellate chamber in the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia stated that "there had undisputedly emerged a general consensus in the international community on the principle that the use of chemical weapons is also prohibited in internal armed conflicts." In 2005, the International Committee of the Red Cross concluded that customary international law includes a ban on the use of chemical weapons in internal as well as international conflicts.[9]

State parties[edit]

Parties to the Geneva Protocol
  Parties with no reservations
  Parties with withdrawn reservations
  Parties with implicit reservations
  Parties with unwithdrawn reservations limiting the applicability of provisions of the Protocol
  Non-parties

To become party to the Protocol, states must deposit an instrument with the government of France (the depositary power). Thirty-eight states originally signed the Protocol. France was the first signatory to ratify the Protocol on 10 May 1926. El Salvador, the final signatory to ratify the Protocol, did so on 26 February 2008. As of May 2013, 138 states have ratified, acceded to, or succeeded to the Protocol,[3] most recently Moldova on 4 November 2010.

Reservations[edit]

A number of countries submitted reservations when becoming parties to the Geneva Protocol, declaring that they only regarded the non-use obligations as applying with respect to other parties to the Protocol and that these obligations would cease to apply with respect to any state, or its allies, which used the prohibited weapons. Several Arab states also declared that their ratification did not constitute recognition of, or diplomatic relations with, Israel, or that the provision of the Protocol were not binding with respect to Israel. Generally, reservations not only modify treaty provisions for the reserving party, but also symmetrically modify the provisions for previously ratifying parties in dealing with the reserving party.[12]:394 Subsequently, numerous states have withdrawn their reservations, including the former Czechoslovakia in 1990 prior to its dissolution.[18]

According to the Vienna Convention on Succession of States in respect of Treaties, states which succeed to a treaty after gaining independence from a state party "shall be considered as maintaining any reservation to that treaty which was applicable at the date of the succession of States in respect of the territory to which the succession of States relates unless, when making the notification of succession, it expresses a contrary intention or formulates a reservation which relates to the same subject matter as that reservation." While some states have explicitly either retained or renounced their reservations inherited on succession, states which have not clarified their position on their inherited reservations are listed as "implicit" reservations.

Party[1][3][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] Signed[27] Deposited Reservations[1][12][19][20][28][29][30][31][32] Notes
 Afghanistan 9 December 1986
 Albania 20 December 1989
 Algeria 27 January 1992
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[33]
 Angola 8 November 1990
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[34]
 Antigua and Barbuda 1 January 1989
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Argentina 12 May 1969
 Australia 24 May 1930
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1986.[35]
 Austria 17 June 1925 9 May 1928
 Bahrain 9 December 1988
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[Reservation 3]
[36]
 Bangladesh 20 May 1989
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[37]
 Barbados 16 July 1976
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrew the reservations made by the United Kingdom on succession.[38]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Belgium 17 June 1925 4 December 1928
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1997.[39]
 Benin 9 December 1986
 Bhutan 19 February 1979
 Bolivia 14 January 1985
 Brazil 17 June 1925 28 August 1970
 Bulgaria 17 June 1925 7 March 1934
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1991.[40]
 Burkina Faso 3 March 1971 Ratified as the Republic of Upper Volta.
 Cambodia 15 March 1983 [Reservation 2] The Protocol was ratified by the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea in exile in 1983. 13 states (including the depositary France) objected to their ratification, and considered it legally invalid. In 1993, the Kingdom of Cambodia stated in a note verbale that it considered itself bound by the provisions of the Protocol.[41]
 Cameroon 20 July 1989
 Canada 17 June 1925 6 May 1930
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1991 as regards bacteriological agents, and completely withdrawn in 1999.[42]
 Cape Verde 15 October 1991
 Central African Republic 31 July 1970
 Chile 17 June 1925 2 July 1935
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1991.[43]
 China 13 July 1952
[Reservation 2] Made on succession.[44]
The People's Republic of China succeeded from the Republic of China, which had acceded on 24 August 1929.[44]
 Costa Rica 13 February 2009
 Côte d'Ivoire 27 July 1970
 Croatia 18 December 2006
 Cuba 24 June 1966
 Cyprus 12 December 1966
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Czech Republic 17 September 1993 Succeeded from Czechoslovakia.
 Denmark 17 June 1925 5 May 1930
 Dominican Republic 8 December 1970
 Ecuador 16 September 1970
 Egypt 17 June 1925 6 December 1928
 El Salvador 17 June 1925 26 February 2008
 Equatorial Guinea 20 May 1989
 Estonia 17 June 1925 28 August 1931
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1999.[45]
 Ethiopia 17 June 1925 7 October 1935
 Fiji 21 March 1973
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Retained the United Kingdom's reservations on succession.[46]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Finland 17 June 1925 26 June 1929
 France 17 June 1925 10 May 1926
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1996.[47]
 Gambia 5 November 1966
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Germany 17 June 1925 25 April 1929
 Ghana 3 May 1967
 Greece 17 June 1925 30 May 1931
 Grenada 20 May 1989
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Guatemala 3 May 1983
 Guinea-Bissau 20 May 1989
 Holy See 18 October 1966
 Hungary 11 October 1952
 Iceland 2 November 1967
 India 17 June 1925 9 April 1930
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[48]
 Indonesia 21 January 1971
[Reservation 4] Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the Netherlands.
 Iran 5 November 1929
 Iraq 8 September 1931
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[49]
 Ireland 29 August 1930
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1972.[50]
 Israel 20 February 1969
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[51]
 Italy 17 June 1925 3 April 1928
 Jamaica 28 July 1970
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Japan 17 June 1925 21 May 1970
 Jordan 20 January 1977
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[Reservation 3]
[52]
 Kenya 6 July 1970
 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of 4 January 1989
[Reservation 2] [53]
 Korea, Republic of 4 January 1989
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Reservation 2 withdrawn in 2002 as regards biological agents covered by the BWC.
 Kuwait 15 December 1971
[Reservation 3]
[Reservation 5]
[54]
 Laos 20 May 1989
 Latvia 17 June 1925 3 June 1931
 Lebanon 17 April 1969
 Lesotho 10 March 1972
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Liberia 17 June 1927
 Libya 29 December 1971
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[Reservation 3]
[55]
 Liechtenstein 6 September 1991
 Lithuania 17 June 1925 15 June 1933
 Luxembourg 17 June 1925 1 September 1936
 Madagascar 2 August 1967
 Malawi 14 September 1970
 Malaysia 10 December 1970
 Maldives 27 December 1966
 Malta 15 October 1970
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Mauritius 8 January 1971
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Mexico 28 May 1932
 Moldova 4 November 2010
 Monaco 6 January 1967
 Mongolia 6 December 1968
[Reservation 2] Withdrawn in 1990.[56]
 Morocco 13 October 1970
   Nepal 9 May 1969
 Netherlands 17 June 1925 31 October 1930
[Reservation 4] Withdrawn in 1995.[57]
 New Zealand 24 May 1930
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1989.[58]
 Nicaragua 17 June 1925 5 October 1990
 Niger 5 April 1967
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from France.
 Nigeria 15 October 1968
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[59]
 Norway 17 June 1925 27 July 1932
 Pakistan 15 April 1960
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from India.
 Panama 4 December 1970
 Papua New Guinea 2 September 1980
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Retained Australia's reservations on succession.[60]
Succeeded from Australia.
 Paraguay 22 October 1933
 Peru 13 August 1985
 Philippines 8 June 1973
 Poland 17 June 1925 4 February 1929
 Portugal 17 June 1925 1 July 1930
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Reservation 2 withdrawn in 2003, and reservation 1 withdrawn in 2014.
 Qatar 18 October 1976
 Romania 17 June 1925 23 August 1929
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1991.[61]
 Russia 5 April 1928
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 2001.[62]
Ratified as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
 Rwanda 11 May 1964
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from Belgium.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 15 November 1989
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Saint Lucia 21 December 1988
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 24 March 1999
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Saudi Arabia 27 January 1971
 Senegal 15 June 1977
 Serbia 3 June 2006
[Reservation 2] Implicit on succession.[Note 1] Serbia's Parliament voted to withdraw their reservation in May 2009[63] and the withdrawal was announced in 2010, but the depositary has not been notified.[64]
Succeeded as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,[Note 2] which had ratified the treaty as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
 Sierra Leone 20 March 1967
 Slovakia 22 September 1993[Note 3] Succeeded from Czechoslovakia.
 Slovenia 8 April 2008
 Solomon Islands 1 June 1981
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Retained the United Kingdom's reservations on succession.[66]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 South Africa 24 May 1930
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1996.[67]
 Spain 17 June 1925 22 August 1929
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Withdrawn in 1992.[68]
 Sri Lanka 20 January 1954 Ratified as the Dominion of Ceylon.
 Sudan 17 December 1980
 Swaziland 23 July 1991
 Sweden 17 June 1925 25 April 1930
  Switzerland 17 June 1925 12 July 1932
 Syria 17 December 1968
[Reservation 3] [69]
 Tanzania 22 April 1963 Ratified as he Republic of Tanganyika.
 Thailand 17 June 1925 6 June 1931 [Note 4] Ratified as Siam.
 Togo 5 April 1971
 Tonga 19 July 1971
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Trinidad and Tobago 30 November 1970
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the United Kingdom.
 Tunisia 12 July 1967
 Turkey 17 June 1925 5 October 1929
 Uganda 24 May 1965
 Ukraine 7 August 2003
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Implicit on succession.[Note 1]
Succeeded from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
 United Kingdom 17 June 1925 9 April 1930
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
Reservation 2 withdrawn in 1991 as regards biological agents covered by the BWC, and reservations completely withdrawn in 2002.[71]
 United States of America 17 June 1925 10 April 1975
[Reservation 4] [72]
 Uruguay 17 June 1925 12 April 1977
 Venezuela 17 June 1925 8 February 1928
 Viet Nam 15 December 1980
[Reservation 1]
[Reservation 2]
[73]
 Yemen 17 March 1971
[Reservation 3] Made in a second instrument of accession submitted on 16 September 1973.[Note 5]
Ratified as the Yemen Arab Republic. Also ratified by the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen on 20 October 1986, prior to Yemeni unification in 1990.[74]
  Parties with withdrawn reservations
  Parties with implicit reservations
  Parties with unwithdrawn reservations limiting the applicability of provisions of the Protocol
Reservations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av Binding only with regards to states which have ratified or acceded to the protocol.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba Ceases to be binding in regards to any state, and its allies, which does not observe the prohibitions of the protocol.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Does not constitute recognition of, or establishing any relations with, Israel.
  4. ^ a b c Ceases to be binding as to the use of chemical weapons in regards to any enemy state which does not observe the prohibitions of the protocol.
  5. ^ Ceases to be binding in the case of a violation.
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s According to the Vienna Convention on Succession of States in respect of Treaties, states which succeed to a treaty after gaining independence from a state party "shall be considered as maintaining any reservation to that treaty which was applicable at the date of the succession of States in respect of the territory to which the succession of States relates unless, when making the notification of succession, it expresses a contrary intention or formulates a reservation which relates to the same subject matter as that reservation." Any state which has not clarified their position on reservations inherited on succession are listed as "implicit" reservations.
  2. ^ Although the FR Yugoslavia claimed to be the continuator state of the SFR of Yugoslavia, the United Nations General Assembly did not accept this and forced them to reapply for membership.
  3. ^ Listed as 28 October 1997 by the United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs.[65]
  4. ^ Some sources list two reservations by Thailand, but neither the instrument of accession,[1] nor the United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs list,[70] makes any mention of a reservation.
  5. ^ According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, states may make a reservation when "signing, ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to a treaty".

Non-signatory states[edit]

The remaining UN member states, which have not acceded or succeeded to the Protocol, are:

Chemical weapons prohibitions[edit]

Year Name Effect
1675 Strasbourg Agreement The first international agreement limiting the use of chemical weapons, in this case, poison bullets.
1874 Brussels Convention on the Law and Customs of War Prohibited the employment of poison or poisoned weapons (Never entered into force.)
1899 1st Peace Conference at the Hague European Nations agreed to abstain from "the use of projectiles the object of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases."
1907 2nd Peace Conference at the Hague The Conference added the use of poison or poisoned weapons.
1919 Treaty of Versailles Prohibited poison gas in Germany.
1922 Treaty relating to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare Failed because France objected to clauses relating to submarine warfare.
1925 Geneva Protocol Prohibited the "use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices" and "bacteriological methods".
1972 Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention No verification mechanism, negotiations for a protocol to make up this lack halted by USA in 2001.
1993 Chemical Weapons Convention Comprehensive bans on development, production, stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons, with destruction timelines.
1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Makes it a war crime to employ chemical weapons in international conflicts. (2010 amendment extends prohibition to internal conflicts.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Protocole concernant la prohibition d'emploi à la guerre de gaz asphyxiants, toxiques ou similaires et de moyens bactériologiques, fait à Genève le 17 juin 1925" (in French). Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of France. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Chemical Weapons Convention, Article 21.
  3. ^ a b c "Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare". United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  4. ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 94, pp. 66-74.
  5. ^ a b D. Hank Ellison (24 August 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 567–570. ISBN 0-8493-1434-8. 
  6. ^ Max Boot (16 August 2007). War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World. Gotham. pp. 245–250. ISBN 1-5924-0315-8. 
  7. ^ a b "Treaty relating to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare. Washington, 6 February 1922". International Committee of the Red Cross. 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c Eric A. Croddy, James J. Wirtz (2005). Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology and History, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 140–142. ISBN 978-1851094905. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Scott Spence and Meghan Brown (8 August 2012). "Syria: international law and the use of chemical weapons". VERTIC. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  10. ^ U.N. confirms sarin used in Syria attack; U.S., UK, France blame Assad
  11. ^ Syria chemical weapons: watchdog confirms Telegraph analysis of chlorine gas attacks on civilians
  12. ^ a b c d e Bunn, George (1969). "Banning Poison Gas and Germ Warfare: Should the United States Agree". Wisconsin Law Review 1969 (2): 375–420. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  13. ^ "2603 (XXIV). Question of chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapons". United Nations General Assembly. 16 December 1969. Retrieved 24 August 2013. "use in international armed conflicts of: (a) Any chemical agents of warfare - chemical substances, whether gaseous, liquid or solid - which might be employed because of their direct toxic effects on man, animals or plants; (b) Any biological agents of warfare - living organisms, whatever their nature, or infective material derived from them - which are intended to cause disease or death in man, animals or plants, and which depend for their effects on their ability to multiply in the person, animal or plant attacked." 
  14. ^ Angela Woodward (17 May 2012). "The 1925 Geneva Protocol goes digital". VERTIC. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  15. ^ "Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (Geneva Protocol)". U.S. Department of State. 25 September 2002. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  16. ^ "Practice Relating to Rule 76. Herbicides". International Committee of the Red Cross. 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "Practice Relating to Rule 75. Riot Control Agents". International Committee of the Red Cross. 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Czech Republic: Succession to 1925 Geneva Protocol". United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2014-07-26. 
  19. ^ a b "Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (Geneva Protocol)". United States Department of State. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  20. ^ a b "Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. Geneva, 17 June 1925". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  21. ^ "States parties to the Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare, Done at Geneva 17 June 1925". University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  22. ^ "Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare". United Nations Treaty Series. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  23. ^ "Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  24. ^ "Protocole concernant la prohibition d'emploi à la guerre de gaz asphyxiants, toxiques ou similaires et de moyens bactériologiques". Government of Switzerland. 2013-08-15. Retrieved 2014-07-13. 
  25. ^ "Protocole du 17 juin 1925 concernant la prohibition d’emploi à la guerre de gaz asphyxiants, toxiques ou similaires et de moyens bactériologiques". Government of Switzerland. 2004. Retrieved 2014-07-13. 
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