The gens Furia, originally written Fusia, was one of the most ancient and noble patrician houses at Rome. Its members held the highest offices of the state throughout the period of the Roman Republic. The first of the Furii to attain the consulship was Sextus Furius Medullinus in 488 BC.
- 1 Origin of the gens
- 2 Praenomina used by the gens
- 3 Branches and cognomina of the gens
- 4 Members of the gens
- 5 See also
- 6 Footnotes
- 7 External links
Origin of the gens
The antiquity of the Furii is confirmed by the ancient form of the nomen, Fusius, found in the earliest days of the Republic. A similar process derived the nomina Papirius, Valerius and Veturius from Papisius, Valesius and Vetusius. History leaves us in darkness as to the origin of the Furia gens; but, from sepulchral inscriptions found at Tusculum, we see that the name Furius was very common at that place, and hence it is generally inferred that the Furia gens, like the Fulvia, had come from Tusculum.
As the first member of the gens that occurs in history, Sex. Furius Medullinus, BC 488, is only five years later than the treaty of isopolity which Spurius Cassius Viscellinus concluded with the Latins, to whom the Tusculans belonged, the supposition of the Tusculan origin of the Furia gens does not appear at all improbable. However, the cognomen Medullinus, which belonged to the oldest branch of the gens, may indicate that the family came from the ancient Latin city of Medullia, which was conquered by Ancus Marcius, the fourth King of Rome, toward the end of the 7th century BC.
The nomen Furius is a patronymic surname derived from Fusus, apparently an ancient praenomen that had fallen out of use before historical times. This name was preserved, however, as a cognomen used by many of the early Furii, including the families of the Medullini and the Pacili. Cossus, a surname of the gens Cornelia, which they later revived as a praenomen, may have had a similar origin.
Praenomina used by the gens
Other praenomina appear towards the end of the Republic, and may represent plebeian branches of the family. The Furii Brocchi are distinguished by their use of Gnaeus and Titus. A late 2nd century BC poet bore the praenomen Aulus, while a Furius of equestrian rank during the time of Cicero was named Numerius.
Branches and cognomina of the gens
The cognomina of this gens are Aculeo, Bibaculus, Brocchus, Camillus, Crassipes, Fusus, Luscus, Medullinus, Pacilus, Philus, and Purpureo. The only cognomina that occur on coins are Brocchus, Crassipes, Philus, and Purpureo.
Fusus was a surname of two families, the Medullini and Pacili. Some members of the Furia gens, who occur in the Fasti without any other surname than that of Fusus, probably belonged either to the Medullini or the Pacili, and must not be regarded as forming a separate family.
There are some persons bearing the gentile name Furius, who were plebeians, since they are mentioned as tribunes of the plebs; and those persons either had gone over from the patricians to the plebeians, or they were descended from freedmen or some family of the Furii, as is expressly stated in the case of one of them.
Members of the gens
- Sextus Furius Medullinus Fusus, consul in 488 BC.
- Spurius Furius Medullinus Fusus, consul in 481 BC.
- Lucius Furius Medullinus Fusus, consul in 474 BC.
- Publius Furius Medullinus Fusus, consul in 472 BC.
- Spurius Furius Medullinus Fusus, consul in 464 BC.
- Publius Furius Medullinus Fusus, brother and legate of Spurius, the consul of 464 BC, slain in the Aequian war.
- Agrippa Furius Fusus, consul in 446 BC.
- Lucius Furius S. f. Medullinus Fusus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 432, 425, and 420 BC.
- Lucius Furius L. f. S. n. Medullinus, consul in 413 and 409 BC, and tribunus militum consulari potestate in 407, 405, 398, 397, 395, 394, and 391 BC.
- Spurius Furius L. f. S. n. Medullinus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 400 BC.
- Lucius Furius S. f. L. n. Medullinus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 381 and 370 BC, and censor in 363 BC.
- Spurius Furius S. f. L. n. Medullinus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 378 BC, commanded in the war with the Volsci of Antium.
- Sextus Furius Fusus, father of the consular tribune of 391 BC.
- Marcus Furius Fusus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 403 BC.
- Agrippa Furius Sex. f. Fusus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 391 BC.
- Gaius Furius Pacilus Fusus, consul in 441 BC, and tribunus militum consulari potestate in 426 BC.
- Gaius Furius C. f. Pacilus, consul in 412 BC.
- Gaius Furius C. f. C. n. Pacilus, consul in 251 BC. during the First Punic War.
- Marcus Furius L. f. S. n. Camillus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 401, 398, 394, 386, 384, and 381 BC, dictator in 396, 390, 389, 368, and 367 BC.
- Spurius Furius M. f. L. n. Camillus, one of the first praetors appointed following the creation of the office in 367 BC.
- Lucius Furius M. f. L. n. Camillus, dictator in 350 and consul in 349 BC.
- Lucius Furius S. f. M. n. Camillus, consul in 338 and 325 BC.
- Marcus Furius Camillus, consul in AD 8.
- Marcus Furius Camillus Scribonianus, consul in AD 32, later instigated a revolt, but was quickly defeated and sent into exile.
- Furius Camillus Scribonianus, exiled in AD 53, for having consulting the Chaldeans about the time when the emperor Claudius was to die.
- Marcus Furius Philus, grandfather of the consul of 223 BC.
- Spurius Furius M. f. Philus, father of the consul of 223 BC.
- Publius Furius S. f. M. n. Philus, consul in 223 BC.
- Publius Furius P. f. S. n. Philus, informed Scipio of the design of Lucius Caecilius Metellus and others to abandon Rome after the Battle of Cannae.
- Publius Furius Philus, praetor in 174 BC, obtained Hispania Citerior as his province.
- Lucius Furius Philus, praetor in 171 BC, obtained Sardinia as his province.
- Lucius Furius Philus, consul in 136 BC.
- Marcus Furius L. f. Philus, triumvir monetalis in 119 BC.
- Lucius Furius Bibaculus, quaestor, fell in the Battle of Cannae, 216 BC.
- Lucius Furius Bibaculus, praetor.
- Marcus Furius Bibaculus, a satiric poet of the 1st century BC.
- Spurius Furius Purpureo, father of the consul of 196 BC.
- Lucius Furius S. f. S. n. Purpureo, consul in 196 BC.
- Furius Purpureo, triumvir monetalis from 169 to 158 BC.
- Marcus Furius Crassipes, praetor in 187 and 173 BC.
- Publius Furius Crassipes, curule aedile in 84 BC.
- Furius Crassipes, quaestor in Bithynia, 51 BC, and husband of Cicero's daughter, Tullia.
- Gnaeus Furius Brocchus, father of the triumvir monetalis of 63 BC.
- Lucius Furius Cn. f. Brocchus, triumvir monetalis in 63 BC.
- Titus Furius Brocchus, the uncle of Quintus Ligarius, a soldier defended by Cicero.
- Gnaeus Furius Brocchus, detected in adultery, and grievously punished.
- Publius Furius, one of the triumviri agro dando who were appointed after the taking of Antium, in 467 BC.
- Quintus Furius, Pontifex Maximus in 449 BC, held the comitia at which the first tribunes of the plebs were appointed.
- Lucius Furius, tribunus plebis in 307 BC, prevented the comitia from electing Appius Claudius Caecus to the consulship, unless he consented to lay down his censorship, in accordance with the law.
- Lucius Furius, praetor in 200 BC, triumphed over the Gauls at Cremona.
- Marcus Furius, legate under the praetor Lucius Furius in 200 BC, during the war against the Gauls.
- Gaius Furius Aculeo, quaestor of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, convicted of peculatus in 187 BC.
- Gaius Furius, duumvir navalis in 178 and legate in 170 BC.
- Aulus Furius Antias, a poet of the 1st century BC, admired by Aulus Gellius and Publius Vergilius Maro.
- Publius Furius, tribunus plebis in 100 BC.
- Furius, a navarchus of Heracleia, was, though innocent, put to death by Verres.
- Numerius Furius, an eques in the time of Cicero.
- Publius Furius, one of the military colonists to whom Sulla had assigned lands at Faesulae, and an accomplice in the Catilinarian conspiracy.
- Furius Anthianus, a jurisconsult of uncertain date, probably not later than the period of Alexander Severus.
- Gaius Furius Sabinus Aquila Timesitheus, praetorian prefect in AD 241.
- Marcus Maecius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus, consul in AD 343.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
- George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897).
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita i. 32, 33.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia ix. 63.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita iii. 5.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita iv. 25, 35, 45.
- Fasti Capitolini
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita vi. 31.
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica xiv. 35.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita v. 32.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita vii. 1.
- Suda, s. v. Πραιτωρ.
- Publius Cornelius Tacitus, Annales xii. 52, Historiae ii. 75.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxii. 53.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xli. 21., xliii. 2.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xlii. 28, 31, xliii. 13.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxii. 49.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX i. 1. § 9.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Pro Ligario
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX vi. 1. § 13.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita iii. 1.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita iii. 54.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita ix. 42.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxxi. 21.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxxviii. 55.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, In Verrem v. 43.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Oratore iii. 23.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, In Catilinam iii. 6.
- Gaius Sallustius Crispus, The Conspiracy of Catiline 50.
- P.I. Besier, Diss. de Furio Anthiano, J.C. ejusque fragmentis, Lug. Bat. 1803.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.