Genocides in history

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Skulls of victims of the Rwandan Genocide

Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. The term was coined in 1944 by Raphael Lemkin. It is defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) of 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the groups conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."[1]

The preamble to the CPPCG states that "genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world" and that "at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity".[1]

Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have fiercely disputed the details and interpretation of the event, often to the point of depicting wildly different versions of the facts. Alleged genocides should be understood in this context and such allegations cannot be regarded as the final word.

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Alternate definitions[edit]

Legally, genocide is defined as any conflict that the International Criminal Court has so designated. Many conflicts that have been labeled genocide in the popular press have not been so designated.[2]

M. Hassan Kakar[3] argued that the definition should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator. He prefers the definition Chalk and Jonassohn: "Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group so defined by the perpetrator."[4]

Some critics of the international definition argued that the definition was influenced by Joseph Stalin to exclude political groups.[5][6]

According to R. J. Rummel, genocide has multiple meanings. The ordinary meaning is murder by a government of people due to their national, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership. The legal meaning is defined by CCPG. This includes actions such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children to another group. Rummel created the term democide to include assaults on political groups.[7]

In this article, atrocities that have been called genocide by some reliable source are included, whether or not they match one of these definitions. The acts may involve mass killings, mass deportations, withholding of food and/or other necessities of life, death by invasive infectious disease agents or combinations of these, whether or not specific evidence documents an intent by the perpetrators to destroy a people.

Pre-World War I[edit]

According to Jones, if a dominant group of people has little in common with marginalized group of people, it is easy for the dominant group to define the other as subhuman. As a result, the marginalized group might be labeled as a threat that must be eliminated.[8] Jones continues: "The difficulty, as Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn pointed out in their early study, is that such historical records as exist are ambiguous and undependable. While history today is generally written with some fealty to 'objective' facts, most previous accounts aimed rather to praise the writer's patron (normally the leader) and to emphasize the superiority of one's own gods and religious beliefs."[9]

Chalk and Jonassohn: "Historically and anthropologically peoples have always had a name for themselves. In a great many cases, that name meant 'the people' to set the owners of that name off against all other people who were considered of lesser quality in some way. If the differences between the people and some other society were particularly large in terms of religion, language, manners, customs, and so on, then such others were seen as less than fully human: pagans, savages, or even animals.[10][11]

Before 1490[edit]

Scholars of antiquity differentiate between genocide and gendercide, in which males were killed but the children (particularly the girls) and women were incorporated into the conquering group. Jones notes, "Chalk and Jonassohn provide a wide-ranging selection of historical events such as the Assyrian Empire's root-and branch depredations in the first half of the first millennium BCE, and the destruction of Melos by Athens during the Peloponnesian War (fifth century BCE), a gendercidal rampage described by Thucydides in his 'Melian Dialogue'."[12]

Jared Diamond suggested that genocidal violence may have caused the Neanderthals to go extinct.[13] Ronald Wright also suggested such a genocide.[14]

Ben Kiernan, a Yale scholar, has labelled the destruction of Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War (149–146 BC) "The First Genocide".[12]

A 2010 study suggests that a group of Anasazi in the American Southwest were killed in a genocide that took place circa 800 AD.[15][16]

Quoting Eric Margolis, Jones observes that in the 13th century the Mongol horsemen of Temüjin Genghis Khan were genocidal killers (génocidaires)[11] who were known to kill whole nations, leaving nothing but empty ruins and bones.[17] He ordered the extermination of the Tata Mongols, and all Kankalis males in Bukhara "taller than a wheel"[18] using a technique called measuring against the linchpin. Rosanne Klass referred to the Mongols' rule of Afghanistan as "genocide".[19]

Similarly, the Turko-Mongol conqueror Tamerlane was known for his extreme brutality and his conquests were accompanied by genocidal massacres.[20] William Rubinstein wrote: "In Assyria (1393–4) – Tamerlane got around – he killed all the Christians he could find, including everyone in the, then, Christian city of Tikrit, thus virtually destroying Christianity in Mesopotamia. Impartially, however, Tamerlane also slaughtered Shi'ite Muslims, Jews and heathens."[21]

1490 to 1914[edit]

Africa[edit]

Belgium/Congo Free State[edit]

In the 1890s, the Congo Free State became privately controlled by Leopold II of Belgium, who forcibly conscripted the population into the collection of ivory and sap from rubber plants. Many were tortured, maimed and killed until the start of the 20th century, when the European and American press exposed the conditions, and public pressure and diplomatic maneuvers forced an end to Leopold's personal rule.

As the first census did not take place until 1924, it is difficult to quantify the population loss of the period. Sleeping sickness and smallpox ravaged the country and must also be taken into account.[22] Estimates for excess deaths in this period range up to 10 million.[23] One view is that the forced labour system directly and indirectly eliminated 20% of the population.[24] To the contrary, historian William Rubinstein wrote that "More basically, it appears almost certain that the population figures given by Hochschild are inaccurate. There is, of course, no way of ascertaining the population of the Congo before the twentieth century, and estimates like 20 million are purely guesses."[25]

Zulu Kingdom[edit]
See also: Mfecane

Between 1810 and 1828, the Zulu kingdom under Shaka Zulu laid waste to large parts of present-day South Africa and Zimbabwe. Zulu armies often aimed not only at defeating enemies but at their total destruction. Those exterminated included prisoners of war, women, children and even dogs.[14] (Controversial) estimates for the death toll range from 1 million to 2 million.[26][27][28][29]

German South-West Africa[edit]

The Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia) occurred between 1904 and 1907.[30] Eighty percent of the Herero population and 50 percent of the Nama population were killed in a brutal scorched earth campaign led by German General Lothar von Trotha. Between 24,000 and 100,000 Herero perished along with 10,000 Nama.[31][32]

A copy of Trotha's Extermination Order survives in the Botswana National Archives. The order states "every Herero, with or without a gun, with or without cattle, will be shot. I will no longer accept women or children, I will drive them back to their people [to die in the desert] or let them be shot at."[33] Olusoga and Erichsen write: "It is an almost unique document: an explicit, written declaration of intent to commit genocide".[34] These mass killings were named as the first example of a 20th-century genocide in the 1985 Whitaker Report, commissioned but never adopted by the now defunct United Nations subcommittee ECOSOC.[35]

Americas[edit]

From the 1490s when Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas to the end of the 19th century, the indigenous population of the Western Hemisphere declined, mostly from disease, to 1.8 million from around 50 million, a decline of 96%.[36] In Brazil alone, the indigenous population declined from a pre-Columbian high of an estimated 3 million to some 300,000 (1997).[37][38] Estimates of how many people were living in the Americas when Columbus arrived have varied tremendously; 20th century scholarly estimates ranged from 8.4 million to 112.5 million.[39] However, Robert Royal stated, "estimates of pre-Columbian population figures have become heavily politicized with scholars who are particularly critical of Europe and/or Western civilization often favoring wildly higher figures."[40]

Epidemic disease was the overwhelming direct cause of the population decline of the American natives.[41][42] After first contacts with Europeans and Africans, the death of 90 to 95 percent of the native population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases such as smallpox and measles.[43] Some estimates indicate that smallpox had a 80–90% fatality rate in Native American populations.[44]

British commander Jeffery Amherst may have authorized the intentional use of disease as a biological weapon against indigenous populations during the Siege of Fort Pitt.[45][46] It was the only documented case of germ warfare and it is uncertain whether it successfully infected the target population.[47]

Some historians argue that genocide, as a crime of intent, does not describe the colonization experience. Stafford Poole, a research historian, wrote: "There are other terms to describe what happened in the Western Hemisphere, but genocide is not one of them. It is a good propaganda term in an age where slogans and shouting have replaced reflection and learning, but to use it in this context is to cheapen both the word itself and the appalling experiences of the Jews and Armenians, to mention but two of the major victims of this century."[48] Holocaust scholar and political scientist Guenter Lewy rejects the label of genocide and views the depopulation of the Americas as "not a crime but a tragedy".[49] Likewise, Noble David Cook writing about the Black Legend wrote "There were too few Spaniards to have killed the millions who were reported to have died in the first century after Old and New World contact."[50]

By contrast, David Stannard argued that the destruction of the American aboriginals from 76 million down to a quarter-million over 4 centuries, in a "string of genocide campaigns", killing "countless tens of millions", was the most massive genocide in world history.[51] Several works on the subject were released around the year 1992 to coincide with the 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage.

In 2003, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez urged Latin Americans to not celebrate the Columbus Day holiday. Chavez blamed Columbus for leading to the alleged genocide.[52]

David Quammen likened colonial American practices toward Native Americans to those of Australia toward its aboriginal populations, calling both genocide.[53]

Argentina[edit]

The Conquest of the Desert was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples, killing more than 1,300.[54]

Contemporary sources indicate that it was a deliberate genocide by the Argentine government.[55] Others perceived the campaign as intending to suppress only groups of aboriginals that refused to submit to the government and carried out attacks on European settlements.[56][57]

Haiti[edit]
The Haitian revolution also caused the mass killings of white Haitians.

Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the first ruler of an independent Haiti, ordered the killing of the white population of French creoles on Haiti which culminated in the 1804 Haiti Massacre. According to Philippe Girard, "when the genocide was over, Haiti's white population was virtually non-existent."[58]

Mexico[edit]

The Caste War of Yucatán (approx. 1847–1901) against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote: Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."[59]

In 1835, Don Ignacio Zuniga, commander of the presidios of northern Sonora, asserted that since 1820 the Apaches had killed at least five thousand settlers. The state of Sonora then offered a bounty on Apache scalps in 1835. Beginning in 1837 Chihuahua state also offered a bounty of 100 pesos per warrior, 50 pesos per woman and 25 pesos per child.[60]

Peru[edit]

The indigenous rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari against the Spanish between 1780 and 1782, cost over 100,000 colonists' lives in Peru and Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia)."[61]

United States[edit]

Authors, such as David Cesarani, argued that United States government policies in furtherance of its so-called Manifest Destiny constituted genocide.[62]

Statistics regarding deaths due to armed conflict between Native Americans and Europeans are sparse, as in many cases there were no records kept.[21] A study by Gregory Michno concluded that of 21,586 tabulated casualties in a selected 672 battles and skirmishes, military personnel and settlers accounted for 6,596 (31%), while indigenous casualties totaled about 14,990 (69%) for the period 1850–90. Michno's study almost exclusively uses Army estimates. His follow-up book "Forgotten Battles and Skirmishes" covers over 300 additional fights not included in these statistics.[63] According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894), "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate..."[64]

Chalk and Jonassohn claimed that the deportation of the Cherokee tribe along the Trail of Tears would almost certainly be considered an act of genocide today.[65] The Indian Removal Act of 1830 led to the exodus. About 17,000 Cherokees—along with approximately 2,000 Cherokee-owned black slaves—were removed from their homes.[66] The number of people who died as a result of the Trail of Tears has been variously estimated. American doctor and missionary Elizur Butler, who made the journey with one party, estimated 4,000 deaths.[67]

The native population of the United States has been difficult to pin down due to the lack of reliable source materials. Historian and Information Scientist, Dr. David Henige asserts that the modern trend of high population estimates is "pseudo-scientific number-crunching." While he does not advocate a low population estimates, he argues that the scarce and uncomprehensive nature of the evidence renders broad estimates(eg.as high as the entire population of the US at the onset of World War I) to be somewhat suspect, saying "Examining the methodologies used by "high counters" have been particularly flagrant in their misuse of sources."[68]

Contemporaneous accounts of the effects of smallpox, among the native population suggest an 80% to 95% mortality rate of the entire population effected. Governor William Bradford wrote, in 1633, about the second reported outbreak (e.g. 1617, 1633) in New England: "... for it pleased God to visit these Indians with a great sickness, and such a mortality that of a 1000. above 900.and a half of them died, and many of them did rot above ground for want of burial,  ..."[69][70]

Newfoundland, Canada[edit]
Main articles: Beothuk and Twillingate

The Beothuks attempted to avoid contact with Europeans in Newfoundland by moving from their traditional settlements.[71] The Beothuks were put into a position where they were forced from their traditional land and lifestyle into ecosystems that could not support them and that led to undernourishment and eventually starvation.[72] While some scholars believe that the Beothuk primarily died out due to the elements noted above, another theory is that Europeans conducted a sustained campaign of genocide against them.[73] They were officially declared "extinct" after the death of Shanawdithit in 1829 in the capital, St. John's, where she had been taken.

Asia and Oceania[edit]

Siberia[edit]
Vietnam[edit]
Japanese colonization of Hokkaido[edit]

The Ainu are an indigenous people in Japan (Hokkaidō).[74] In a 2009 news story, Japan Today reported, "Many Ainu were forced to work, essentially as slaves, for Wajin (ethnic Japanese), resulting in the breakup of families and the introduction of smallpox, measles, cholera and tuberculosis into their community. In 1869, the new Meiji government renamed Ezo Hokkaido and unilaterally incorporated it into Japan. It banned the Ainu language, took Ainu land away, and prohibited salmon fishing and deer hunting."[75] Roy Thomas wrote: "Ill treatment of native peoples is common to all colonial powers, and, at its worst, leads to genocide. Japan's native people, the Ainu, have, however, been the object of a particularly cruel hoax, as the Japanese have refused to accept them officially as a separate minority people."[76] In 2004 the small Ainu community living in Russia wrote a letter to Vladimir Putin, urging him to recognize Japanese behaviour against the Ainu people as genocide, which Putin declined to do.[77]

Qing empire[edit]
Further information: Dzungar genocide

The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China, which they did from the early 17th century through the middle of the 18th century.[78] After a series of inconclusive military conflicts that started in the 1680s, the Dzungars were subjugated by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1911) in the late 1750s. According to Qing scholar Wei Yuan, 40 percent of the 600,000 Zunghar people were killed by smallpox, 20 percent fled to Russia or sought refuge among the Kazakh tribes and 30 percent were killed by the Qing army of Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols.[79][80] Historian Michael Edmund Clarke has argued that the Qing campaign in 1757–58 "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[81] Historian Peter Perdue has attributed the decimation of the Dzungars to a "deliberate use of massacre" and has described it as an "ethnic genocide".[82] Mark Levene, a historian of genocide,[83] has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence."[84]

Australia[edit]

According to research published from 2009, in 1789 the British deliberately spread smallpox from the First Fleet to counter overwhelming native tribes near Sydney in New South Wales. In his book "An Indelible Stain", Henry Reynolds described this act as genocide.[85] Many scholars disagree that the initial smallpox was the result of deliberate biological warfare and have suggested other causes.[86][87][88]

The Black War was a period of conflict between British colonists and Tasmanian Aborigines in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in the early 19th century. The conflict, in combination with introduced diseases and other factors, had such devastating impacts on the Tasmanian Aboriginal population that it was reported the Tasmanian Aborigines had been exterminated.[89][90] Historian Geoffrey Blainey wrote that by 1830, "Disease had killed most of them but warfare and private violence had also been devastating."[91] In the 19th century, smallpox was the principal cause of Aboriginal deaths.[92]

Lemkin and most other comparative genocide scholars present the extinction of the Tasmanian Aborigines as a textbook example of a genocide, while the majority of Australian experts are more circumspect.[93][94] Detailed studies of the events surrounding the extinction have raised questions about some of the details and interpretations in earlier histories.[95][96] Curthoys concluded, "It is time for a more robust exchange between genocide and Tasmanian historical scholarship if we are to understand better what did happen in Tasmania."[93]

On the Australian continent during the colonial period (1788–1901), the population of 500,000–750,000 Australian Aborigines was reduced to fewer than 50,000.[97][98] Most were devastated by the introduction of alien diseases after contact with Europeans, while perhaps 20,000 were killed by massacres and fighting with colonists.[97]

New Zealand[edit]

In the early 19th Century Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama (local Māori tribes) massacred the Moriori people. The Moriori were the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. These people lived by a code of non-violence and passive resistance (see Nunuku-whenua), which led to their near-extinction at the hands of Taranaki Māori invaders in the 1830s.[99]

In 1835, some Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama from the Taranaki region of North Island invaded the Chathams. On 19 November 1835, the Rodney, a European ship hired by the Māori, arrived carrying 500 Māori armed with guns, clubs, and axes, followed by another ship with 400 more warriors on 5 December 1835. They proceeded to enslave some Moriori and kill and cannibalise others. "Parties of warriors armed with muskets, clubs and tomahawks, led by their chiefs, walked through Moriori tribal territories and settlements without warning, permission or greeting. If the districts were wanted by the invaders, they curtly informed the inhabitants that their land had been taken and the Moriori living there were now vassals."[100]

A council of Moriori elders was convened at the settlement called Te Awapatiki. Despite knowing of the Māori predilection for killing and eating the conquered, and despite the admonition by some of the elder chiefs that the principle of Nunuku was not appropriate now, two chiefs—Tapata and Torea—declared that "the law of Nunuku was not a strategy for survival, to be varied as conditions changed; it was a moral imperative."[101] A Moriori survivor recalled: "[The Maori] commenced to kill us like sheep.... [We] were terrified, fled to the bush, concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed – men, women and children indiscriminately." A Māori conqueror explained, "We took possession... in accordance with our customs and we caught all the people. Not one escaped..."[102]

After the invasion, Moriori were forbidden to marry Moriori, or to have children with each other. All became slaves of the invaders. Many Moriori women had children by their Maori masters. A small number of Moriori women eventually married either Maori or European men. Some were taken from the Chathams and never returned. Only 101 Moriori out of a population of about 2,000 were left alive by 1862.[103] Although the last Moriori of unmixed ancestry, Tommy Solomon,[104] died in 1933 several thousand mixed ancestry Moriori are alive today.

Europe[edit]

France[edit]
Main article: War in the Vendée
Mass shootings at Nantes, 1793

In 1986, Reynald Secher argued that the actions of the French republican government during the revolt in the Vendée (1793–1796), a popular mostly Catholic uprising against the anti-clerical Republican government during the French Revolution was the first modern genocide.[105] Secher's claims caused a minor uproar in France and mainstream authorities rejected Secher's claims.[106][107] Timothy Tackett countered that "the Vendée was a tragic civil war with endless horrors committed by both sides—initiated, in fact, by the rebels themselves. The Vendeans were no more blameless than were the republicans. The use of the word genocide is wholly inaccurate and inappropriate."[108]

Ireland[edit]
War of the Three Kingdoms[edit]

Toward the end of the War of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651) the English Rump Parliament sent the New Model Army to Ireland to subdue and take revenge on the Catholic population of the country and to prevent Royalists loyal to Charles II from using Ireland as a base to threaten England. The force was initially under the command of Oliver Cromwell and later under other parliamentary generals. The Army sought to secure the country, but also to confiscate lands of Irish families involved in the fighting. This became a continuation of the Elizabethan policy of encouraging Protestant settlement of Ireland, because the Protestant New Model army soldiers—could be paid in confiscated lands rather than in cash.[109]

During the Interregnum (1651–1660), this policy was enhanced with the passing of the Act of Settlement of Ireland in 1652. Its goal was a further transfer of land from Irish to English hands.[109] The immediate war aims and the longer term policies of the English Parliamentarians resulted in an attempt by the English to transfer the native population to the western fringes to make way for Protestant settlers. This policy was reflected in a phrase attributed to Cromwell: "To Hell or to Connaught" and has been described by historians as ethnic cleansing, if not genocide.[110]

Great Irish Famine[edit]
Great Irish Famine
Main article: Great Irish Famine

During the Irish Potato Famine (1845–1852), approximately 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland,[111] causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%.[112] The proximate cause of famine was a potato disease commonly known as potato blight.[113] Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland – where one-third of the population was entirely dependent on the potato for food – was exacerbated by a host of political, social, and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.[114][115]

During the Famine, Ireland produced enough food, flax, and wool to feed and clothe double its nine million people.[116] When Ireland had experienced a famine in 1782–83, ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but government in the 1780s overrode their protests. There was no such export ban in the 1840s.[117] Some historians[118][119] have argued that in this sense the famine was artificial, caused by the British government's choice not to stop exports.[116]

Francis A. Boyle claimed that the government violated sections (a), (b), and (c) of Article 2 of the CPPCG and committed genocide in a formal legal opinion to the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on May 2, 1996.[120][121] Charles E. Rice issued another formal opinion, also based on Article 2, alleging that the British had committed genocide.[122]

The claims were contested by Peter Gray, who concluded that UK government policy "was not a policy of deliberate genocide", but a dogmatic refusal to admit that the policy was wrong. James S. Donnelly, Jr., split the difference, writing, "while genocide was not in fact committed, what happened ... had the look of genocide to a great many Irish".[123]

Cecil Woodham-Smith claimed that while the export policy embittered the Irish, this did not implicate the policy in genocide, but rather in excessive parsimony obtuseness, short-sightedness, and ignorance.[124]

Irish historian Cormac O' Grada rejects the term, stating that the English exhibited no desire to exterminate the Irish and that the challenges for providing relief were enormous.[118][125]

W.D. Rubinstein also rejected the genocide claim.[21]

Russian Empire[edit]

The Russian Tsarist Empire waged war against Circassia in the Northwest Caucasus for more than one hundred years, trying to replace Circassia's hold along the Black Sea coast. After a century of insurgency and war and failure to end the conflict, the Tsar ordered the expulsion of most of the Muslim population of the North Caucasus. Many Circassians, Western historians, Turks and Chechens claimed that the events of the 1860s constituted one of the first modern genocides, in that a whole population was eliminated to satisfy the desires (in this case economic) of a powerful country.[citation needed]

Antero Leitzinger flagged the affair as the 19th century's largest genocide.[126] Some estimates cite that approximately 1-1.5 million Circassians were killed and most of the Muslim population was deported. Ossete Muslims and Kabardins generally did not leave. The modern Circassians and Abazins descend from those who managed to escape the onslaught and later returned another 1.5 million Circassians and others. This effectively annihilated (or deported) 90% of the nation.[127] Tsarist documents recorded more than 400,000 Circassians killed, 497,000 forced to flee and only 80,000 were left in their native area.[128] Circassians were viewed as tools by the Ottoman government, and settled in restive areas whose populations had nationalist yearnings- Armenia, the Arab regions and the Balkans. Many more Circassians were killed by the policies of the Balkan states, primarily Serbia and Bulgaria, which became independent at that time.[citation needed] Still more Circassians were forcefully assimilated by nationalist Muslim states (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, etc.) who looked upon non-Turk/Arab ethnicity as a foreign presence and a threat.

In May 1994, the then Russian President Boris Yeltsin admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognize "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide."[128] In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to apologize, without response. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the USA, Belgium, Canada and Germany sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with a request to recognize the genocide.[citation needed]

On 5 July 2005 the Circassian Congress, an organisation that unites representatives of the various Circassian peoples in the Russian Federation, called on Moscow to acknowledge and apologize for the genocide.[129]

Twentieth century[edit]

World War I through World War II[edit]

In 1915, during World War I, the concept of crimes against humanity was introduced into international relations for the first time when the Allied Powers sent a letter to the government of the Ottoman Empire, a member of the Central Powers, protesting massacres that were taking place within the Empire.[130]

Ottoman Empire/Turkey[edit]

On May 24, 1915, the Allied Powers (Britain, France, and Russia) jointly issued a statement that for the first time ever explicitly charged a government with committing a "crime against humanity" in reference to that regime's persecution of its Christian minorities, including Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks.[131] Many researchers consider these events to be part of the policy of planned ethnoreligious purification of the Turkish state advanced by the Young Turks.[132] [133][134][135][136]

This joint statement stated, "[i]n view of these new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization, the Allied Governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold personally responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres."[130]

Armenian[edit]
Armenian civilians, escorted by armed Ottoman soldiers, are marched through Kharpert to a prison in the nearby Mezireh district, April 1915.

The Armenian Genocide (Armenian: Հայոց Ցեղասպանություն, translit.: Hayots’ Ts’eġaspanout’youn; Turkish: Ermeni Soykırımı and Ermeni Kıyımı) refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I. It was implemented through wholesale massacres and deportations, with the deportations consisting of forced marches under conditions designed to lead to the death of the deportees. The total number of resulting deaths is generally held to have been between one and one and a half million.[137]

The genocide began April 24, 1915, when Ottoman authorities arrested some 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Constantinople. Thereafter, the Ottoman military uprooted Armenians from their homes and forced them to march for hundreds of miles, without food and water, to the desert of what is now Syria. Massacres ignored age and gender, with rape and other sexual abuse commonplace.[138] The majority of Armenian diaspora communities were founded as a result of these events. Mass killings continued under the Republic of Turkey during the Turkish–Armenian War phase of Turkish War of Independence.[139]

Modern Turkey succeeded the Ottoman Empire in 1923 and vehemently denies that a genocide took place. It has resisted calls in recent years by scholars, countries and international organizations to acknowledge the crime. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. Lemkin coined "genocide" to describe these events.

Assyrian[edit]

The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo; Aramaic: ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ, Turkish: Süryani Soykırımı) was committed against the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire during the First World War by the Young Turks.[140] The Assyrian population of northern Mesopotamia (Tur Abdin, Hakkari, Van, Siirt region in modern-day southeastern Turkey and Urmia region in northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman (Turkish and allied Kurdish) forces between 1914 and 1920.[141] This genocide paralleled the Armenian Genocide and Greek genocide.[142][143] The Assyro-Chaldean National Council stated in a December 4, 1922, memorandum that the total death toll is unknown, but it estimated that about 750,000 Assyrians died between 1914–18.[144]

Greek[edit]

The Greek genocide[145] refers to the fate of the Greek population of the Ottoman Empire during and in the aftermath of World War I (1914–18). Like Armenians and Assyrians, the Greeks were subjected to various forms of persecution including massacres, expulsions, and death marches by Young Turks.[146][143] Mass killing of Greeks continued under the Turkish National Movement during the Greco-Turkish War phase of Turkish War of Independence.[147] George W. Rendel of the British Foreign Office, among other diplomats, noted the massacres and deportations of Greeks during the post-Armistice period.[148] They killed an estimate of 348,000 Anatolian Greeks.[149]

Dersim Kurds[edit]

The Dersim Massacre refers to the depopulation of Dersim in Turkish Kurdistan, in 1937–38, in which approximately 65,000–70,000 Alevi Kurds[150] were killed and thousands more were driven into exile. A key component of the Turkification process was a policy of massive population resettlement. The main document, the 1934 Law on Resettlement, was used to target the region of Dersim as one of its first test cases, with disastrous consequences for the local population.[151]

Many Kurds and some ethnic Turks consider the events that took place in Dersim to constitute genocide. A prominent proponent of this view is İsmail Beşikçi.[152] Under international laws, the actions of the Turkish authorities were arguably not genocide, because they were not aimed at the extermination of a people, but at resettlement and suppression.[153] A Turkish court ruled in 2011 that the events could not be considered genocide because they were not directed systematically against an ethnic group.[154] Scholars such as Martin van Bruinessen, have instead talked of an ethnocide directed against the local language and identity.[153]

Soviet Union[edit]

Multiple documented instances of unnatural mass death occurred in the Soviet Union. These include Union-wide famines in the early 1920s and early 1930s and deportations of ethnic minorities.

Soviet diplomatic efforts removed the extermination of political groups from the United Nations Convention on Genocide. This left many of the Soviet atrocities outside the United Nations definition of genocide, because the atrocities targeted political or economic groups rather than the ethnic, racial, religious, or national groups listed in the UN convention.

Decossackization[edit]
Main article: Decossackization

During the Russian Civil War the Bolsheviks engaged in a genocidal campaign against the Don Cossacks.[155][156][157][158][159] The most reliable estimates indicate that out of a population of three million, between 300,000 and 500,000 were killed or deported in 1919–20.[160]

Holodomor[edit]
Main article: Holodomor
Starved peasants on a street in Kharkiv, 1933.

During the Soviet famine of 1932–33 that affected Ukraine, Kazakhstan and some densely populated regions of Russia, the scale of death in Ukraine is referred to as the Holodomor and is recognized as genocide by the governments of Australia, Argentina, Georgia, Estonia, Italy, Canada, Lithuania, Poland, the USA and Hungary. The famine was caused by the confiscation of the whole 1933 harvest in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the Kuban (a densely populated Russian region), and some other parts of the Soviet Union, leaving the peasants too little to feed themselves. As a result, an estimated ten million died, including over seven million in Ukraine, one million in the North Caucasus and one million elsewhere.[161] American historian Timothy Snyder wrote of "3.3 million Soviet citizens (mostly Ukrainians) deliberately starved by their own government in Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933"[162]

In addition to the requisitioning of crops and livestock in Ukraine, all food was confiscated by Soviet authorities. Any and all aid and food was prohibited from entering the Ukrainian republic. Ukraine's Yuschenko administration recognised the Holodomor as an act of genocide and pushed international governments to acknowledge this.[163] This move was opposed by the Russian government and some members of the Ukrainian parliament, especially the Communists. A Ukrainian court found Joseph Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Stanislav Kosior, Pavel Postyshev, Vlas Chubar and Mendel Khatayevich posthumously guilty of genocide on 13 January 2010.[164][165] As of 2010, the Russian government's official position was that the famine took place, but was not an ethnic genocide;[163] former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych supported this position.[166][167] A ruling of January 13, 2010 by Kyiv's Court of Appeal declared the Soviet leaders guilty of 'genocide against the Ukrainian national group in 1932–33 through the artificial creation of living conditions intended for its partial physical destruction.'"[168]

Polish Russia[edit]

A few scholars argued that the killing, on the basis of nationality and politics, of more than 120,000 ethnic Poles in the Soviet Union during 1937–38 was genocide.[169]

Chechnya[edit]

On February 26, 2004 the plenary assembly of the European Parliament recognized the deportation of Chechen people during Operation Lentil (23 February 1944), as an act of genocide, on the basis of the 1907 IV Hague Convention: The Laws and Customs of War on Land and the CPPCG.[170]

The event began on 23 February 1944, when the entire population of Checheno-Ingushetia was summoned to local party buildings where they were told they were to be deported as punishment for their alleged collaboration with the Germans. The inhabitants were rounded up and imprisoned in Studebaker trucks and sent to Siberia.[171][172]

  • Many times, resistance was met with slaughter, and in one such instance, in the aul of Khaibakh, about 700 people were locked in a barn and burned to death. By the next summer, Checheno-Ingushetia was dissolved; a number of Chechen and Ingush placenames were replaced with Russian ones; mosques and graveyards were destroyed, and a massive campaign to burn numerous historical Chechen texts was nearly complete.[173]
  • [174] Throughout the North Caucasus, about 700,000 (according to Dalkhat Ediev, 724297,[175] of which the majority, 412,548, were Chechens, along with 96,327 Ingush, 104,146 Kalmyks, 39,407 Balkars and 71,869 Karachais). Many died on the trip, of exposure in Siberia's extremely harsh environment. The NKVD, supplying the Russian perspective, gives the statistic of 144,704 killed in 1944–1948 alone (with a death rate of 23.5% for all groups). Estimates for Chechen deaths alone (excluding the NKVD statistic), range from about 170,000 to 200,000,[176][177] thus ranging from over a third of the total Chechen population to nearly half being killed (of those that were deported, not counting those killed on the spot) in those 4 years alone. Both the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and the European Union Parliament marked it as genocide in 2004.[178]
Deportations of Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians[edit]

The mass deportations of up to 17,500 Lithuanians, 17,000 Latvians and 6,000 Estonians carried out by Stalin were allegedly the start of another genocide. Added to the killing of the Forest Brethren and the renewed Dekulakization that followed the Soviet reconquest of the Baltic states at the end of World War Two, the total number deported to Siberia was 118,559 from Lithuania, 52,541 from Latvia, and 32,540 from Estonia.[179] The high death rate of deportees during the first few years of exile, caused by the failure of Soviet authorities to provide suitable clothing and housing at the destination, led some sources to label the affair an act of genocide.[180] Based on the Martens Clause and the principles of the Nuremberg Charter, the European Court of Human Rights held that the March deportation constituted a crime against humanity.[181][182] According to Erwin Oberlander, these deportations are a crime against humanity, rather than genocide.[183]

Lithuania began trials for genocide in 1997. Latvia and Estonia followed in 1998.[184] Latvia has since convicted four security officers and in 2003 sentenced a former KGB agent to five years. Estonia tried and convicted ten men and is investigating others. In Lithuania by 2004 23 cases were before the courts, but as of the end of the year none had been convicted.[185]

In 2007 Estonia charged Arnold Meri (then 88 years old), a former Soviet Communist Party official and highly decorated former Red Army soldier, with genocide. Shortly after the trial opened, it was suspended because of Meri's frail health and then abandoned when he died.[186][187] A memorial in Vilnius, Lithuania, is dedicated to genocidal victims of Stalin and Hitler,[188] and the Museum of Genocide Victims in Lithuania, which opened on 14 October 1992 in the former KGB headquarters, chronicles the imprisonment and deportation of Lithuanians.[189]

Japan[edit]

During the Nanking Massacre in the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese engaged in mass killings against the Chinese. Bradley Campbell described the Nanking Massacre as a genocide, because the Chinese were unilaterally killed by the Japanese en masse during the aftermath, despite the successful and certain outcome of their battle.[190]

Germany and Nazi-occupied Europe[edit]

Major deportation routes to the extermination camps in Europe.
Holocaust[edit]
Year Jews killed[191]
1933–1940 under 100,000
1941 1,100,000
1942 2,700,000
1943 500,000
1944 600,000
1945 100,000

The Nazi Holocaust is universally recognized as genocide. The term appeared in the indictment of 24 German leaders. Count three of the indictment stated that all the defendants had "conducted deliberate and systematic genocide – namely, the extermination of racial and national groups…"[192]

The term "the Holocaust" (from the Greek hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt") is generally used to describe the killing of approximately six million European Jews, as part of a program of deliberate extermination planned and executed by the National Socialist German Workers Party in Germany led by Adolf Hitler.[193][194] A majority of scholars do not include other groups in the definition of the Holocaust, reserving the term to refer only to the genocide of the Jews,[195]

  • The Holocaust: Definition and Preliminary Discussion, Yad Vashem, The Holocaust, as presented in this resource center, is defined as the sum total of all anti-Jewish actions carried out by the German regime between 1933 and 1945: from stripping the German Jews of their legal and economic status in the 1930s, to segregating and starving Jews in the various occupied countries, to the murder of close to six million Jews in Europe. The Holocaust is part of a broader aggregate of acts of oppression and murder of various ethnic and political groups in Europe by the Germans. 
  • [193][196][197][198][199] or what the Germans called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question."

The Holocaust was accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave laborers until they died. Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings.[200] Jews and Romani were crammed into ghettos before being transported in box cars by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority were killed in gas chambers. Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal nation."[201]

Men are forced to dig their own graves before being shot by SS troops. Šiauliai, Lithuania, July 1941
The following figures from Lucy Dawidowicz show the annihilation of the Jewish population of Europe by (pre-war) country:[202]
Country Estimated
Pre-War
Jewish
population
Estimated
killed
Percent
killed
Poland 3,300,000 3,000,000 90
Baltic countries 253,000 228,000 90
Germany and Austria 240,000 210,000 90
Bohemia and Moravia 90,000 80,000 89
Slovakia 90,000 75,000 83
Greece 70,000 54,000 77
Netherlands 140,000 105,000 75
Hungary 650,000 450,000 70
Byelorussian SSR 375,000 245,000 65
Ukrainian SSR 1,500,000 900,000 60
Belgium 65,000 40,000 60
Yugoslavia 43,000 26,000 60
Romania 600,000 300,000 50
Norway 2,173 890 41
France 350,000 90,000 26
Bulgaria 64,000 14,000 22
Italy 40,000 8,000 20
Luxembourg 5,000 1,000 20
Russian SFSR 975,000 107,000 11
Denmark 8,000 52 <1
Total 8,861,800 5,933,900 67
Extermination Camp Estimate of
number killed
Ref
Auschwitz-Birkenau 1,000,000 [203][204]
Treblinka 870,000 [205]
Belzec 600,000 [206]
Majdanek 79,000–235,000 [207][208]
Chełmno 320,000 [209]
Sobibór 250,000 [210]

This gives a total of over 3.8 million; of these, 80–90% were estimated to be Jews. These seven camps thus accounted for half the total number of Jews killed in the entire Nazi Holocaust. Virtually the entire Jewish population of Poland died in these camps.[202]

Since 1945, the most commonly cited figure for the total number of Jews killed has been six million. The Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, writes that there is no precise figure for the number of Jews killed,[211] but has been able to find documentation of more than three million names of Jewish victims killed,[212] which it displays at its visitors center. The figure most commonly used is the six million attributed to Adolf Eichmann, a senior SS official.[213]

Members of the Sonderkommando burn corpses in the fire pits at Auschwitz II-Birkenau.[214]

There were about eight to ten million Jews in the territories controlled directly or indirectly by Germany (the uncertainty arises from the lack of knowledge about how many Jews there were in the Soviet Union). The six million killed in the Holocaust thus represent 60 to 75 percent of these Jews. Of Poland's 3.3 million Jews, about 90 percent were killed.[215] The same proportion were killed in Latvia and Lithuania, but most of Estonia's Jews were evacuated in time. Of the 750,000 Jews in Germany and Austria in 1933, only about a quarter survived. Although many German Jews emigrated before 1939, the majority of these fled to Czechoslovakia, France or the Netherlands, from where they were later deported to their deaths.

In Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, and Yugoslavia, over 70 percent were killed. 50 to 70 percent were killed in Romania, Belgium and Hungary. It is likely that a similar proportion were killed in Belarus and Ukraine, but these figures are less certain. Countries with notably lower proportions of deaths include Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Italy, and Norway. Albania was the only country occupied by Germany that had a significantly larger Jewish population in 1945 than in 1939. About two hundred native Jews and over a thousand refugees were provided with false documents, hidden when necessary, and generally treated as honored guests in a country whose population was roughly 60% Muslim.[216] Additionally, Japan, as an Axis member, had its own unique response to German policies regarding Jews; see Shanghai Ghetto.

In addition to those who died in extermination camps, at least half a million Jews died in other camps, including the major concentration camps in Germany. These were not extermination camps, but had large numbers of Jewish prisoners at various times, particularly in the last year of the war as the Nazis withdrew from Poland. About a million people died in these camps, and although the proportion of Jews is not known with certainty, it was estimated to be at least 50 percent.[citation needed] Another 800,000 to one million Jews were killed by the Einsatzgruppen in the occupied Soviet territories (an approximate figure, since the Einsatzgruppen killings were frequently undocumented).[217] Many more died through execution or of disease and malnutrition in the ghettos of Poland before they could be deported.

Jewish Holocaust death toll as a percentage of the total pre-war Jewish population

In the 1990s, the opening of government archives in Eastern Europe resulted in the adjustment of the death tolls published in the pioneering work by Hilberg, Dawidowicz and Gilbert (e.g. compare Gilbert's estimation of two million deaths in Auschwitz-Birkenau with the updated figure of one million in the Extermination Camp data box). As pointed out above, Wolfgang Benz has been carrying out work on the more recent data. He concluded in 1999:

The goal of annihilating all of the Jews of Europe, as it was proclaimed at the conference in the villa Am Grossen Wannsee in January 1942, was not reached. Yet the six million murder victims make the holocaust a unique crime in the history of mankind. The number of victims—and with certainty the following represent the minimum number in each case—cannot express that adequately. Numbers are just too abstract. However they must be stated in order to make clear the dimension of the genocide: 165,000 Jews from Germany, 65,000 from Austria, 32,000 from France and Belgium, more than 100,000 from the Netherlands, 60,000 from Greece, the same number from Yugoslavia, more than 140,000 from Czechoslovakia, half a million from Hungary, 2.2 million from the Soviet Union, and 2.7 million from Poland. To these numbers must be added all those killed in the pogroms and massacres in Romania and Transitrien (over 200,000) and the deported and murdered Jews from Albania and Norway, Denmark and Italy, from Luxembourg and Bulgaria.

—Benz, Wolfgang The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide[218]
Non-Jewish victims[edit]
Victims Killed Source
Jews 5.93 million [202]
Soviet POWs 2–3 million [219]
Ethnic Poles 1.8–2 million [220][221]
Disabled 270,000 [222]
Romani 90,000–220,000 [223][224]
Freemasons 80,000–200,000 [225][226]
Slovenes 20,000–25,000 [227]
Homosexuals 5,000–15,000 [228]
Jehovah's
Witnesses
2,500–5,000 [229]
Spanish Republicans 7000 [230]

Some scholars broaden the definition to include other German killing policies during the war, including the mistreatment of Soviet POWs, crimes against ethnic Poles, euthanasia of mentally and physically disabled Germans, persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses, the killing of Romani, and other crimes committed against ethnic and political minorities.[231] Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is 11 million people. Donald Niewyk suggests that the broadest definition, including Soviet deaths due to war-related famine and disease, would produce a death toll of 17 million. Overall, about 5.7 million (78 percent) of the 7.3 million Jews in occupied Europe perished.[232] This was in contrast to the five to 11 million (1.4 percent to 3.0 percent) of the 360 million non-Jews in German-dominated Europe.[233][234]

Soviet Civilians[edit]
Men hanged as partisans somewhere in the Soviet Union.

In 1995 a paper published by M. V. Philimoshin at the Russian Academy of Science put the civilian death toll in the regions occupied by Germany at 13.7 million. Philimoshin cited sources from the Soviet era to support his figures, he used the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to the deaths of 7.4 million civilians in the occupied USSR caused by the direct, intentional actions of violence. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war account for a major part of the huge toll. The report of Philimoshin lists the deaths of civilian forced laborers in Germany totaling 2,164,313. G. I. Krivosheev in the report on military casualties gives a total of 1,103,300 dead POWs. The total of these two figures is 3,267,613, which is in close agreement with estimates by western historians of about 3 million deaths of prisoners in German captivity. In the occupied regions Nazi Germany had a policy of forced confiscation of food that resulted in the famine deaths of an estimated 6% of the population, 4.1 million persons.[235]

Soviet civilian war dead estimated by Russian Academy of Science[236][237][238]
Deaths caused by the result of direct, intentional actions of violence 7,420,379[239]
Deaths of forced laborers in Germany 2,164,313[239]
Deaths due to famine and disease in the occupied regions 4,100,000[240]
Total 13,684,692
Croatia[edit]

After the Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia, the Nazis and fascists established the Croatian state known as the Nezavisna Država Hrvatska (Independent State of Croatia) or NDH. Immediately afterwards, the NDH began a terror campaign against Serbs, Jews and Romani people. From 1941 to 1945, when Josip Broz Tito's partisans liberated Croatia, the Ustaše regime killed approximately 300,000 to 350,000 people,[241] mostly Serbs and almost the entire Jewish and Romani population, many of them in the Jasenovac concentration camp. Helen Fein estimated that the Ustaše killed virtually every Romani in the country.[242] The Ustaše enacted a policy that called for a solution to the "Serbian problem" in Croatia. The solution was to "kill one-third of the Serbs, expel one-third, and convert one-third".[243] According to the United States Holocaust Museum, 320,000–340,000 ethnic Serbs were murdered under Ustaše rule.[244] The Yad Vashem World Holocaust Museum and Research Center concludes that "more than 500,000 Serbs were murdered in horribly sadistic ways, 250,000 were expelled, and another 200,000 were forced to convert".[245] The Ustaše killed nearly 80,000 Roma and 35,000 Jews.

Some historians consider the crimes of the Chetniks in Bosnia against non-Serbs to constitute genocide.[246][247]

Volhynia and Eastern Galicia[edit]
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia in 1943. Most Poles of Volhynia (now in Ukraine) had either been murdered or had fled the area

The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) West in the Nazi-occupied regions of Eastern Galicia (Nazi created Distrikt Galizien in General Government), and UPA North in Volhynia (in Nazi created Reichskommissariat Ukraine), from March 1943 until the end of 1944. The peak took place in July/August 1943 when a senior UPA commander, Dmytro Klyachkivsky, ordered the liquidation of the entire male Polish population between 16 and 60 years of age.[248][249] Despite this, most were women and children. The UPA killed 40,000–60,000 Polish civilians in Volhynia,[250] from 25,000[251] to 30,000–40,000 in Eastern Galicia.[250] The killings were directly linked with the policies of the Bandera fraction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, whose goal, specified at the Second Conference of the OUN-B, was to remove non-Ukrainians from a future Ukrainian state.[252]

The massacres are recognized in Poland as ethnic cleansing with "marks of genocide."[253] According to IPN prosecutor Piotr Zając, the crimes have a "character of genocide".[254] However, according to Katchanovski, the actions in Volhynia lacked evidence of an intent to eliminate all or part of the Polish population, and the anti-Polish action was mostly limited to a small region.

Romani people[edit]
Main article: Porajmos
Map of persecution of the Roma

The treatment of the Romani was not consistent in the different areas that Nazi Germany conquered. In some areas (e.g. Luxembourg and the Baltic countries), the Nazis killed virtually the entire Romani population. In other areas (e.g. Denmark, Greece), there is no record of Romanis being subjected to mass killings.[255]

Donald Niewyk and Frances Nicosia write that the death toll was at least 130,000 of the nearly one million Romani in Nazi-controlled Europe.[256] Michael Berenbaum writes that serious scholarly estimates lie between 90,000 and 220,000.[257] A study by Sybil Milton, senior historian at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, calculated a death toll of at least 220,000 and possibly closer to 500,000, but this study explicitly excluded the Independent State of Croatia where the genocide of Romanies was intense.[223][258] Martin Gilbert estimates a total of more than 220,000 of the 700,000 Romani in Europe.[259] Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, has argued in favour of a much higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000, claiming the Romani toll proportionally equaled or exceeded that of Jewish victims.[224][260]

Disabled and mentally ill[edit]

Our starting-point is not the individual, and we do not subscribe to the view that one should feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty or clothe the naked—those are not our objectives. Our objectives are entirely different. They can be put most crisply in the sentence: we must have a healthy people in order to prevail in the world.

Between 1939 and 1941, 80,000 to 100,000 mentally ill adults in institutions were killed; 5,000 children in institutions; and 1,000 Jews in institutions.[262] Outside the mental health institutions, the figures are estimated as 20,000 (according to Dr. Georg Renno, the deputy director of Schloss Hartheim, one of the euthanasia centers) or 400,000 (according to Frank Zeireis, the commandant of Mauthausen concentration camp).[262] Another 300,000 were forcibly sterilized.[263] Overall it has been estimated that over 270,000 individuals[222] with mental disorders of all kinds were put to death, although their mass murder has received relatively little historical attention. Along with the physically disabled, people suffering from dwarfism were persecuted as well. Many were put on display in cages and experimented on by the Nazis.[264] Despite not being formally ordered to take part, psychiatrists and psychiatric institutions were at the center of justifying, planning and carrying out the atrocities at every stage, and "constituted the connection" to the later annihilation of Jews and other "undesirables" in the Holocaust.[265] After strong protests by the German Catholic and Protestant churches on 24 August 1941 Hitler ordered the cancellation of the T4 program.[266]

The program was named after Tiergartenstraße 4, the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, the headquarters of the General Foundation for Welfare and Institutional Care,[267] led by Philipp Bouhler, head of Hitler's private chancellery (Kanzlei des Führer der NSDAP) and Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician.

Brandt was tried in December 1946 at Nuremberg, along with 22 others, in a case known as United States of America vs. Karl Brandt et al., also known as the Doctors' Trial. He was hanged at Landsberg Prison on 2 June 1948.

Expulsion of Germans[edit]

After WWII ended at least 12 million[268][269][270] Germans migrated from other countries to Germany, the largest transfer of a single ethnic population in modern history.[268][269] Estimates of the total number of dead range from 500,000 to 2,000,000, where the higher figures include "unsolved cases" of persons reported as missing and presumed dead. Many German civilians were sent to internment and labor camps. Rummel estimated that 1,585,000 Germans were killed in Poland and 197,000 were killed in Czechoslovakia.[271] The German-Czech Historians Commission, on the other hand, established a death toll for Czechoslovakia of 15-30,000.[272] The events are usually classified as population transfer,[273][274] or as ethnic cleansing.[275][276][277][278] Felix Ermacora, among a minority of legal scholars, equated ethnic cleansing with genocide,[279][280] and stated that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans therefore constituted genocide.[281]

Dominican Republic[edit]

In 1937, Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo ordered the execution of Haitians living in the Dominican Republic. The Parsley Massacre, known in the Dominican Republic as "El Corte" (the Cutting), lasted approximately five days. Trujillo had his soldiers show parsley to suspected Haitians and ask, "What is this?" Spanish-speaking Dominicans would be able to pronounce the Spanish word for parsley ("perejil") perfectly. In Haitian Creole, the word for parsley is "persil". Those who mispronounced "perejil" were assumed to be Haitian and slaughtered. The program resulted in the deaths of 20,000 to 30,000 people.[282]

Republic of China and Tibet[edit]

The Kuomintang's Republic of China government supported Muslim warlord Ma Bufang when he launched seven expeditions into Golog, causing the deaths of thousands of Tibetans.[283] Uradyn Erden Bulag called the events that followed genocidal, while David Goodman called them ethnic cleansing. One Tibetan counted the number of times Ma attacked him, remembering the seventh attack that made life impossible.[284] Ma was anti-communist and he and his army wiped out many Tibetans in northeast and eastern Qinghai and destroyed Tibetan Buddhist Temples.[285][286] Ma also patronized the Panchen Lama, who was exiled from Tibet by the Dalai Lama's government.

1951 to 2000[edit]

The CPPCG was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951 (Resolution 260 (III)). After the necessary 20 countries became parties to the Convention, it came into force as international law on 12 January 1951. At that time however, only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the treaty, which caused the Convention to languish for over four decades.

Australia 1900–1969[edit]

Sir Ronald Wilson was once the president of Australia's Human Rights Commission. He stated that Australia's program in which 20-25,000 Aboriginal children were forcibly separated from their natural families[287] was genocide, because it was intended to cause the Aboriginal people to die out. The program ran from 1900 to 1969.[288] The nature and extent of the removals have been disputed within Australia, with opponents questioning the findings contained in the Commission report and asserting that the size of the Stolen Generation had been exaggerated. The intent and effects of the government policy were also disputed.[287]

Zanzibar[edit]

In 1964, towards the end of the Zanzibar Revolution—which led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries—John Okello claimed in radio speeches to have killed or imprisoned tens of thousands of the Sultan's "enemies and stooges,"[289] but estimates of the number of deaths vary greatly, from "hundreds" to 20,000. The New York Times and other Western newspapers gave figures of 2-4,000;[290][291] the higher numbers possibly were inflated by Okello's own broadcasts and exaggerated media reports.[289][292][293] The killing of Arab prisoners and their burial in mass graves was documented by an Italian film crew, filming from a helicopter, in Africa Addio.[294] Many Arabs fled to safety in Oman[292] and by Okello's order no Europeans were harmed.[295] The violence did not spread to Pemba.[293] Leo Kuper described the killing of Arabs in Zanzibar as genocide.[296]

Guatemala 1966–1996[edit]

Main article: Guatemalan civil war

During the Guatemalan civil war, some 200,000 died. More than one million fled their homes and hundreds of villages were destroyed. The officially chartered Historical Clarification Commission attributed more than 93% of all documented human rights violations to Guatemala's military government; and estimated that Maya Indians accounted for 83% of the victims. It concluded in 1999 that state actions constituted genocide.[297]

In 1999, Nobel peace prize winner Rigoberta Menchú brought a case against the military leadership in a Spanish Court. Six officials, among them Efraín Ríos Montt and Óscar Humberto Mejía Victores, were formally charged on 7 July 2006 to appear in the Spanish National Court after Spain's Constitutional Court ruled in 2005 that Spanish courts could exercise universal jurisdiction over war crimes committed during the Guatemalan Civil War.[298] In May 2013, Rios Montt was found guilty of genocide for killing 1,700 indigenous Ixil Mayans during 1982–83 by a Guatemalan court and sentenced to 80 years in prison.[299] However, on May 20, 2013, the Constitutional Court of Guatemala overturned the conviction, voiding all proceedings back to April 19 and ordering that the trial be "reset" to that point, pending a dispute over the recusal of judges.[300][301] Officials have said that Ríos Montt's trial will resume in January 2015.[302]

Pakistan (Bangladesh War of 1971)[edit]

An academic consensus holds that the events that took place during the Bangladesh Liberation War constituted genocide.[303] During the nine-month long conflict an estimated 300,000 to 3 million people were killed and that Pakistani armed forces raped between 200-400,000 Bangladeshi women and girls in an act of genocidal rape.[304]

According to Sarmila Bose, 50-100,000 combatants and civilians were killed by both sides.[305][unreliable source?] Bose's work and methodology were heavily critiqued.[306] A 2008 study estimated that up to 269,000 civilians died in the conflict; the authors noted that this is far higher than two earlier estimates.[307] According to Serajur Rahman, the official Bangladeshi estimate of "3 lahks" (300,000) was wrongly translated into English as 3 million.[308][unreliable source?]

A case was filed in the Federal Court of Australia on 20 September 2006 for alleged war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators:[309]

On 21 May 2007, at the request of the applicant the case was discontinued.[310]

Burundi 1972 and 1993[edit]

Main article: Burundi genocide

After Burundi's independence in 1962, two events were called genocide. The 1972 mass-killings of Hutu by the Tutsi army[311] and the 1993 killing of Tutsi by the Hutu population that is recognised as an act of genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 2002.[312]

North Korea[edit]

Several million in North Korea have died of starvation since the mid-1990s, with aid groups and human rights NGOs stating often that North Korea has systematically and deliberately prevented food aid from reaching the areas most devastated by food shortages.[313] A further one million have died in North Korea's political prison camps that detain dissidents and their entire families, including children, for perceived political offences.[314]

In 2004, Yad Vashem called on the international community to investigate "political genocide" in North Korea.[314]

In September 2011, a Harvard International Review article argued that North Korea was violating the UN Genocide Convention by its systematic killing of half-Chinese babies and members of religious groups.[315] North Korea's Christian population, which included 25–30% of the inhabitants of Pyongyang and was considered to be the center of Christianity in East Asia in 1945, has been systematically massacred and persecuted; as of 2012 50,000–70,000 Christians were imprisoned in North Korea’s concentration camps.[316]

Equatorial Guinea[edit]

Francisco Macías Nguema was the first President of Equatorial Guinea, from 1968 until his overthrow in 1979.[317] During his presidency, his country was nicknamed "the Auschwitz of Africa". Nguema's regime was characterized by its abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; he acted as chief judge and sentenced thousands to death. This led to the death or exile of up to 1/3 of the country's population. From a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 had been killed, in particular those of the Bubi ethnic minority on Bioko associated with relative wealth and education.[318] Uneasy around educated people, he had killed everyone who wore spectacles. All schools were ordered closed in 1975. The economy collapsed and skilled citizens and foreigners emigrated.[319]

On August 3, 1979, he was overthrown by Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo.[320] Macías Nguema was captured and tried for genocide and other crimes along with 10 others. All were found guilty, four received terms of imprisonment and Nguema and the other six were executed on September 29.[321]

John B. Quigley noted at Macías Nguema's trial that Equatorial Guinea had not ratified the Genocide convention and that records of the court proceedings show that there was some confusion over whether Nguema and his co-defendants were tried under the laws of Spain (the former colonial government) or whether the trial was justified on the claim that the Genocide Convention was part of customary international law. Quigley stated, "The Macias case stands out as the most confusing of domestic genocide prosecutions from the standpoint of the applicable law. The Macias conviction is also problematic from the standpoint of the identity of the protected group."[322]

Indonesia[edit]

East Timor[edit]

East Timor was occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999 as an annexed territory with provincial status. A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a lower range of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 excess deaths from hunger and illness, including the Indonesian military using "starvation as a weapon to exterminate the East Timorese",[323] most of which occurred during the Indonesian occupation.[324][325] Earlier estimates of deaths during the occupation ranged from 60,000 to 200,000.[326]

According to Sian Powell a UN report confirmed that the Indonesian military used starvation as a weapon and employed Napalm and chemical weapons, which poisoned the food and water supply.[325] Ben Kiernan wrote:

the crimes committed ... in East Timor, with a toll of 150,000 in a population of 650,000, clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide ...[with] both political and ethnic groups as possible victims of genocide. The victims in East Timor included not only that substantial 'part' of the Timorese 'national group' targeted for destruction because of their resistance to Indonesian annexation...but also most members of the twenty-thousand strong ethnic Chinese minority.[327]

West New Guinea/West Papua[edit]

An estimated 100,000+ Papuans have died since Indonesia took control of West New Guinea from the Dutch Government in 1963.[328] An academic report alleged that "contemporary evidence set out [in this report] suggests that the Indonesian government has committed proscribed acts with the intent to destroy the West Papuans as such, in violation of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and the customary international law prohibition this Convention embodies".[329]

Laos[edit]

The communist Pathet Lao overthrew the royalist government of Laos in December 1975, establishing the Lao People's Democratic Republic.[330] The conflict between Hmong rebels and the Pathet Lao continued in isolated pockets. The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization accused the government of Laos in collaboration with Vietnam of committing genocide against the Hmong,[331] with up to 100,000 killed out of a population of 400,000.[332] [333]

Argentina[edit]

Commemoration in Argentina

In September 2006, Miguel Osvaldo Etchecolatz, who had been the police commissioner of the province of Buenos Aires during the Dirty War (1976–1983), was found guilty of six counts of murder, six counts of unlawful imprisonment and seven counts of torture in a federal court. The judge who presided over the case, Carlos Rozanski, described the offences as part of a systematic attack that was intended to destroy parts of society that the victims represented and as such was genocide. Rozanski noted that CPPCG does not include the elimination of political groups (because that group was removed at the behest of Stalin), but instead based his findings on 11 December 1946 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 96 barring acts of genocide "when racial, religious, political and other groups have been destroyed, entirely or in part" (which passed unanimously), because he considered the original UN definition to be more legitimate than the politically compromised CPPCG definition.[334]

Ethiopia[edit]

Ethiopia's former Soviet-backed Marxist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam was tried in an Ethiopian court, in absentia, for his role in mass killings. Mengistu's charge sheet and evidence list covered 8,000 pages. The evidence against him included signed execution orders, videos of torture sessions and personal testimonies.[335] The trial began in 1994 and on 12 December 2006 Mengistu was found guilty of genocide and other offences. He was sentenced to life in prison in January 2007.[336][337] Ethiopian law includes attempts to annihilate political groups in its definition of genocide.[338] 106 Derg officials were accused of genocide during the trials, but only 36 of them were present. Several former Derg members have been sentenced to death.[339] Zimbabwe refused to respond to Ethiopia's extradition request for Mengistu, which permitted him to avoid a life sentence. Mengistu supported Robert Mugabe, the long-standing President of Zimbabwe, during his leadership of Ethiopia.[340]

Michael Clough, a US attorney and longtime Ethiopia observer told Voice of America in a statement released on December 13, 2006,[341]

“The biggest problem with prosecuting Mengistu for genocide is that his actions did not necessarily target a particular group. They were directed against anybody who was opposing his government, and they were generally much more political than based on any ethnic targeting. In contrast, the irony is the Ethiopian government itself has been accused of genocide based on atrocities committed in Gambella. I’m not sure that they qualify as genocide either. But in Gambella, the incidents, which were well documented in a human rights report of about 2 years ago, were clearly directed at a particular group, the tribal group, the Anuak.”

An estimated 150,000 university students, intellectuals and politicians were killed during Mengistu's rule.[342] Amnesty International estimates that up to 500,000 people were killed during the Ethiopian Red Terror[343] Human Rights Watch described the Red Terror as "one of the most systematic uses of mass murder by a state ever witnessed in Africa."[335] During his reign it was not uncommon to see students, suspected government critics or rebel sympathisers hanging from lampposts. Mengistu himself is alleged to have murdered opponents by garroting or shooting them, saying that he was leading by example.[344]

Iraq[edit]

Dead Iraqi Kurds of Halabja in 1988

On December 23, 2005 a Dutch court ruled in a case brought against Frans van Anraat for supplying chemicals to Iraq, that "[it] thinks and considers it legally and convincingly proven that the Kurdish population meets the requirement under the genocide conventions as an ethnic group. The court has no other conclusion than that these attacks were committed with the intent to destroy the Kurdish population of Iraq." Because van Anraat supplied the chemicals before 16 March 1988, the date of the Halabja poison gas attack he was guilty of a war crime but not guilty of complicity in genocide.[345][346]

Tibet[edit]

On 5 June 1959 Shri Purshottam Trikamdas, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India, presented a report on Tibet to the International Commission of Jurists (an NGO). The press conference address on the report states in paragraph 26:

The report of the International Commission of Jurists (1960) claimed that there was 'only' "cultural" genocide. ICJ Report (1960) page 346: "The committee found that acts of genocide had been committed in Tibet in an attempt to destroy the Tibetans as a religious group, and that such acts are acts of genocide independently of any conventional obligation. The committee did not find that there was sufficient proof of the destruction of Tibetans as a race, nation or ethnic group as such by methods that can be regarded as genocide in international law".

However cultural genocide is also contested by academics such as Barry Sautman.[348] Tibetan is the everyday language of the Tibetan people.[349]

The Central Tibetan Administration and other Tibetan in exile media claimed that approximately 1.2 million Tibetans have died of starvation, violence, or other indirect causes since 1950.[350] White states "In all, over one million Tibetans, a fifth of the population, had died as a result of Chinese occupation up until the end of the Cultural Revolution."[351] This figure has been denied by Patrick French, the former Director of the Free Tibet Campaign in London.[352]

Jones argued that the struggle sessions after the 1959 Tibetan uprising may be considered genocide, based on the claim that the conflict resulted in 92,000 deaths.[353] However, according to tibetologist Tom Grunfeld, "the veracity of such a claim is difficult to verify."[354]

In 2013 Spain's top criminal court decided to hear a case brought by Tibetan rights activists who allege that China's former President Hu Jintao committed genocide in Tibet.[355] Spain's High Court dropped this case in June 2014.[356]

Brazil[edit]

The Helmet Massacre of the Tikuna people took place in 1988 and was initially treated as homicide. During the massacre four people died, nineteen were wounded, and ten disappeared. Since 1994 the episode has been treated by Brazilian courts as genocide. Thirteen men were convicted of genocide in 2001. In November 2004, after an appeal was filed before Brazil's federal court, the man initially found guilty of hiring men to carry out the genocide was acquitted, and the killers had their initial sentences of 15–25 years reduced to 12 years.[357]

In November 2005 during an investigation code-named Operation Rio Pardo, Mario Lucio Avelar, a Brazilian public prosecutor in Cuiabá, told Survival International that he believed that there were sufficient grounds to prosecute for genocide of the Rio Pardo Indians. In November 2006 twenty-nine people were arrested with others implicated, such as a former police commander and the governor of Mato Grosso state.[358]

In 2006 the [Brazilian] Supreme Federal Court (STF) unanimously reaffirmed that the crime known as the Haximu Massacre [perpetrated on the Yanomami Indians in 1993][359] was a genocide and that the decision of a federal court to sentence miners to 19 years in prison for genocide in connection with other offenses, such as smuggling and illegal mining, was valid.[359][360]

Democratic Republic of Congo[edit]

During the Congo Civil War (1998–2003), Pygmies were hunted down and eaten by both sides in the conflict, who regarded them as subhuman.[361] Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti pygmies, asked the UN Security Council to recognize cannibalism as a crime against humanity and also as an act of genocide.[362] Minority Rights Group International reported evidence of mass killings, cannibalism and rape. The report, which labeled these events as a campaign of extermination, linked the violence to beliefs about special powers held by the Bambuti.[363] In Ituri district, rebel forces ran an operation code-named "Effacer le tableau" (to wipe the slate clean). The aim of the operation, according to witnesses, was to rid the forest of pygmies.[364]

Hutu[edit]

In 2010 a report accused Rwanda's Tutsi-led army of committing genocide against ethnic Hutus. The report accused the Rwandan Army and allied Congolese rebels of killing tens of thousands of ethnic Hutu refugees from Rwanda and locals in systematic attacks between 1996 and 1997. The government of Rwanda rejected the accusation.[365]

Somalia[edit]

In 2007 attacks on Somalia's Bantu population and Jubba Valley dwellers from 1991 onwards were reported, noting that "Somalia is a rare case in which genocidal acts were carried out by militias in the utter absence of a governing state structure."|[366]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Bodies of Female minors killed in an Sri Lankan air raid on an orphanage

The Sri Lankan military were accused of human rights violations during Sri Lanka's 26-year civil war.[367] A United Nation's Panel of Experts looking into these alleged violations found "credible allegations, which if proven, indicate that serious violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law were committed both by the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE, some of which would amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity".[368] Some activists and politicians also accused the Sri Lankan government of carrying out genocide against the minority Sri Lankan Tamil people during and after the war.

Bruce Fein alleged that Sri Lanka's leaders committed genocide,[369] along with Tamil Parliamentarian Suresh Premachandran.[370] Refugees escaping Sri Lanka also stated that they fled from genocide,[371] and various Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora groups echoed these accusations.[372]

In 2009 thousands of Tamils protested in cities all over the world against the atrocities.[373] Various diaspora activists formed a group called Tamils Against Genocide to continue the protest.[374] Legal action against Sri Lankan leaders for alleged genocide has been initiated. Norwegian human rights lawyer Harald Stabell filed a case in Norwegian courts against Sri Lankan President Rajapaksa and others officials.[375]

Politicians in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu also made genocide accusations.[376] In 2008 and 2009 the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu M. Karunanidhi repeatedly appealed to the Indian government to intervene to "stop the genocide of Tamils",[377] while his successor J. Jayalalithaa called on the Indian government to bring Rajapaksa before international courts for genocide.[378] The women's wing of the Communist Party of India, passed a resolution in August 2012 finding that "Systematic sexual violence against Tamil women" by Sri Lankan forces constituted genocide, calling for an "independent international investigation".[379]

In January 2010 a Permanent Peoples' Tribunal (PPT) held in Dublin, Ireland found Sri Lanka guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity, but found insufficient evidence to justify the charge of genocide.[380][381] The tribunal requested a thorough investigation as some of the evidence indicated "possible acts of genocide".[380] Its panel found Sri Lanka guilty of genocide at its December 7–10, 2013 hearings in Berman, Germany. It also found that the US and UK were guilty of complicity. A decision on whether India, and other states, had also acted in complicity was withheld. PPT reported that LTTE could not be accurately characterized as "terrorist", stating that movements classified as “terrorist” because of their rebellion against a state, can become political entities recognized by the international community.[382][383] The International Commission of Jurists stated that the camps used to intern nearly 300,000 Tamils after the war's end may have breached the convention against genocide.[384]

The Sri Lankan government denied the allegations of genocide and war crimes.[385]

Srebrenica[edit]

Main article: Srebrenica genocide

In July 1995 Serbian forces killed more than 8,000[386][387] Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War. The killing was perpetrated by units of the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) under the command of General Ratko Mladić. The Secretary-General of the United Nations described the mass murder as the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War.[388][389] A paramilitary unit from Serbia known as the Scorpions, officially part of the Serbian Interior Ministry until 1991, participated in the massacre,[390][391] along with several hundred Russian and Greek volunteers.[392]

International prosecution[edit]

Ad hoc tribunals[edit]

In 1951 only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the CPPCG: France and the Republic of China. The CPPCG was ratified by the Soviet Union in 1954, the United Kingdom in 1970, the People's Republic of China in 1983 (having replaced the Taiwan-based Republic of China on the UNSC in 1971), and the United States in 1988. In the 1990s the international law on the crime of genocide began to be enforced.

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Male mourners at the reburial ceremony for an exhumed victim of the Srebrenica massacre.

In 2001 the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) delivered its first conviction for the crime of genocide, against General Krstić for his role in the 1994 Srebrenica Genocide.[393] This judgement was upheld by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in its February 2007 ruling in the case of Bosnia vs Serbia. However, contrary to the claim made by Bosnia, the ICJ did not find that genocide had been committed on the wider territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war, limiting the charge to Srebrenica and Žepa. The ICJ also ruled that Serbia was not responsible for the genocide nor for "aiding and abetting it", although it ruled that Serbia could have done more to prevent the genocide and that Serbia failed to punish the perpetrators.[394] Before this ruling the term Bosnian Genocide had been used by some academics[395] and human rights officials.[396]

In 2010, Vujadin Popović, Lieutenant Colonel and the Chief of Security of the Drina Corps of the Bosnian Serb Army, and Ljubiša Beara, Colonel and Chief of Security of the same army, were convicted of genocide, extermination, murder and persecution by the ICTY for their role in the Srebrenice massacre and sentenced to a life in prison.[397]

German courts handed down convictions for genocide during the Bosnian War. Novislav Djajic was indicted for participation in genocide, but the Higher Regional Court failed to find that there was sufficient certainty for a criminal conviction for genocide. Nevertheless Djajic was found guilty of 14 cases of murder and one case of attempted murder.[398] At Djajic's appeal on 23 May 1997, the Bavarian Appeals Chamber found that acts of genocide were committed in June 1992, confined within the administrative district of Foca.[399] The Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) of Düsseldorf, in September 1997, handed down a genocide conviction against Nikola Jorgic, a Bosnian Serb from the Doboj region who was the leader of a paramilitary group located in the Doboj region. He was sentenced to four terms of life imprisonment for his involvement in genocidal actions that took place in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, other than Srebrenica;[400] and "On 29 November 1999, the Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) of Düsseldorf condemned Maksim Sokolovic to 9 years in prison for aiding and abetting the crime of genocide and for grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions".[401]

Rwanda[edit]

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide that occurred there during April and May 1994, commencing on April 6. The ICTR was created on November 8, 1994 by the UN Security Council to resolve claims in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between January 1 and December 31, 1994. Over the course of approximately 100 days from the assassination of President Juvénal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 800,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate.

As of mid-2011, the ICTR had convicted 57 people and acquitted 8. Another ten persons were still on trial while one is awaiting trial. Nine remain at large.[402] The first trial, of Jean-Paul Akayesu, ended in 1998 with his conviction for genocide and crimes against humanity.[403] This was the world's first conviction for genocide, as defined by the 1948 Convention. Jean Kambanda, interim Prime Minister during the genocide, pled guilty.

Cambodia[edit]

Skulls at Choeung Ek memorial in Cambodia

The Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, Ta Mok and other leaders, organized the mass killing of ideologically suspect groups, ethnic minorities such as ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese (or Sino-Khmers), Chams and Thais, former civil servants, former government soldiers, Buddhist monks, secular intellectuals and professionals, and former city dwellers. Khmer Rouge cadres defeated in factional struggles were also liquidated in purges. Man-made famine and slave labor resulted in many hundreds of thousands of deaths.[404] Craig Etcheson suggested that the death toll was between 2 and 2.5 million, with a "most likely" figure of 2.2 million. After 5 years of researching 20,000 grave sites, he concluded that "these mass graves contain the remains of 1,386,734 victims of execution."[405] However, some scholars argued that the Khmer Rouge were not racist and had no intention of exterminating ethnic minorities or the Cambodian people; in this view, their brutality was the product of an extreme version of communist ideology.[406]

On 6 June 2003 the Cambodian government and the United Nations reached an agreement to set up the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) which would focus exclusively on crimes committed by the most senior Khmer Rouge officials during the period of Khmer Rouge rule from 1975 to 1979.[407] The judges were sworn in in early July 2006.[408]

The investigating judges were presented with the names of five possible suspects by the prosecution on 18 July 2007.[408][409]

Khieu Samphan at a public hearing before the Pre-Trial Cambodia Tribunal on 3 July 2009.
  • Kang Kek Iew was formally charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity and detained by the Tribunal on 31 July 2007. He was indicted on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity on 12 August 2008.[410] His appeal was rejected on 3 February 2012, and he continued serving a sentence of life imprisonment.[411]
  • Nuon Chea, a former prime minister, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 19 September 2007. His trial began on 27 June 2011.[412][413]
  • Khieu Samphan, a former head of state, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 19 September 2007. His trial also began on 27 June 2011.[412][413]
  • Ieng Sary, a former foreign minister, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 12 November 2007. His trial began on 27 June 2011.[412][413] He died in March 2013.
  • Ieng Thirith, wife of Ieng Sary and a former minister for social affairs, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. She was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 12 November 2007. Proceedings against her have been suspended pending a health evaluation.[413][414]

Some of the international jurists and the Cambodian government disagreed over whether any other people should be tried by the Tribunal.[409]

International Criminal Court[edit]

The ICC can prosecute only crimes committed on or after 1 July 2002.[415]

Darfur, Sudan[edit]

Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, wanted by the ICC

The on-going racial[416][417] conflict in Darfur, Sudan, which started in 2003, was declared genocide by United States Secretary of State Colin Powell on September 9, 2004 in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.[418] Since that time however, no other permanent member of the UN Security Council has followed suit. In January 2005, an International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by UN Security Council Resolution 1564 of 2004, issued a report to the Secretary-General stating that "the Government of the Sudan has not pursued a policy of genocide."[419] Nevertheless, the Commission cautioned that "The conclusion that no genocidal policy has been pursued and implemented in Darfur by the Government authorities, directly or through the militias under their control, should not be taken in any way as detracting from the gravity of the crimes perpetrated in that region. International offences such as the crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur may be no less serious and heinous than genocide."[419]

In March 2005, the Security Council formally referred the situation in Darfur to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), taking into account the Commission report but without mentioning any specific crimes.[420] Two permanent members of the Security Council, the United States and China, abstained from the vote on the referral resolution.[421] As of his fourth report to the Security Council, the Prosecutor found "reasonable grounds to believe that the individuals identified [in the UN Security Council Resolution 1593] have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes", but did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute for genocide.[422]

In April 2007, the Judges of the ICC issued arrest warrants against the former Minister of State for the Interior, Ahmad Harun, and a Militia Janjaweed leader, Ali Kushayb, for crimes against humanity and war crimes.[423]

On July 14, 2008, ICC prosecutors filed ten charges of war crimes against Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, three counts of genocide, five of crimes against humanity and two of murder. The prosecutors claimed that al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity.[424] On 4 March 2009 the ICC issued a warrant for al-Bashir's arrest for crimes against humanity and war crimes, but not genocide. This is the first warrant issued by the ICC against a sitting head of state.[425]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Note: "ethnical", although unusual, is found in several dictionaries
  2. ^ "Debate continues over what constitutes genocide". Blogwatch. Worldfocus. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  3. ^ M. Hassan Kakar Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982 University of California press © 1995 The Regents of the University of California.
  4. ^ Chalk & Jonassohn 1990.
  5. ^ Robert Gellately & Ben Kiernan (2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 267. ISBN 0-521-52750-3. 
  6. ^ Staub, Ervin. The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-42214-0. 
  7. ^ Rummel 1998, p. Democide versus genocide; which is what?.
  8. ^ Jones 2006, p. 3 footnote 5 cites Helen Fein, Genocide: A Sociological Perspective, (London: Sage, 1993), p. 26
  9. ^ Jones 2006, p. 3.
  10. ^ Chalk & Jonassohn 1990, p. 28.
  11. ^ a b Jones 2006, p. 3, footnote 4.
  12. ^ a b Jones 2006, p. 5.
  13. ^ Diamond, Jared (1992). The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-098403-1. 
  14. ^ a b Jones 2006.
  15. ^ Potter, James M.; Jason P. Chuipka (2010). "Perimortem mutilation of human remains in an early village in the American Southwest: A case for ethnic violence". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29 (4): 507–523. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2010.08.001. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "How genocide wiped out a Native American population". Msnbc.com. September 20, 2010. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. 
  17. ^ Jones 2006, p. 4 note 12.
  18. ^ Paul Kahn (1 January 1998). The Secret History of the Mongols: The Origin of Chinghis Khan (expanded Edition) : an Adaptation of the Yüan Chʼao Pi Shih, Based Primarily on the English Translation by Francis Woodman Cleaves. Cheng & Tsui. ISBN 978-0-88727-299-8. 
  19. ^ The Encyclopedia of Genocide, ABC-CLIO, 1999, page 48, article "Afghanistan, Genocide of"
  20. ^ Totten, Bartrop & Jacobs 2008, p. Genocides in history at Google Books.
  21. ^ a b c Rubinstein 2004, p. Genocides in history at Google Books.
  22. ^ "The Cambridge history of Africa: From the earliest times to c. 500 BC." John D. Fage (1982) Cambridge University Press, p. 748. ISBN 0-521-22803-4
  23. ^ Belgium confronts its colonial demons, the guardian.
  24. ^ [1] In the Heart of Darkness (Adam Hochschild – The New York Review of Books)
  25. ^ Rubinstein, W. D. (2004). Genocide: a history. Pearson Education. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0-582-50601-8
  26. ^ Eugene Walter, Terror and Resistance (1969)
  27. ^ Major Charters, Royal Artillery, “Notices Of The Cape And Southern Africa, Since The Appointment, As Governor, Of Major-Gen. Sir Geo. Napier.” United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine, London: W. Clowes and Son, 1839, Part III, p.24
  28. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition
  29. ^ Victor Hanson (18 December 2007). Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-307-42518-8. 
  30. ^ Cooper, Allan D. (3 August 2006). "Reparations for the Herero Genocide: Defining the limits of international litigation". Oxford Journals, African Affairs 106 (422): 113–126. doi:10.1093/afraf/adl005. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ Walter Nuhn: Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904. Bernard & Graefe-Verlag, Koblenz 1989. ISBN 3-7637-5852-6.
  33. ^ Olusoga & Erichsen 2010, p. 150–1.
  34. ^ Olusoga & Erichsen 2010, p. 151.
  35. ^ Whitaker Report: Page 17, Prevent Genocide International, Retrieved 2009-05-15
  36. ^ Alan Taylor (2002). American colonies; Volume 1 of The Penguin history of the United States, History of the United States Series. Penguin. p. 40. ISBN 9780142002100. 
  37. ^ '500 Years of Brazil's Discovery'
  38. ^ Brazil urged to protect Indians
  39. ^ Henige, David (1998). Numbers from nowhere: the American Indian contact population debate. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-8061-3044-X. 
  40. ^ Jennings, p. 83; Royal's quote
  41. ^ Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge
  42. ^ Maddison, Angus (2001). The world economy: a millennial perspective. OECD Publishing. p. 233. ISBN 92-64-18608-5. 
  43. ^ The Story of... Smallpox
  44. ^ Arthur C. Aufderheide, Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology. Cambridge University Press. p.205. ISBN 0-521-55203-6
  45. ^ Henderson, Donald A. et al. Smallpox as a Biological Weapon. Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA 1999, 281(22):2127–2137. doi:10.1001/jama.281.22.2127
  46. ^ d'Errico, Peter. Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets.
  47. ^ For historians who believe the attempt at infection was successful, see:
  48. ^ Stafford Poole, quoted in Robert Royal (1992). 1492 and all that: political manipulations of history. Ethics and Public Policy Center. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-89633-174-7. 
  49. ^ Guenter Lewy (2007). "Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?". History News Network. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  50. ^ Noble David Cook (13 February 1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6. 
  51. ^ Stannard 1993, pp. 146–7.
  52. ^ "Columbus 'sparked a genocide'". BBC News. October 12, 2003. Retrieved 2006-10-21. 
  53. ^ Quammen, David (2003). Monster of God: the man-eating predator in the jungles of history and the mind. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 252. ISBN 0-393-05140-4. 
  54. ^ Carlos A. Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; ISBN 84-599-5081-6.[page needed]
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  65. ^ Arthur Grenke (1 January 2005). God, Greed, and Genocide: The Holocaust Through the Centuries. New Academia Publishing, LLC. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-9767042-0-1. 
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  79. ^ Wei Yuan, 聖武記 Military history of the Qing Dynasty, vol.4. "計數十萬戶中,先痘死者十之四,繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二,卒殲於大兵者十之三。"
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  91. ^ Geoffrey Blainey (1 January 1980). A Land Half Won. Macmillan. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-333-29949-4. 
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  103. ^ Kopel, Gallant & Eisen 2003.
  104. ^ Tommy Solomon
  105. ^ Secher, Reynald. A French Genocide: The Vendée, University of Notre Dame Press, (2003), ISBN 0-268-02865-6.
  106. ^
    • Berger, Stefan; Donovan, Mark; Passmore, Kevin (January 1999). Writing National Histories: Western Europe Since 1800. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16427-6.  (Jackson biography
    • François Lebrun, « La guerre de Vendée : massacre ou génocide ? », L'Histoire, Paris, n°78, May 1985, p.93 to 99 et no. 81, September 1985, p. 99 to 101.
    • Paul Tallonneau (1993). Les Lucs et le génocide vendéen: comment on a manipulé les textes. Editions Hécate. ISBN 978-2-86913-051-7. 
    • Claude Petitfrère, La Vendée et les Vendéens, Editions Gallimard/Julliard, 1982.
    • Voir Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Le Seuil, 1987.
    • Hugh Gough, "Genocide & the Bicentenary: the French Revolution and the revenge of the Vendée", (Historical Journal, vol. 30, 4, 1987, pp. 977–88.) p. 987.
    • Vovelle, Michel (1987). Bourgeoisies de province et Revolution. Presses Universitaires de Grenoble. p. quoted in Féhér. 
    • Price, Roger (1993). A Concise History of France. Cambridge University Press. p. 107. 
    • Féhér, Ferenc (1990). The French Revolution and the birth of modernity. University of California Press. p. 62. 
  107. ^ Claude Langlois, « Les héros quasi mythiques de la Vendée ou les dérives de l'imaginaire », in F. Lebrun, 1987, p. 426–434, et « Les dérives vendéennes de l'imaginaire révolutionnaire », AESC, n°3, 1988, p. 771–797.
  108. ^ Voir l'intervention de Timothy Tackett, dans French Historical Studies, Autumn 2001, p. 572.
  109. ^ a b "To Hell or to Connaught" Oliver Cromwell's Settlement of Ireland[dead link]
  110. ^ genocidal or near-genocidal:
    • O'Leary, Brendam; McGarry, John (24 November 1995). "Regulating nations and ethnic communities". In Albert Breton. Nationalism and Rationality. Cambridge University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-521-48098-7. Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!' 
    • Tim Pat Coogan (5 January 2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide. 
    • Peter Berresford Ellis (9 February 2007). Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-05312-6.  "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • Levene 2005 "Considered overall, an Irish population collapse from 1.5 or possibly over 2 million inhabitants at the onset of the Irish wars in 1641, to no more than 850,000 eleven years later represents an absolutely devastating demographic catastrophe. Undoubted the largest proportion of this massive death toll did not arise from direct massacre but from hunger and then bubonic plagues, especially from the outbreak between 1649 and 1652. Even so, the relationship to the worst years of the fighting is all too apparent.
      [The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state. For instance, though the Act begins rather ominously by claiming that it was not its intention to extirpate the whole Irish nation, it then goes on to list five categories of people who, as participators in or alleged supporters of the 1641 rebellion and its aftermath, would automatically be forfeit of their lives. It has been suggested that as many as 100,000 people would have been liable under these headings. A further five categories—by implication an even larger body of 'passive' supporters of the rebellion—were to be spared their lives but not their property."
  111. ^ Ross, David (2002). Ireland: History of a Nation. New Lanark: Geddes & Grosset. p. 226. ISBN 1-84205-164-4. 
  112. ^ Kinealy 1995, p. 357.
  113. ^ Ó Gráda 2000, p. 7.
  114. ^ Woodham-Smith 1964, p. 19.
  115. ^ Kinealy 1995, pp. xvi–ii, 2–3.
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  118. ^ a b Ó Gráda, Economic History Society, Cormac (1995). The great Irish famine. New studies in economic and social history (7) (illustrated, reprinted ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 4, 68. ISBN 978-0-521-55787-0. [page 4] While no academic historian takes seriously any more the claim of 'genocide', the issue of blame remains controversial. [page 68] In sum the Great Famine of the 1840s, instead of being inevitable and inherent in the potato economy, was a tragic ecological accident. Ireland's experience during these years supports neither the complacency exemplified by the Whig view of political economy nor the genocide theories formerly espoused by a few nationalist historians. 
  119. ^ Kevin Kenny (2003). New directions in Irish-American history. History of Ireland and the Irish diaspora (illustrated ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-299-18714-9. And, while few, if any, historians in Ireland today would endorse the idea of British genocide (in the sense of conscious intent to slaughter), this does not mean that government policies, whether adopted or rejected, had no impact on starvation, disease, mortality and emigration. 
  120. ^ James Mullin "Irish Famine Education and the Holocaust 'Straw Man'", WebsiteAmerican Chronicle, April 28, 2006.
  121. ^ The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on September 10, 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
  122. ^ Mullin, James V.The New Jersey Famine Curriculum: a report Eire-Ireland:Journal of Irish Studies, Spring-Summer, 2002
  123. ^ Irish Famine Unit VI Genocide of the The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on September 10, 1996
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  126. ^ Antero Leitzinger "The Circassian Genocide" in The Eurasian Politician – Issue 2, October 2000, in the article it states that it was originally published in Turkistan News
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  129. ^ (Russian) Circassian Genocide. The Circassian Congress. 2008
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  131. ^ Midlarsky, Manus I, The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century, p. 342 
  132. ^ Jones 2010, pp. 171–172 A resolution was placed before the IAGS membership to recognize the Greek and Assyrian/Chaldean components of the Ottoman genocide against Christians, alongside the Armenian strand of the genocide (which the IAGS has already formally acknowledged). The result, passed emphatically in December 2007 despite not inconsiderable opposition, was a resolution which I co-drafted, reading as follows:... (IAGS resolution is on page 172)
  133. ^ Resolution by the International Association of Genocide Scholars retrieved via the Internet Archive
  134. ^ Genocide Resolution approved by Swedish Parliament—full text containing the IAGS resolution and the Swedish Parliament resolution from news.am
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  137. ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N (1995), The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus, Oxford: Berghahn .
    • Balakian, Peter (2003), The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response, New York: HarperCollins .
    • Bloxham, Donald (2005), The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians, Oxford: Oxford University Press .
    • Akçam, Taner (2012), The Young Turks' Crime Against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire, Princeton: Princeton University Press 
  138. ^ Kieser, Hans-Lukas; Schaller, Dominik J (2002), Der Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah [The Armenian Genocide and the Shoah] (in German publisher = Chronos), p. 114, ISBN 3-0340-0561-X 
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  144. ^ Yacoub, Joseph (1985), La question assyro-chaldéenne, les Puissances européennes et la SDN (1908–1938) [The Assyro-Chaldean question: the European Powers and the League of Nations, 1908–38] (thèse) (in French), Lyon, p. 156 , 4 vol.
  145. ^ International Genocide Scholars Association Officially Recognizes Assyrian, Greek Genocides, Assyrian International News Agency, Dec 15, 2007, retrieved 2007-12-15 
  146. ^ Jones 2010.
  147. ^ Rummel, Rudolph (1994), Death by Government 
  148. ^ Rendel, GW (20 March 1922), Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice (memorandum), Foreign Office 
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  153. ^ a b van Bruineßen 1994.
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  155. ^ Heller, Mikhail; Nekrich, Aleksandr (January 1988). Utopia in power: the history of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the present. Summit Books. ISBN 978-0-671-64535-9. 
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  159. ^ R. J. Rummel. Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocides and Mass Murders Since 1917. Transaction Publishers. p. Genocides in history at Google Books. ISBN 978-1-4128-2750-8. 
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  180. ^ R. J. Rummel. Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocides and Mass Murders Since 1917. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-2750-8. 
    • J. Pohl, Stalin’s genocide against the “Repressed Peoples”, Journal of Genocide Research, Volume 2, Number 2, 1 June 2000, pp. 267–293
    • Lauri Mälksoo, Soviet Genocide? Communist Mass Deportations in the Baltic States and International Law, Leiden Journal of International Law (2001), 14: pp. 757-787 Cambridge University Press
  181. ^ Postimees 31 March 2009: Martin Arpo: kommunismiaja kuritegude tee Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtuni
  182. ^ Full text of European Court of Human Rights Decision on the case Kolk and Kislyiy v. Estonia: Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to Crimes against Humanity
  183. ^ Oberlander, Erwin (5 April 2011). Martyn Housden, David James Smith, ed. Forgotten Pages in Baltic History: Diversity and Inclusion. Rodopi. pp. 253–254. ISBN 978-9042033153. 
  184. ^ Travis, Hannibal (8 February 2013). Ethnonationalism, Genocide, and the United Nations. Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 978-0415531252. 
  185. ^ Budryte, Dovile (9 August 2005). Taming Nationalism? Political Community Building in the Post-Soviet Baltic States. Ashgate. p. 182. ISBN 978-0754642817. 
  186. ^ BBC staff (23 August 2007). "Estonian man on genocide charge". BBC News. 
  187. ^ "Estonian Red Army veteran dies amidst genocide trial". Retrieved March 2012. 
  188. ^ "Genocide in Lithuania". Retrieved March 2012. [better source needed]
  189. ^ Peikštenis, Eugenijus. "Lithuanian Museum of Genocide Victims". Retrieved March 2012. 
  190. ^ Campbell, Bradley (June 2009). "Genocide as social control". Sociological Theory 27 (2): 154. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9558.2009.01341.x. JSTOR 40376129. Also, genocide may occur in the aftermath of warfare when mass killings continue after the outcome of a battle or a war has been decided. For instance, after the Chinese city of Nanking was occupied by the Japanese in December 1937, Japanese soldiers massacred over 250,000 residents of the city. 
  191. ^ Hilberg 2003, p. 1322.
  192. ^ Monroe, Kristen R. (23 October 2011). Ethics in an Age of Terror and Genocide: Identity and Moral Choice. Princeton University Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 0-691-15143-1. 
  193. ^ a b Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, p. 45.
  194. ^ Also see "The Holocaust", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007: "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women and children, and millions of others, by Germany Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question."
  195. ^ Weissman, Gary (2004), Fantasies of Witnessing: Postwar Attempts to Experience the Holocaust, Cornell University Press, p. 94, ISBN 0-8014-4253-2, Kren illustrates his point with his reference to the Kommissararbefehl. 'Should the (strikingly unreported) systematic mass starvation of Soviet prisoners of war be included in the Holocaust?' he asks. Many scholars would answer no, maintaining that 'the Holocaust' should refer strictly to those events involving the systematic killing of the Jews'. 
  196. ^ "Holocaust", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007, the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question. 
    • "Holocaust", Encarta, archived from the original on 2009-10-31, Holocaust, the almost complete destruction of Jews in Europe by Germany and its collaborators during World War II (1939–1945). The leadership of Germany ordered the extermination of 5.6 million to 5.9 million Jews (see National Socialism). Jews often refer to the Holocaust as Shoah (from the Hebrew word for "catastrophe" or "total destruction"). 
  197. ^ Paulson, Steve, A View of the Holocaust, BBC, The Holocaust was the Germans' assault on the Jews between 1933 and 1945. It culminated in what the Germans called the 'Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Europe', in which six million Jews were murdered. 
  198. ^ "The Holocaust", Auschwitz, DK, The Holocaust was the systematic annihilation of six million Jews by the Germans during World War 2. 
    • "Holocaust", Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (definition), Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, (Heb., sho'ah). In the 1950s the term came to be applied primarily to the destruction of the Jews of Europe under the German regime, and it is also employed in describing the annihilation of other groups of people in World War II. The mass extermination of Jews has become the archetype of GENOCIDE, and the terms sho'ah and ‘holocaust’ have become linked to the attempt by the German state to destroy European Jewry during World War II... One of the first to use the term in the historical perspective was the Jerusalem historian BenZion Dinur (Dinaburg), who, in the spring of 1942, stated that the Holocaust was a ‘catastrophe’ that symbolized the unique situation of the Jewish people among the nations of the world. 
    • "Holocaust", List of definitions, The Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, A term for the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945. 
  199. ^ "The Holocaust", Compact Oxford English Dictionary, the mass murder of Jews under the German regime in World War II. 
    • "The Holocaust", The 33rd Annual Scholars' Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches (definition), the German attempt to annihilate European Jewry , cited in Hancock, Ian (2004), "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview", in Stone, Dan, The Historiography of the Holocaust, New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 383–96 
    • Bauer, Yehuda (2001), Rethinking the Holocaust, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 10 
    • Dawidowicz, Lucy (1986), The War Against the Jews: 1933–1945, Bantam, p. xxxvii, 'The Holocaust' is the term that Jews themselves have chosen to describe their fate during World War II. 
  200. ^ Ukrainian mass Jewish grave found
  201. ^ Michael Berenbaum; Arnold Kramer; United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (9 December 2005). The world must know: the history of the Holocaust as told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-8018-8358-3. 
  202. ^ a b c Dawidowicz, Lucy. The War Against the Jews, Bantam, 1986.p. 403
  203. ^ Memorial and Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau
  204. ^ Piper 1998, p. 62.
  205. ^ Treblinka, Yad Vashem.
  206. ^ Belzec, Yad Vashem.
  207. ^ Majdanek, Yad Vashem.
  208. ^ Reszka, Paweł (23 December 2005). "Majdanek Victims Enumerated. Changes in the history textbooks?". Gazeta Wyborcza. Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Retrieved 13 April 2010. 
  209. ^ Chelmno, Yad Vashem.
  210. ^ Sobibor, Yad Vashem.
  211. ^ "The Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 8 November 2013. 
  212. ^ "The Holocaust: Tracing Lost Family Members". JVL. Retrieved 8 November 2013. 
  213. ^ Wilhelm Höttl, an SS officer and a Doctor of History, testified at the Nuremberg Trials and Eichmann's trial that at a meeting he had with Eichmann in Budapest in late August 1944, "Eichmann ... told me that, according to his information, some 6,000,000 (six million) Jews had perished until then – 4,000,000 (four million) in extermination camps and the remaining 2,000,000 (two million) through shooting by the Operations Units and other causes, such as disease, etc."[2] [3] [4]
  214. ^ Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum in Oświęcim, Poland.
  215. ^ "Responses to common Holocaust-denial claims". ADL. Retrieved 8 November 2013. 
  216. ^ Shoah Research Center;– Albania [5] The Jews of Albania during the Zogist and Second World War Periods [6] and see also Norman H. Gershman's book Besa: Muslims Who Saved Jews in World War II – for reviews etc [7] (all consulted 24 June 2010)
  217. ^ Rhodes, Richard (2002). Masters of death: the SS-Einsatzgruppen and the invention of the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40900-9. 
  218. ^ Benz, Wolfgang (1999). The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 0-231-11214-9. 
  219. ^ Berenbaum 2005, p. 125.
  220. ^ 1.8–1.9 million non-Jewish Polish citizens are estimated to have died as a result of the Nazi occupation and the war. Estimates are from Polish scholar, Franciszek Piper, the chief historian at Auschwitz. Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  221. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz. "Project InPosterum: Poland WWII Casualties". Retrieved 15 March 2007; and Łuczak, Czesław. "Szanse i trudności bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945", Dzieje Najnowsze, issue 1994/2.
  222. ^ a b http://www.holocaust-education.dk/baggrund/eutanasi.asp
  223. ^ a b "Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies)". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 27 September 2012. The USHMM places the scholarly estimates at 220,000–500,000. According to Berenbaum 2005, p. 126, "serious scholars estimate that between 90,000 and 220,000 were killed under German rule."
  224. ^ a b Hancock 2004, pp. 383–96.
  225. ^ "GrandLodgeScotland.com". GrandLodgeScotland.com. Retrieved 31 July 2010. 
  226. ^ Freemasons for Dummies, by Christopher Hodapp, Wiley Publishing Inc., Indianapolis, 2005, page 85, sec. Hitler and the Nazis
  227. ^ The number of Slovenes estimated to have died as a result of the Nazi occupation (not including those killed by Slovene collaboration forces and other Nazi allies) is estimated between 20,000 and 25,000 people. This number only includes civilians: Slovene partisan POWs who died and resistance fighters killed in action are not included (their number is estimated at 27,000). These numbers however include only Slovenes from present-day Slovenia: it does not include Carinthian Slovene victims, nor Slovene victims from areas in present-day Italy and Croatia. These numbers are result of a 10-year long research by the Institute for Contemporary History (Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino) from Ljubljana, Slovenia. The partial results of the research have been released in 2008 in the volume Žrtve vojne in revolucije v Sloveniji (Ljubljana: Institute for Conetmporary History, 2008), and officially presented at the Slovenian National Council ([File:http://www.ds-rs.si/?q=publikacije/zborniki/Zrtve_vojne]). The volume is also available online: [File:http://www.ds-rs.si/dokumenti/publikacije/Zbornik_05-1.pdf]
  228. ^ The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International Ltd., p. 108.
  229. ^ Shulman, William L. A State of Terror: Germany 1933–1939. Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives.
  230. ^ Pike, David Wingeate. Spaniards in the Holocaust: Mauthausen, the horror on the Danube; Editorial: Routledge Chapman & Hall ISBN 9780415227803. London, 2000.
  231. ^ Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, p. 45–52.
  232. ^ Martin Gilbert (1988). Atlas of the holocaust. Pergamon Press. pp. 242–244. 
  233. ^ Melvin Small; Joel David Singer (1 April 1982). Resort to arms: international and civil wars, 1816–1980. Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-8039-1776-7. 
  234. ^ Michael Berenbaum (1990). A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-1175-0. 
  235. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей -Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles. Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Page 126
  236. ^ G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Tables 116-118
  237. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: рник стсбоатей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0
  238. ^ Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, p. 226, ISBN 0-521-81144-9 Total civilian deaths under the German occupation were 13.7 million including 2 million Jews
  239. ^ a b Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: рник стсбоатей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Pages 124-131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.
  240. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: рник стсбоатей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Pages 124-131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin estimated 6% of the population in the occupied regions died due to war related famine and disease.
  241. ^ Emilio De Diego Garica. "El drama yugoslavo: ¿Europa entre los siglos XIX y XXI?". Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Retrieved 21 June 2010. 
  242. ^ Helen Fein (1979). Accounting for Genocide: National Response and Jewish Victimization During the Holocaust. Free Press. pp. 79, 105. ISBN 978-0-02-910220-6. 
  243. ^ Robins & Jones 2009, p. 106.
  244. ^ US Holocaust Museum, USHMM. "Jasenovac". US Holocaust Museum. 
  245. ^ Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum and Research Center, Yad Vashem. "Independent State of Croatia". Yad Vashem. 
  246. ^ Samuel Totten; William S. Parsons (1997). Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts. Routledge. p. 430. ISBN 0-203-89043-4. Retrieved January 11, 2011. 
  247. ^ Redžić, Enver (2005). Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Second World War. New York: Tylor and Francis. p. 84. ISBN 0714656259. 
  248. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's holocaust. Published by McFarland. Page 247
  249. ^ Władysław Filar, Wydarzenia wołyńskie 1939–1944. Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek. Toruń 2008 ISBN 978-83-7441-884-3
  250. ^ a b Grzegorz Motyka, Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji "Wisła". Konflikt polsko-ukraiński 1943– 1947. Kraków 2011, p.447
  251. ^ Timothy Snyder, Rekonstrukcja narodów. Polska, Ukraina, Litwa, Białoruś 1569–1999, Sejny 2009, p.196
  252. ^ Gibney & Hansen 2005, p. 204.
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  254. ^ Piotr Zając, Prześladowania ludności narodowości polskiej na terenie Wołynia w latach 1939–1945 – ocena karnoprawna zdarzeń w oparciu o ustalenia śledztwa OKŚZpNP w Lublinie, [in:] Zbrodnie przeszłości. Opracowania i materiały prokuratorów IPN, t. 2: Ludobójstwo, red. Radosław Ignatiew, Antoni Kura, Warszawa 2008, p.34-49
  255. ^ See History of the Holocaust: a Handbook and a Dictionary, Edelheit, Edelheit & Edelheit, p.458, Free Press, 1995
  256. ^ Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, p. 47.
  257. ^ Berenbaum 2005, p. 126.
  258. ^ "Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals". 11 September 2000. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  259. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2002). The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust. Routledge, London & New York. ISBN 0-415-28145-8.  (ref Map 182 p 141 with Romani deaths by country & Map 301 p 232) Note: formerly The Dent Atlas of the Holocaust; 1982, 1993.
  260. ^ Hancock, Ian. Jewish Responses to the Porajmos (The Romani Holocaust), Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota.
  261. ^ Burleigh & Wippermann 1991, p. 69.
  262. ^ a b Lifton 2000, p. 142.
  263. ^ Neugebauer 1998.
  264. ^ "THE OVITZ FAMILY – Nazi Experiments". Thehumanmarvels.com. Retrieved 2013-01-18. 
  265. ^ Strous 2007.
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  267. ^ Sereny 1995, pp. 48–49.
  268. ^ a b Jürgen Weber, Germany, 1945–1990: A Parallel History, Central European University Press, 2004, p.2, ISBN 963-9241-70-9
  269. ^ a b Arie Marcelo Kacowicz, Pawel Lutomski, Population resettlement in international conflicts: a comparative study, Lexington Books, 2007, p.100, ISBN 978-0739116074: "...largest movement of European people in modern history" [8]
  270. ^ Peter H. Schuck, Rainer Münz, Paths to Inclusion: The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany, Berghahn Books, 1997, p.156, ISBN 1-57181-092-7
  271. ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls". Necrometrics.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  272. ^ Stellungnahme der Deutsch-Tschechischen Historikerkommission zu den Vertreibungsverlusten
  273. ^ Frank 2008.
  274. ^ Europe and German unification, Renata Fritsch-Bournazel page 77, Berg Publishers 1992
  275. ^ Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements. Routledge. p. 656. ISBN 0-415-93924-0. 
  276. ^ Glassheim, Eagle (2001). Ther, Philipp; Siljak, Ana, eds. Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948. Harvard Cold War studies book series. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 197. ISBN 0-7425-1094-8. 
  277. ^ Totten, Paul; Bartrop; Jacobs, Steven L (2008). Dictionary of genocide, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-34644-5. 
  278. ^ Shaw, Martin (2007). What is genocide?. Polity. ISBN 0-7456-3182-7.  pp. 56,60,61
  279. ^ European Court of Human RightsJorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 47
  280. ^ Jescheck, Hans-Heinrich (1995). Encyclopedia of Public International Law. ISBN 978-90-04-14280-0. 
  281. ^ Ermacora, Felix (1991). "Gutachten Ermacora 1991" (PDF). 
  282. ^ "Parsley Massacre: The Genocide That Still Haunts Haiti-Dominican Relations". Ibtimes.com. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  283. ^ Bulag, Uradyn Erden (2002). Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 54. ISBN 0-7425-1144-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  284. ^ Hui, Fu Li (1961). China reconstructs 10. China Welfare Institute. p. 16. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  285. ^ Goodman, David SG (2004). China's campaign to "Open up the West": national, provincial, and local perspectives. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-521-61349-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  286. ^ Mayaram, Shail (2009). The other global city. US: Taylor & Francis. pp. 76–7. ISBN 0-415-99194-3. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  287. ^ a b Manne, Robert "The cruelty of denial", The Age, September 9, 2006
  288. ^ "A Stolen Generation Cries Out". Reuters. May 1997. 
  289. ^ a b Parsons, Timothy (2003). The 1964 Army Mutinies and the Making of Modern East Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-325-07068-7. OCLC p = 107. 
  290. ^ Conley, Robert (19 January 1964). "Nationalism Is Viewed as Camouflage for Reds". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 16 November 2008. 
  291. ^ Los Angeles Times (20 January 1964). "Slaughter in Zanzibar of Asians, Arabs Told". Los Angeles Times. p. 4. 
  292. ^ a b Plekhanov 2004, p. 91.
  293. ^ a b Sheriff & Ferguson 1991, p. 241.
  294. ^ Jacopetti, Gualtiero (Director). (1970). Africa Addio [Video in English]. Retrieved on 16 November 2008.
  295. ^ Speller 2007, p. 7.
  296. ^ Israel W. Charny. Encyclopedia of Genocide, ABC-CLIO, 1999 ISBN 978-0-87436-928-1 Genocides in history at Google Books cites Genocide:Its Political Use in the 20th Century, London: Penguin Books, 1981; New Haven, Connecticut:Yale University Press 1982.
  297. ^ Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission, United Nations website, 1 March 1999
  298. ^ Spain judge charges ex-generals in Guatemala genocide case, Jurist, July 8, 2006.
  299. ^ Castillo, Mariano (13 May 2013). Guatemala's Rios Montt guilty of genocide. CNN. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  300. ^ Reuters (May 20, 2013). "Guatemala's top court annuls Ríos Montt genocide conviction". 
  301. ^ "Ríos Montt genocide case collapses". The Guardian (London). May 20, 2013. 
  302. ^ "Guatemala Rios Montt genocide trial to resume in 2015". BBC News. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  303. ^ Payaslian, Simon. "20th Century Genocides". Oxford bibliographies. 
  304. ^ Sharlach, Lisa (2010). "Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda". New Political Science 22 (1). doi:10.1080/713687893. 
  305. ^ Jack, Ian, "It's not the arithmetic of genocide that's important. It's that we pay attention", The Guardian, May 20, 2011.
  306. ^ Mohaiemen, Naeem (2011). "Flying Blind: Waiting for a Real Reckoning on 1971". Economic 40 & Political Weekly xlvi (36). 
  307. ^ Obermeyer, Ziad, et al., "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme", British Medical Jornal, June 2008.
  308. ^ Rahman, Serajur, "Mujib's confusion on Bangladeshi deaths", Letters, The Guardian, May 23, 2011.
  309. ^ Raymond Faisal Solaiman v People's Republic of Bangladesh & Ors In The Federal Magistrates Court of Australia at Sydney
  310. ^ This judgement can be found via the Federal Court of Australia home page by following the links and using SYG/2672/2006 as the key for the database
  311. ^ Staff. http://www.preventgenocide.org/edu/pastgenocides/burundi/resources/ pastgenocides, Burundi resources on the website of Prevent Genocide International lists the following resources:
  312. ^ International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi: Final Report Source Name: United Nations Security Council, S/1996/682; received from Ambassador Thomas Ndikumana, Burundi Ambassador to the United States, Date received: 7 June 2002. Paragraph 496.
  313. ^ Action Against Hunger Stops Its Activities in North Korea
  314. ^ a b When will we stop the genocide in North Korea?
  315. ^ North Korea and the Genocide Movement
  316. ^ Park, Robert, "The Case for Genocide in North Korea," The Korea Herald, February 8, 2012.
  317. ^ Francisco Macias Nguema
  318. ^ Coup plotter faces life in Africa's most notorious jail
  319. ^ If you think this one's bad you should have seen his uncle
  320. ^ "Chinese President Meets Equatorial Guinean President". People's Daily Online. Beijing, China. 2001-11-20. 
  321. ^ John B. Quigley (2006) The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, ISBN 0-7546-4730-7. Genocides in history at Google Books
  322. ^ John B. Quigley (2006) The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, ISBN 0-7546-4730-7. Genocides in history at Google Books
  323. ^ UN verdict on East Timor
  324. ^ Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). "The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999". A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). 
  325. ^ a b Sian Powell UN verdict on East Timor, Jakarta correspondent, The Australian, January 19, 2006
  326. ^ Nunes, Joe (1996). "East Timor: Acceptable Slaughters". The architecture of modern political power. 
  327. ^ Ben Kiernam War, Genocide, and Resistance in East Timor, 1975–99: Comparative Reflections on Cambodia PDF (218 KB), Chapter 9 page 202
    • Ben Kiernan's footnotes "clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide..." – Leo Kuper, Genocide (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981), pages 174–175
  328. ^ Report claims secret genocide in Indonesia – University of Sydney
  329. ^ Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control PDF (260 KB) p. 75
  330. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Laos". Retrieved 11 June 2008. 
  331. ^ Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. "WGIP: Side event on the Hmong Lao, at the United Nations". Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  332. ^ Al Santoli; Laurence J. Eisenstein; Lawyers Committee for Human Rights (U.S.) (1989). Forced back and forgotten: the human rights of Laotian asylum seekers in Thailand. Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. ISBN 978-0-934143-25-7. 
  333. ^ Statistics of Democide Rudolph Rummel
  334. ^ Naomi Klein. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Macmillan, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8050-7983-8. Genocides in history at Google Books
  335. ^ a b Ethiopian Dictator Sentenced to Prison by Les Neuhaus, The Associated Press, January 11, 2007
  336. ^ Mengistu is handed life sentence BBC, January 11, 2007
  337. ^ BBC, "Mengistu found guilty of genocide", 12 December 2006.
  338. ^ Ethiopian leader guilty of genocide TVNZ, December 13, 2006
  339. ^ Court sentences Major Melaku Tefera to death Ethiopian Reporter
  340. ^ University of Pittsburgh legal news, 13 December 2006.
  341. ^ "Ex-Ethiopian dictator guilty of genocide". UPI.com. 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  342. ^ 'Butcher of Addis Ababa' is guilty of genocide with torture regime
  343. ^ The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World by Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, pg 457
  344. ^ Guilty of genocide: the leader who unleashed a 'Red Terror' on Africa by Jonathan Clayton, The Times Online, December 13, 2006
  345. ^ Anne Penketh and Robert Verkaik Dutch court says gassing of Iraqi Kurds was 'genocide' in The Independent 24 December 2005
  346. ^ "Dutch man sentenced for role in gassing death of Kurds" CBC News 23 December 2005
  347. ^ Tibet – Summary of a Report on Tibet Submitted to the International Commission of Jurists by Shri Purshottam Trikamdas, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India
  348. ^ Sautman, Barry (October 2006). "Colonialism, genocide, and Tibet". Asian Ethnicity 7 (3): 243–265. doi:10.1080/14631360600926949. 
  349. ^ Melvyn Goldstein; William Siebenschuh; Tashi Tsering (21 February 1997). The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-3178-7. 
  350. ^ CTA: Chinese Government Covering Up Dark Facts
  351. ^ David White (2002). Himalayan Tragedy: The Story of Tibet's Panchen Lamas. Tibet Society of the UK. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-9542179-0-7. 
  352. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/22/opinion/22french.html
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  356. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-28000937
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  358. ^ Eamonn McCann. Longing for a saviour Belfast Telegraph, May 24, 2007
  359. ^ a b Supreme Court upholds genocide ruling, Survival International 4 August 2006
  360. ^ Federal Court is competent to judge the Haximu genocide Indianist Missionary Council
  361. ^ Pygmies struggle to survive
  362. ^ DR Congo Pygmies appeal to UN
  363. ^ DR Congo Pygmies 'exterminated'
  364. ^ Pygmies today in Africa
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  366. ^ Catherine L. Besteman, "Genocide in Somalia's Jubba Valley and Somali Bantu Refugees in the U.S" Apr 09, 2007 Accessed January 25, 2011
  367. ^ "Recurring Nightmare". Human Rights Watch. March 2008. p. 16. 
  368. ^ Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka. United Nations. 31 March 2011. 
  369. ^ Alex Spillius; Emanuel Stoakes (18 December 2011). "Sri Lankan army commanders 'assassinated surrendering Tamils'". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  370. ^ "Leading Sri Lanka Tamil Politician Claims 'Genocide' by Military". Voice of America. 12 May 2009. 
  371. ^ Allard, Tom (15 October 2009). "Tamil boat people fleeing 'genocide'". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  372. ^ Haviland, Charles (6 April 2011). "US calls for 'accountability' in Sri Lanka's war". BBC Sinhala. 
  373. ^ Taylor, Lesley Ciarula (31 January 2009). "Thousands protest Tamil 'genocide'". Toronto Star. 
  374. ^ "About TAG". Tamils Against Genocide. 
  375. ^ "War Crimes, Genocide Case Filed In Norway Courts". The Sunday Leader. 15 May 2011. 
  376. ^ "Parties condemn "genocide of Sri Lankan Tamils"". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 23 December 2006. 
  377. ^ "Stop genocide of Sri Lankan Tamils". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 6 October 2008. 
  378. ^ "Summon Mahinda to international court- Jayalalitha". BBC Sinhala. 13 May 2011. 
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  384. ^ "Sri Lankan camps breach convention against genocide". ABC News (Australia). 7 June 2009. 
  385. ^ "Sri Lanka 'counting civilian war deaths'". BBC News. 24 November 2011. 
  386. ^ Potocari Memorial Center PRELIMINARY LIST of Missing Persons from Srebrenica '95 [9]
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  392. ^ Norman M. Naimark (2011). Memories of Mass Repression: Narrating Life Stories in the Aftermath of Atrocity. Transaction Publishers. Retrieved 4 August 2013. , p. 3.
  393. ^ The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia found in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Trial Chamber I – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001) that genocide had been committed. (see paragraph 560 for name of group in English on whom the genocide was committed). The judgement was upheld in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Appeals Chamber – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)
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  395. ^ University of California Riverside:
  396. ^ Human Rights Watch: Milosevic to Face Bosnian Genocide Charges 11 December 2001
  397. ^ "Seven convicted over 1995 Srebrenica massacre". CNN. June 10, 2010. 
  398. ^ Novislav Djajic, TRIAL (Track Impunity Always)
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  400. ^ Oberlandesgericht Düsseldorf, "Public Prosecutor v Jorgic", 26 September 1997 (Trial Watch) Nikola Jorgic
  401. ^ Trial watch Maksim Sokolovic
  402. ^ International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda - UNICTR
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  405. ^ Sharp, Bruce (April 1, 2005). "Counting Hell: The Death Toll of the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia". Retrieved January 13, 2013. 
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  418. ^ POWELL DECLARES KILLING IN DARFUR 'GENOCIDE', The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, Sep. 9, 2004
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  420. ^ Security Council Resolution 1593 (2005) PDF (24.8 KB)
  421. ^ SECURITY COUNCIL REFERS SITUATION IN DARFUR, SUDAN, TO PROSECUTOR OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, UN Press Release SC/8351, Mar. 31, 2005
  422. ^ Fourth Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the Security Council pursuant to UNSC 1593 (2005) PDF (597 KB), Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Dec. 14, 2006.
  423. ^ Statement by Mr. Luis Moreno Ocampo, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the United Nations Security Council pursuant to UNSCR 1593 (2005), International Criminal Court, 5 June 2008
  424. ^ Walker, Peter (2008-07-14). "Darfur genocide charges for Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  425. ^ Staff. Warrant issued for Sudan's leader, BBC, 4 March 2009

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