Geniohyoid muscle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Genio-hyoid)
Jump to: navigation, search
Geniohyoid muscle
Geniohyoid muscle.PNG
Anterior view. Geniohyoid muscle labeled at upper center left
Geniohyoideus.png
Extrinsic muscles of the tongue. Left side.
Latin musculus geniohyoideus
Gray's p.393
Origin Inferior mental spine of Mandible
Insertion hyoid bone
Nerve C1 via the hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Actions carry hyoid bone and the tongue upward during deglutition
Anatomical terms of muscle

The Geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. It is named for its passage from the chin ("genio-" is a standard prefix for "chin")[1] to the hyoid bone.

Structure[edit]

It arises from the inferior mental spine, on the back of the mandibular symphysis, and runs backward and slightly downward, to be inserted into the anterior surface of the body of the hyoid bone.[2] :346 It lies in contact with its fellow of the opposite side. It thus belongs to the suprahyoid muscles.

Innervation[edit]

The geniohyoid muscle is innervated by fibres from the first cervical nerve travelling alongside the hypoglossal nerve.[2] :346[3][4] :988

Variations[edit]

It may be blended with the one on opposite side or double; slips to greater cornu of hyoid bone and Genioglossus occur.

Function[edit]

The geniohyoid muscle brings the hyoid bone forward and upwards.[2] This dilates the upper airway, assisting respiration.[3] During the first act of deglutition, when the mass of food is being driven from the mouth into the pharynx, the hyoid bone, and with it the tongue, is carried upward and forward by the anterior bellies of the Digastrici, the Mylohyoidei, and Geniohyoidei. It also assists in depressing the mandible

History[edit]

The inclined position of the geniohyoid muscle has been contrasted to the horizontal position in neandertals. [5]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/genio-
  2. ^ a b c Singh, Inderbir (2009). Essentials of anatomy (2nd ed. ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. ISBN 978-81-8448-461-8. 
  3. ^ a b Takahashi, S. (1 December 2002). "Breathing modes, body positions, and suprahyoid muscle activity". Journal of Orthodontics 29 (4): 307–313. doi:10.1093/ortho/29.4.307. 
  4. ^ Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (2005). Gray's anatomy for students (Pbk. ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-06612-2. 
  5. ^ Barney, A.; Martelli, S.; Serrurier, A.; Steele, J. (21 November 2011). "Articulatory capacity of Neanderthals, a very recent and human-like fossil hominin". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367 (1585): 88–102. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0259. 

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.