Geoffrey Dawson

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For the English cricketer (born 1940), see Geoffrey Dawson (cricketer).
Geoffrey Dawson
Born George Geoffrey Robinson
(1874-10-25)25 October 1874
Skipton-in-Craven, Yorkshire, England
Died 7 November 1944(1944-11-07) (aged 70)
London, England
Education Magdalen College, Oxford
Occupation Civil servant, editor

George Geoffrey Dawson (25 October 1874 – 7 November 1944) was editor of The Times from 1912 to 1919 and again from 1923 until 1941. His original last name was Robinson, but he changed it in 1917.

Early life[edit]

Dawson was born 25 October 1874, in Skipton-in-Craven, Yorkshire, the eldest child of George Robinson, a banker, and his wife Mary. He attended Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford, and was elected a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. He chose a career in civil service, entering in 1898 by open examination. After a year at the Post Office, he was transferred to the Colonial Office and in 1901 he was selected as assistant private secretary to Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain. Later the same year Dawson obtained a similar position with Lord Milner, high commissioner in South Africa.

As Milner's assistant, Dawson participated in the establishment of British administration in South Africa in the aftermath of the Boer War. While there, he became a member of "Milner's kindergarten",[1] a circle of young administrators and civil servants whose membership included Leo Amery, Bob Brand, Philip Kerr, Richard Feetham and Lionel Curtis. United by a common aspiration for Imperial Federation, all later became prominent in the "round table" of Empire Loyalists.[2]

Career in journalism[edit]

Milner wanted to ensure the support of the local newspapers after his return to England. He persuaded the owners of the Johannesburg Star to appoint Dawson as the paper's editor. Dawson later parlayed this post into a position as the Johannesburg correspondent of The Times; and then attracted the attention of Lord Northcliffe, owner of the Times, who appointed him editor of the paper in 1912.

Dawson was unhappy, however, with the way that Northcliffe used the paper as an instrument to further his own personal political agenda and broke with him, stepping down as editor in February 1919. Dawson returned to the post in 1923 after Lord Northcliffe's death, when the paper's ownership had passed to John Jacob Astor V. Bob Brand had become the Astors' brother-in-law, and it is thought that he introduced Dawson to the Astors' circle at Cliveden, the so-called Cliveden set presided over by Nancy Astor.

In his second stint as editor, Dawson began to use the paper in the same manner as Lord Northcliffe had once done, to promote his own agenda. He also became a leader of a group of journalists that sought to influence national policy by private correspondence with leading statesmen. Dawson was close to both Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain. He was a prominent proponent and supporter of appeasement policies, after Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. He was a member of the Anglo-German Fellowship[3] and under his editorship, The Times forbade any mention of German anti-semitism during the pre-war years when Hitler was in power.[4] He was opposed to Zionism.[5] He is considered a major figure in the events that led up to the Munich agreement in 1938. He retired in 1941.

Dawson was also a lifelong friend and dining companion of Edward Wood, later Lord Halifax, who was Foreign Secretary in the period 1938–1940. He promoted the policies of the Baldwin/Chamberlain governments of the period 1936–1940. Dawson died 7 November 1944 in London.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Charles Loch Mowat, Britain between the wars: 1918–1940 (2nd Edition), 244
  2. ^ Driver, C. J., Sampson, Anthony. Patrick Duncan. James Currey Publishers, 2000. (Page 20)
  3. ^ Stevenson, William. A Man Called Intrepid. Globe Pequot, 2000. (Page 232)
  4. ^ Fantastic reality. Marxism and the politics of religion. Lulu.com. ISBN 1-874123-13-6 (Page 403)
  5. ^ Berlin, Isaiah. Personal Impressions (2nd Edition). Princeton University Press, 2001 (page 97)

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Wrench, John Evelyn (1955). Geoffrey Dawson and our times. Hutchinson. 
Media offices
Preceded by
George Earle Buckle
Editor of The Times
1912–1919
Succeeded by
Henry Wickham Steed
Preceded by
Henry Wickham Steed
Editor of The Times
1923–1941
Succeeded by
Robert Barrington-Ward