Gente Nueva

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Gente Nueva
Sinaloacartel-interrogation.png
Members of Gente Nueva interrogating a man.
Founded 2007 by Noel Salgueiro[1]
Founding location Veracruz, Mexico[2]
Years active 2007−present
Territory Sinaloa, Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango,
Ethnicity Mexican
Criminal activities Drug trafficking, kidnapping, extortion, murder[3]
Allies Sinaloa Cartel, Artistas Asesinos, Los Mexicles, Los Antrax, Knights Templar Cartel.
Rivals Los Zetas, Juárez Cartel, La Línea, Los Aztecas

Gente Nueva (English: New People), also known as Los Chapos,[4] in reference to their drug lord Joaquín Guzmán Loera, is a group of hitmen that works as the armed wing of the Sinaloa Cartel.

Since its foundation in 2007, Gente Nueva has served as the main branch of the organization in Ciudad Juárez and in the rest of the state, where they have engaged in a four-year war with the Juárez Cartel and its enforcer wing, La Línea, for the control of the smuggling routes to the United States.[5] Amid the internal struggles and infightings in the Juárez cartel, Gente Nueva began to recruit the cartel's members.[6]

By 2012, U.S. intelligence indicated that the Sinaloa cartel and Gente Nueva have emerged victorious and successfully relegated the Juárez cartel to the sidelines.[7] The El Paso–Juárez corridor is a lucrative route for drug traffickers because the DEA estimates that about 70% of the cocaine that enters the United States flows through that area.[8]

History[edit]

Battle for Ciudad Juárez[edit]

The war between the Juárez Cartel and the Sinaloa Cartel for the control of the smuggling routes in Ciudad Juárez broke out on 5 January 2008, when five men were shot dead with AR-15s in a matter of hours; within a few days, several policemen and nearly two dozen civilians lay dead.[9] The Juárez cartel used La Línea and Los Aztecas gang to fight off the forces of the Sinaloa cartel, which had employed the gangs known as Artistas Asesinos and Los Mexicles, along with its armed wing, Gente Nueva.[10] The turf wars between them have left more than 10,000 dead in four years.[11]

When Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, jumped into the territory of the Juárez organization in 2007, he attempted to split his rival organization and recruit the dissidents into his own invasion force – Gente Nueva.[6]

Gente Nueva is responsible for a number of crimes, including but not limited to extortions, kidnappings, tortures, and assassinations.[12]

Ciudad Juárez rehab center attack[edit]

Masked gunmen stormed the El Aliviane drug rehabilitation center in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua on 3 September 2009, gathered all of the patients together against a wall at a central patio, and then opened fire at them with AK-47 rifles.[13][14] 18 patients were killed in the attack and two others were left wounded.[14] When the Mexican authorities removed the dead bodies, a thick layer of blood was left at the concrete floor of the clinic, from the entrance to the sleep quarters.[13] Local newspapers stated that the gunmen were plotting to kill members of Los Aztecas, a rival gang at the service of the Juárez Cartel.[14] On February 2012 in León, Guanajuato – José Antonio Torres Marrufo – a leader of Gente Nueva, was arrested and found responsible for ordering the attack.[15] Gente Nueva had killed 8 people at a the 7&7 Bar in Ciudad Juárez just a few weeks before the rehab center attack.[16]

The attack was materialized within sight of the U.S.-Mexico border and is one of the worst single mass shootings in the history of Ciudad Juárez.[13][17]

The Mexican authorities stated that the drug trafficking organizations use rehabilitation clinics to recruit foot soldiers and smugglers, and often kill those who do not cooperate. Others are killed for failing to pay for their drugs or for ripping off a dealer.[18] In addition, the cartels frequently target unlicensed rehabilitation centers, since they are likely to accept active gang members seeking to free themselves from an addiction.[19] Unlike the government-licensed clinics, the private centers are not associated with the penal system and have limited security measures, leaving the victims vulnerable to attacks by gangs seeking revenge or the elimination of a potential police informant.[19] In Ciudad Juárez alone, there are around 100,000 drug addicts and many of the rehab clinics are unlicensed and ran by former addicts, making them easy points for the cartels to infiltrate.[20] Some cartel members even check themselves in the facility and pose as addicts. Once they gain information of why the facility works, they co-opt with workers or threaten to kill them.[20] Some of the addicts sell candy and gum at the city's stop lights to raise money for those struggling in their rehab center, but the cartels have taken this opportunity to force them to sell drugs too.[20] The drug cartels have also created and managed pseudo-clinics, and once their patients are off drugs, they gIve them the choice to work as a drug trafficker or get killed.[20] The cartels usually "dispose" of their young addicts by killing them, since the criminal organizations quickly recruit young men and prefer to minimize their risk by eliminating the others.[19]

Decline of the Juárez Cartel[edit]

The decline of the Juárez Cartel began in 1997 after the death of Amado Carrillo Fuentes, but worsened in mid-2000 when the Sinaloa Cartel sought to take over the assets of the criminal organization and move into the city.[21] In 2010, violence in Ciudad Juárez reached its peak, seeing an average of 10 homicides per day, or about 230 murders per 100,000 people annually.[21] That same year, the average in all of Mexico was of 18 murders per every 100,000 habitants.[21] La Línea and the Juárez cartel lived their biggest blow with the arrest of José Antonio Acosta Hernández (a.k.a. El Diego), a top drug baron accused by the Mexican authorities of ordering more than 1,500 killings.[21] Joaquín Guzmán Loera's four-year struggle in Ciudad Juárez left more than 10,000 since 2008,[22] but evidence shows that the murder rates in Ciudad Juárez decreased by 59.8% in the first half of 2012 when compared to the same period in 2011, and Mexican officials have attributed this decline to the success of its law enforcement agencies.[23] Nonetheless, experts told El Paso Times that part of the reason why the violence in Ciudad Juárez toned down is because the Sinaloa cartel has consolidated its dominance over the now-weakened Juárez cartel.[23] The Juárez cartel continues to operate in the city, but it no longer holds a monopoly and appears to be unable to expand. Other experts echoe that the cartel is having difficulties paying its members and that the violence will continue to decline as its hegemony erodes.[23] Their relationship with the Barrio Azteca gang has also been tampered by the cartel's decline.[24] NPR reports indicated that several people in Ciudad Juárez, including but not limited to local journalists and former policemen, perceived that the Mexican government allegedly favored the Sinaloa cartel in their battle against the Juárez cartel.[25] Nonetheless, counterarguments from security experts were also included.[25]

The reported victory of the Sinaloa cartel may possibly not halt the forces of the Juárez cartel; as long as Vicente Carrillo Fuentes is alive and free, the warfare in the area will possibly continue.[26] With limited options, the Juárez cartel has been forced to reorganize its forces and opt for extortions and kidnappings, while Gente Nueva – the Sinaloa cartel's armed wing – receives funding from other states.[27] In addition, the drug corridor in Ciudad Juárez remains a crucial territory for the Mexican drug trafficking organizations, so the city could continue to see battles for the control of the lucrative smuggling routes – even at a diminishing scale.[28] And although the rise of the New Juárez Cartel has yet to materialize, the threat still remains.[28]

Cartel infighting in Durango[edit]

On mid-2011, the Mexican authorities said that the hundreds of corpses found in several mass graves in the northern state of Durango were victims of an infighting within the Sinaloa Cartel.[29] Through a banner, Gente Nueva and Los Ms, a faction led by Ismael Zambada García, accused other lieutenants in the cartel of "heating up the plaza" in Durango by trying to attract law enforcement presence in the area, usually through indiscriminate killings and other violent tactics.[30] The message warned their rivals that they had only 24 hours to leave the area before they were killed.[30] The banner was followed by a pair of videos uploaded on March that showed several armed men in military grabs interrogating two men allegedly working for a rival faction.[30] In the video, the two men said that they had been sent to Durango to disrupt cartel operatives. The dispute indicated that two leaders in Gente Nueva, Noel Salgeiro and Felipe Cabrera, had lost the support of the upper-leaders in Gente Nueva and the rest of the Sinaloa organization.[30]

Initially, the massacre was overshadowed by the other mass graves in the northeastern state of Tamaulipas. But when Bernabé Monje Silva, alias M14 was arrested by the Federal police, he led them to the exact location of the bodies.[31][32] He later confessed that there was a feud between several factions of the Sinaloa cartel for the control of the drug corridors in Durango.[32] The area is a strategic drug trafficking corridor since it can connect with the border cities of Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Ciudad Juárez.[29] It is also an attractive pathway state and producer region, notorious for growing poppy and marijuana in the mountainous region known as the "Golden Triangle."[30] In addition, according to Mexican and U.S. intelligence, Joaquín Guzmán Loera (El Chapo) has been reported to have married in a small town in Durango and lived in the Sierra Madre[disambiguation needed] mountains in 2007 and 2009 respectively.[33]

Veracruz incursion and massacre[edit]

The tit-for-tat fighting between Los Zetas and the Sinaloa cartel started in the Mexican state of Veracruz, a strategic smuggling region with a giant gulf port.[34] On 20 September 2011 at around 5:00 p.m., several vehicles blocked a major avenue in Boca del Río, Veracruz.[35] Once traffic stopped, armed men abandoned two trucks in the middle of the highway.[35] Then they opened the gates of the truck beds and left a written message behind.[35] Other gunmen pointed their weapons at the frightened drivers.[36] The cartel members then fled the scene.[37]

The two trucks that were left at an underpass near a shopping mall contained 35 dead bodies.[38] Consequently, the stunned motorists began to grab their cellphones and post messages on Twitter warning other drivers to avoid the area.[36] When first discovered, all of the corpses were alleged to be members of Los Zetas,[39] but it was later proven that only six of them had been involved in minor crime incidents, and none of them were involved with organized crime.[40] Some of the victims had their hands tied and bore signs of torture.[41] The message left behind stated the following:

"No more extortions or murders of innocent people! ... People of Veracruz, do not allow extortions; do not pay for protection ... This is going to happen to all the Zetas-fucks that continue to operate in Veracruz ... This territory has a new proprietor."

— G.N.[42]

The banner's reference to "G.N." was a clear reference to Gente Nueva,[43] but the Jalisco New Generation Cartel later assumed full responsibility for the massacre and the incursions in the state of Veracruz, traditionally considered turf of Los Zetas.[43][44]

Present-day[edit]

In the year of 2013 big hits were done to them. In Ciudad Juarez they arrested Mario Nuñez Meza also known as M-100, M-10 or El Mayito.[45][46] Months later they arrested his brother M-12 also in Juarez.[47][48] On 11 December 2013, Gente Nueva high-ranking leader Jesús Gregorio Villanueva Rodríguez (alias "El R5") was shot and injured as he left a fast food restaurant in the state of Sonora, his area of operations. His girlfriend and him were taken to the hospital, but Villanueva Rodríguez died after receiving medical attention.[49][50]

Known leaders of Gente Nueva[edit]

Name Alias Status Killed/Captured/Reward Refs
Joaquín Guzmán Loera El Chapo Arrested $5M [51]
Noel Salgueiro El Flaco Arrested 5 October 2011 [52]
José Antonio Torres Marrufo El Jaguar Arrested 4 February 2012 [53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Las autoridades detienen a fundadores de 'La Familia' y 'Gente Nueva'". CNNMéxico (in Spanish). 5 October 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  2. ^ (Spanish) Muedano, Marcos (6 October 2011). "Cae presunto fundador de la agrupación Gente Nueva". El Universal. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  3. ^ McCaul, Michael T. "A Line in the Sand: Confronting the Threat at the Southwest Border". United States House Committee on Homeland Security: 38. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  4. ^ "Los chapos califican de terroristas a los Beltrán". Milenio (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Shea, Erin (25 May 2012). "Mapping Sinaloa Cartel Operatives in Juarez Battleground". InSight Crime. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Tuckman 2012, p. 31.
  7. ^ "Drug War Experts Insist Juarez Cartel Will 'Fight To The Death'". KVIA-TV. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  8. ^ "Colombian Trafficker with Links to Mexican and Colombian Cartels Extradited from Mexico to the United States". Drug Enforcement Administration. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  9. ^ "Ciudad Juarez Banner Headline: "Not One Person Murdered Yesterday"". The Huffington Post. 9 June 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  10. ^ "Sinaloa cartel member captured in northern Mexico". Fox News. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  11. ^ Rosenberg, Mica (27 January 2010). "Ten thousand dead and counting: Ciudad Juarez, the Mexican city that’s deadlier than Afghanistan". The National Post. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  12. ^ "El Ejército mexicano detiene al fundador del brazo armado del cártel de Sinaloa" (in Spanish). 10 May 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c Lacey, Marc (3 September 2009). "17 Killed in Mexican Rehab Center". New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c Ellingwood, Ken (4 September 2009). "18 killed in Juarez clinic for addicts". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  15. ^ "Sinaloa cartel enforcer Marrufo arrested in Mexico". BBC News. 4 February 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  16. ^ Miroslava, Breach (22 September 2009). "Cómplices de El Chapo, cinco implicados en masacre de adictos en Juárez: Sedena". La Jornada (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  17. ^ Sanchez, Stephanie (4 September 2009). "Juárez in shock: Attack considered city's worst multiple shooting". El Paso Times. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  18. ^ Flores, Aileen B. (16 June 2010). "19 die in attack at rehabilitation center". El Paso Times. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c Ramsey, Geoffrey (8 June 2011). "No Exit: Why Mexico's Drug Gangs Target Rehab Clinics". InSight Crime. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
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  25. ^ a b Burnett, John (18 May 2010). "Mexico's Drug War: A Rigged Fight?". NPR. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  26. ^ Caldwell, Alicia A. (10 April 2010). "El Chapo Guzman winning Juarez drug war, U.S. intelligence says". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  27. ^ Chavez, Ricardo (12 July 2012). "Mexico Army: Border City Killings Plunge This Year". ABC News. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  28. ^ a b Fox, Edward (3 May 2012). "Judge: 'Mexico Will Win Fight Against Organized Crime in Juarez". InSight Crime. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  29. ^ a b Corcoran, Patrick (25 May 2011). "Mexico Mass Graves: Evidence of Sinaloa Cartel Split?". InSight Crime. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  30. ^ a b c d e Corcoran, Patrick (25 April 2011). "Factions of Sinaloa Cartel Battle in Durango". InSight Crime. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  31. ^ "Mass Graves Reveal Dissension in Cartel, Say Police Sources". Fox News. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  32. ^ a b "Los Emes, Los Canelos y Los Cabrera, autores de las fosas en Durango". Excélsior (in Spanish). 22 May 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  33. ^ Stone, Hannah (12 April 2011). "Is the US Raising Stakes in Search for 'El Chapo'?". InSight Crime. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
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  36. ^ a b Castillo, Eduardo (21 September 2011). "Mexico Horror: Suspected Drug Traffickers Dump 35 Bodies On Avenue In Veracruz". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  37. ^ "Arrojan 35 cuerpos torturados en una calle de Veracruz". El Mundo (in Spanish). 21 September 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  38. ^ "35 bodies found in Mexican roadway during rush hour". CNN. 20 September 2011. 
  39. ^ "35 muertos de Boca del Río serían Zetas: Autoridades". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 21 September 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  40. ^ Martínez, Chivis (8 June 2012). "Bodies of Innocents Used as Props in Mexico's Drug War". InSight Crime. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
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  42. ^ "En Veracruz tiran a 40 ejecutados; narcomantas señalan que muertos son de Los Zetas". Blog del Narco (in Spanish). 21 September 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  43. ^ a b Ramsey, Geoffrey (27 September 2011). "35 Dead 'Zetas' Dumped on Busy Street in Veracruz, Mexico". InSight Crime. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  44. ^ "Comando armado se responsabiliza por cádaveres arrojados en Veracruz". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 27 September 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  45. ^ "CDS: "El Mayito" Captured in Juarez Safehouse". Borderland Beat. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  46. ^ Borunda, Daniel (28 August 2013). "Chihuahua police arrest reputed drug-trafficker "El Mayito" in Juárez". El Paso Times. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  47. ^ "M-12, Brother of "El Mayito" Arrested in a Safehouse in Juarez". Borderland Beat. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  48. ^ "Detienen a lugarteniente de ‘El Chapo’ en Ciudad Juárez". Excélsior (in Spanish). 17 October 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  49. ^ "Sinaloa Cartel Lieutenant "R5" Killed". Borderland Beat. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  50. ^ "Asesinan en Hermosillo al lugarteniente "R5"". El Debate (in Spanish). 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  51. ^ Torres, Alberto (25 February 2008). "El Chapo despliega su ejército en Chihuahua". El Universal (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  52. ^ "Sinaloa cartel boss in Mexico's Chihuahua state arrested". Fox News. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  53. ^ Cardenas, Lourdes (4 February 2012). "Alleged mastermind of Juárez rehab massacre arrested". El Paso Times. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]