The desktop as provided by Gentoo Linux LiveDVD, release 12.0
|Company / developer||Gentoo Foundation|
|Source model||Free and open source software|
|Initial release||31 March 2002|
|Latest release||Rolling release / weekly (approximately)|
|Platforms||IA-32, x86-64, IA-64, PA-RISC; PowerPC 32/64, SPARC 64-bit, DEC Alpha, ARM, Motorola 68K|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|Default user interface||KDE Plasma Desktop from LiveCD, various|
|License||GNU General Public License, others|
Gentoo Linux (// JEN-too) is a computer operating system based on the Linux kernel and built using the Portage package management system. It is distributed as free and open source software. Unlike a binary software distribution, the source code is compiled locally according to the user's preferences and is often optimized for the specific type of computer. Precompiled binaries are available for some very large packages and for packages whose source code has not been released.
The "Gentoo" name comes from the fast-swimming Gentoo penguin. It was chosen to reflect the potential speed improvements of machine-specific optimization. Gentoo package management is designed to be modular, portable, easy to maintain, and flexible. Gentoo is sometimes described as a meta-distribution, "because of its near-unlimited adaptability", in that the majority of users have configurations and sets of installed programs which are unique to themselves.
Gentoo Linux was initially created by Daniel Robbins as the Enoch Linux distribution. The goal was to create a distribution without precompiled binaries that was tuned to the hardware and only included required programs. At least one version of Enoch was distributed: version 0.75, in December 1999.
Daniel Robbins and the other contributors experimented with a fork of GCC known as EGCS developed by Cygnus Solutions. At this point, "Enoch" was renamed "Gentoo" Linux (the Gentoo species is the fastest swimming penguin). The modifications to EGCS eventually became part of the official GCC (version 2.95), and other Linux distributions experienced similar speed increases.
After problems with a bug on his own system, Robbins halted Gentoo development and switched to FreeBSD for several months, later saying "I decided to add several FreeBSD features to make our autobuild system (now called Portage) a true next-generation ports system."
Gentoo Linux 1.0 was released March 31, 2002. In 2004, Robbins set up the non-profit Gentoo Foundation, transferred all copyrights and trademarks to it, and stepped down as Chief Architect of the project.
The current Board of Trustees is composed of five members who were announced (following an election) on March 2, 2008. There is also a seven-member Gentoo Council that oversees the technical issues and policies of Gentoo. The Gentoo Council members are elected for a period of one year, each year by the active Gentoo developers. When a member of the Council retires, the successor is voted into place by the existing Council members.
The Gentoo Foundation is a 501(c)(6) non-profit foundation, registered in the State of New Mexico. In late 2007, the Foundation's charter was revoked, but by May 2008 the State of New Mexico declared that the Gentoo Foundation, Inc. had returned to good standing and was free to do business.
Gentoo appeals to Linux users who want full control of the software that is installed and running on their computer.:402 People that are prepared to invest the time required to configure and tune a Gentoo system can build very efficient desktops and servers. Gentoo encourages the user to build a Linux kernel tailored to their particular hardware. It allows very fine control of which services are installed and running. Memory usage can be reduced, compared to other distributions, by omitting unnecessary kernel features and services.:386
Gentoo is a good distribution for fairly technical people who want to learn more about Linux,:383 as well as for Linux enthusiasts, programmers, and system administrators. The quantity and quality of the documentation is exceptionally high and there is a large community of users that are able to assist with problems.
A very large collection of software is available. Each package contains details of any other software it depends on, so only the minimum set is installed to run the required applications. Optional features of individual packages, for example whether they require LDAP support, can be selected and any consequential package requirements are automatically included in the set of dependencies.:386
Portage is Gentoo's software distribution and package management system. The original design was based on the ports system used by the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) based operating systems. The portage tree contains over 10,000 packages ready for installation in a Gentoo system.
A single invocation of portage's emerge command can update the local copy of the portage tree, search for a package, or download, compile, and install one or more packages and their dependencies. The features that are built-in can be set for individual packages, or globally, with what are known as "use flags".
Pre-compiled binaries are provided for some applications with long build times, such as OpenOffice.org and Mozilla Firefox, but users lose the ability to customize optional features. There are configuration options to reduce compilation times by enabling parallel compilation and using pipes instead of temporary files; package compilation may also be distributed over multiple computers. In addition, the user may be able to mount a large filesystem in RAM to greatly speed up the process of building packages. Some of these approaches have drawbacks, and so are not enabled by default. When installing the same package on multiple computers with sufficiently similar hardware, the package may be compiled once and a binary package created for quick installation on the other computers.
Originally built on the x86 architecture, Gentoo has since been ported to many others. It is officially supported and considered stable on x86, x86-64, IA-64, PA-RISC, PowerPC, PowerPC 970, SPARC 64-bit and DEC Alpha architectures. It is also officially supported but considered in development state on MIPS, PS3 Cell Processor, System Z/s390, ARM, and SuperH. Official support for 32-bit SPARC hardware has been dropped.
Portability toward other operating systems, such as BSD-derived ones including Mac OS X, is under active development by the Gentoo/Alt project. The Gentoo/FreeBSD project already has a working guide based on FreeSBIE, while Gentoo/NetBSD, Gentoo/OpenBSD and Gentoo/DragonFly are being developed. There is also a project to get Portage working on OpenSolaris. There was an unofficial project to create a Gentoo port to GNU Hurd, but it has been inactive since 2006.
Gentoo may be installed in several ways. The most common way is to use the Gentoo minimal CD with a stage 3 tarball (see below for more explanation on stages). As with many Linux distributions, Gentoo may be installed from almost any Linux environment, such as another Linux distribution's LiveCD, LiveUSB or Network Booting using the "Gentoo Alternate Install Guide". A normal install requires a connection to the Internet, but there is also a guide for a network-less install.
Previously, Gentoo supported installation from stage 1 and 2 tarballs. However, this is no longer recommended officially by the Gentoo foundation, and is meant only for Gentoo developers.
Following the initial install steps, the Gentoo Linux install process in the Gentoo Handbook describes compiling a new Linux kernel. This process is generally not required by other Linux distributions. Although this is widely regarded as a complex task, Gentoo provides documentation and tools such as Genkernel to simplify the process and make it straightforward for novice users. In addition, users may also use an existing kernel known to work on their system by simply copying it to the boot directory and updating their bootloader. Support for installation is provided on the Gentoo forum and on IRC.
Traditionally installation could be started from one of three base stages:
- Stage1: System must be bootstrapped and the base system must be compiled.
- Stage2: System has already been bootstrapped, but the base system must be compiled.
- Stage3: System has already been bootstrapped and the base system already compiled.
As of November 2005, only stage3 installations are officially supported. Tarballs for stage1 and stage2 were distributed for some time after this, although the instructions for installing from these stages had been removed from the handbook and moved into the Gentoo FAQ. Only the supported stage3 tarballs are currently available.
Gentoo Reference Platform
From 2003 until 2008, the Gentoo Reference Platform (GRP) was a snapshot of prebuilt packages that users could quickly install during the Gentoo installation process, to give faster access to fully functional Gentoo installation. These packages included KDE, X Window System, OpenOffice, GNOME, and Mozilla. Once the installation was complete, the packages installed as part of the GRP were intended to be replaced by the user with the same or newer versions built though Portage which would be built using the users' system configuration rather than the generic builds provided by the GRP. As of 2011, the GRP is discontinued, the final reference to it appearing in the 2008.0 handbook.
Once Gentoo is installed, it becomes effectively "versionless"; that is, once an emerge update is done, the system is at the latest version, with the most up-to-date packages available (subject to restrictions that a user may have specified in their Portage configuration files). For example, if a system is installed using a stage3 from March 2011, and the user performs a full emerge update one month later, they will upgrade the installed Gentoo system to the same as they would have if they had performed a fresh installation from an April 2011 CD. Thus, Gentoo users may upgrade to the latest version of all of their installed software the day that new versions are released and have an ebuild available. Like other Linux distributions, Gentoo systems have an
/etc/gentoo-release file, but this contains the version of the installed
In 2004, Gentoo began to version its Live media by year rather than numerically. This continued until 2008, when it was announced that the 2008.1 LiveCD release had been cancelled in favour of weekly automated builds of both Stages 3 and Minimal CDs. On 20 December 2008, the first weekly builds were published. In 2009, a special LiveDVD was created to celebrate the Gentoo 10-year anniversary.
Release-media version history
- (Enoch Linux) 0.75, December 1999
- 1.0, March 31, 2002
- 1.1a, April 8, 2002
- 1.2, June 10, 2002
- 1.4 August 5, 2003 (Gentoo Reference Platform introduced)
- 1.4 maintenance release 1 September 11, 2003
- 2004.0 March 1, 2004 (versioning changed to four releases a year)
- 2004.1 April 28, 2004
- 2004.2 July 26, 2004
- 2004.3 November 15, 2004
- 2005.0 March 27, 2005 (versioning changed to semi-annual releases)
- 2005.1 August 8, 2005
- 2005.1-r1 November 21, 2005 (maintenance release 1)
- 2006.0 February 27, 2006
- 2006.1 August 30, 2006
- 2007.0 May 7, 2007
- 2008.0 July 6, 2008
- Weekly Releases from September 22, 2008
In 2009, a special LiveDVD was released to celebrate Gentoo's 10-year anniversary. Initially planned as a once-off, the LiveDVD was updated to the latest package versions in 2011 due to its popularity among new users.
- 10.0 October 4, 2009 (special edition LiveDVD for the 10th anniversary)
- 10.1 October 10, 2009 (Bugfix release of Special LiveDVD)
- 11.0 March 8, 2011 (Anniversary LiveDVD is updated to latest package versions)
- 12.0 January 2, 2012
- 12.1 April 1, 2012 (With an April Fool's joke named "Install Wizard")
- 12.1 December 21, 2012 (LiveDVD - End Of World Edition)
Logo and mascots
The Gentoo penguin is thought to be the fastest underwater-swimming penguin. The name "Gentoo Linux" acknowledges both the Linux mascot, a penguin called "Tux", and the project's aim to produce a high performance operating system.:383
The website DistroWatch.com provides information and download links concerning different Unix-like operating systems, as well as a compilation of respective page hits. The DistroWatch statistics tracks page hits since 2002.
Upon launch, Gentoo quickly became a popular distribution, acclaiming 326 hits per day on average in 2002 on DistroWatch - the third highest. However, over the years Gentoo has suffered from a dropping popularity. In 2003, Gentoo was fourth most popular, and dropped to seventh in 2004, ninth in 2005, tenth in 2006 and thirteenth in 2007. For 2008, Gentoo dropped to 18th, but the following year it ended its dropping streak by rising to 17th. Gentoo was placed 18th in 2010, 20th in 2011, 22nd in 2012, 33rd in 2013, and 38th in 2014.
- Gentoo-derived distributions
- Distributions using Gentoo's Portage system
- "Official Gentoo Handbook – Introduction". gentoo.org. 2008-04-22. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
- "Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions". gentoo.org. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
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- "Planet Mirror – enoch – Enoch Linux – enoch-0.75 – download now". Public.planetmirror.com. 2007-02-11. Retrieved 2010-01-28.[dead link]
- BBC Nature – Wildlife – Gentoo penguin
- "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Making the distribution, Part 2". Gentoo.org. 2005-10-09. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Making the distribution, Part 3". Gentoo.org. 2005-10-09. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Slashdot | Gentoo 1.0 Released". Linux.slashdot.org. 2002-03-31. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Daniel Robbins Resigns As Chief Gentoo Architect". Slashdot. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Gentoo Foundation Charter". Gentoo.org. 2010-01-02. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – New foundation trustees elected". Gentoo.org. 2008-03-02. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Council". gentoo.org. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
- Gentoo Council. Accessed January 6, 2014.
- GENTOO FOUNDATION, INC., Corporations Information Inquiry, New Mexico Public Relation Commission. Accessed May 8, 2009.
- jake (2008-01-14). "Gentoo loses charter; Robbins offers to return [LWN.net]". Lwn.net. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Foundation, Inc.". New Mexico Corporation Division Efile. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- Christopher Negus (5 May 2008). Linux Bible: Boot Up to Ubuntu, Fedora, KNOPPIX, Debian, openSUSE, and 11 Other Distributions. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 389–. ISBN 978-0-470-28706-4.
- David Brickner (30 October 2005). Linux Desktop Pocket Guide. O'Reilly Media, Inc. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-0-596-10104-6.
- Chris Negus (2006). Live Linux CDs: Building and Customizing Bootables. Prentice Hall Professional. pp. 224–. ISBN 978-0-13-243274-0.
- Configuring the Compile Options, Gentoo Linux x86 Handbook. July 7, 2008. Accessed May 8, 2009.
- Distributed Compiling, Gentoo Linux x86 Handbook. July 7, 2008. Accessed May 8, 2009.
- Binary Package Support, Gentoo Linux x86 Handbook. July 7, 2008. Accessed May 8, 2009.
- Brendan Horan (26 March 2013). Practical Raspberry Pi. Apress. pp. 222–. ISBN 978-1-4302-4971-9.
- "Gentoo 2007.0 press release". Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo/MIPS". gentoo.org. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
- "Gentoo Linux Documentation – s390 Installation Document". Dev.gentoo.org. 2004-05-12. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux Projects – Gentoo Linux ARM Development". Gentoo.org. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Development Guide: Arch Specific Notes – SPARC". Devmanual.gentoo.org. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo FreeBSD". gentoo.org. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
- "Gentoo Linux Projects – Gentoo/*BSD". Gentoo.org. 2006-10-19. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo GNU Hurd". Mundurat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?".
- "Compiling & Installing Linux 2.4". Smartcomputing.com. 2007-01-05. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- Gentoo Linux Documentation – Configuring the Kernel
- "Gentoo Linux Newsletter – November 14th, 2005". Gentoo.org. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Stage1/2 deprecation from Gentoo Handbook". Gmane. 2005-11-05. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
- "UNetbootin – Universal Netboot Installer". Unetbootin.sourceforge.net. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- Daniel Robbins (2002-10-10). "Gentoo Linux Reloaded". LinuxDevCenter.com. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Sven Vermeulen (2004-03-01). "Gentoo Linux 2004.0 Released". OSNews. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- "What is the Gentoo Reference Platform?". Retrieved 2006-01-04.
- "Gentoo Linux Documentation". Retrieved 2011-04-24.
- "Gentoo News – New release strategy to provide more current install media". Gentoo.org. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo News – First sets of weekly stage3 tarballs and minimal CDs released". Gentoo.org. 2008-12-20. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- Gentoo Linux - Gentoo Linux - Ten Years Compiling: 1999 - 2009. Gentoo.org (2009-10-04). Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
- "Gentoo Linux Newsletter – March 1st, 2004". Gentoo.org. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux Newsletter – November 15, 2004". Gentoo.org. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – Release Announcement: Gentoo Linux 2005.0". Gentoo.org. 2005-03-27. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – Release Announcement: Gentoo Linux 2005.1". Gentoo.org. 2005-08-10. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – Media Refresh: Gentoo Linux 2005.1-r1". Gentoo.org. 2005-11-21. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – Release Announcement: Gentoo Linux 2006.0". Gentoo.org. 2006-02-27. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – Gentoo Linux 2006.1 – Unleashed". Gentoo.org. 2006-08-30. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – Gentoo Linux 2007.0 released". Gentoo.org. 2007-05-07. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – Gentoo Linux 2008.0 released". Gentoo.org. 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – New release strategy to provide more current install media". Gentoo.org. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux – Ten Years Compiling: 1999–2009". Gentoo.org. 2009-10-04. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Gentoo Name and Logo Usage Guidelines". Gentoo.org. 2005-12-11. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "(gentoo) Contents of /xml/images/znurt.jpg". Gentoo.org. 2002-11-09. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- DistroWatch - 2012
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gentoo.|
- Unofficial documentation and other
- Gentoo Linux - the fresh ebuilds
- Planet Larry, another aggregation of user blogs
- Secunia advisories for Gentoo
- Gentoo Linux at DistroWatch
- Gentoo Linux man pages
- Articles and media coverage
- Growing With Gentoo, O'Reilly Linux Dev Center, 2004-03-15