A GeoTLD (geographic TLD) is a generic top-level domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet using the name of or invoking an association with a geographical, geopolitical, ethnic, linguistic or cultural community.
As of 2014[update], several examples of geographic TLDs exist: .London, enabling London businesses, organizations, and individuals to establish an online naming presence, .asia (for Asia), .cat which is a sponsored top-level domain intended to be used to highlight the Catalan language and culture.
Examples of proposed top-level domains in this category are:
- .αθήνα (Athens)
- .berlin for the city of Berlin, Germany
- .wien for the city of Vienna, Austria
- .bcn (city of Barcelona)
- .bzh (Breton community)
- .cym (Wales (Cymru); awarded to the Cayman Islands)
- .eus (Basque Language))
- .gal (Galician language)
- .lat (Latin America)
- .saarland (the German Saarland state)
- .africa (African and Pan African communities)
- .scot (Scots community)
- .上海 (Shanghai)
- .ln and .le - Currently being sold by Dennis Hope's "Lunar Embassy Commission" alongside .lunar, .moon, .venus, .mars, .jupiter, .saturn, .uranus, .neptune, .pluto, .space. People who purchase novelty deeds for outer space property from him are also given free domains. None of these TLDs are supported by the root servers and it is unlikely they will be in the future (Although, with the ICANN decision to allow registration of custom gTLDs, it becomes possible).
Many of these are geographic, including:
- .bcn (for Barcelona)
- .bzh (for Brittany)
- .cymru (for Wales)
- .lat (for Latin America)
- .nyc (for New York City)
- .rio (for Rio de Janeiro)
- .vlaanderen (for Flanders)
- .москва (for Moscow)
- .рус (for Russia)
- .ابوظبي (for Abu Dhabi)
- .佛山 (for Foshan)
- .广州 (for Guangzhou)
- .深圳 (for Shenzhen)
Internationalized country codes
An internationalized country code is similar to a GeoTLD, with two differences: it is a domain used exclusively for a sovereign state. The other difference is that an internationalized country code is considered a ccTLD and not a GeoTLD. More free geographic ccTLD have been applied for and will be active in 2013.
- Hope, David. "The Lunar Embassy". Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- Reveal Day 13 June 2012 – New gTLD Applied-For Strings
- Contribution about GeoTLD at the United Nations Internet Governance Forum IGF in Athens 2006
- Article about GeoTLDs by former German Governmental Advisory Committee GAC member at ICANN Michael Leibrandt
- Workshop on GeoTLDs at ICANN Meeting in San Juan June 2007
- ICANN Public Participation Website
- ICANN IDN wiki
- CityTLD literature