Geoffrey Grigson

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Geoffrey Edward Harvey Grigson (2 March 1905 – 25 November 1985) was a British poet, writer, critic and naturalist. He was born at the vicarage in Pelynt,[1] a village near Looe in Cornwall.

Life[edit]

Grigson's childhood in rural Cornwall had a significant influence on his poetry and writing in later life. As a boy, his love of things of nature (plants, bones and stones) was sparked at the house of family friends at Polperro who were painters and amateur naturalists. He was educated at St John's School, Leatherhead, and at St Edmund Hall, Oxford.[1] He first came to prominence in the 1930s as a poet, then as editor from 1933 to 1939 of the influential poetry magazine New Verse.[2] Fiercely combative, he made many literary enemies for his dogmatic views.[3]

At various times he was involved in teaching, journalism and broadcasting. During World War II he worked in the editorial department of the BBC Monitoring Service at Wood Norton near Evesham, Worcestershire and at Bristol.[4] In 1946 he was one of the founders of the Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA) in London, together with Roland Penrose, Herbert Read, Peter Watson and Peter Gregory, in 1946.[5][6] In 1951 he curated a touring exhibition of drawings and watercolours drawn from the British Council Collection.[7]

Later in life he was a noted critic, reviewer (for the New York Review of Books in particular), and compiler of numerous poetry anthologies. He published 13 collections of poetry, and wrote on travel, on art (notably works on Samuel Palmer, Wyndham Lewis and Henry Moore; he also had a volatile friendship with the painter John Piper),[8] on the English countryside, and on botany, among other subjects.

Grigson was the castaway featured in an edition of Roy Plomley's Desert Island Discs broadcast on 16 October 1982. His chosen records were: Joseph Haydn, String Quartet in F major, Op. 3/5 "Serenade" (Janáček Quartet); Benjamin Britten, Serenade for Tenor, Horn and Strings (soloist Peter Pears, Dennis Brain; Boyd Neel String Orchestra, conductor Benjamin Britten); Henry Purcell, "When I am laid in earth" ("Dido's Lament"), from Dido and Aeneas (soloist Victoria de los Ángeles; English Chamber Orchestra, conductor John Barbirolli); Joseph Haydn, "She Never Told Her Love" (Canzonetta) (soloist Peter Pears, Benjamin Britten) – picked as Grigson's favourite; Joseph Haydn, String Quartet in D major (Tátrai Quartet); Georges Bizet, Jeux d'enfants (Paris Conservatoire Orchestra, conductor Jean Martinon); Benjamin Britten, "Death Be Not Proud" (from The Holy Sonnets of John Donne), soloist Peter Pears, Zorian String Quartet, conductor Benjamin Britten; Giuseppe Verdi, "Va, pensiero, sull'ali dorate" (Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves) from Nabucco (La Scala Chorus and Orchestra). His chosen book was The Oxford English Dictionary, and his luxury item was Pâté de foie gras.[9]

Geoffrey Grigson in his later life lived partly in Wiltshire, England, and partly in Trôo, a village in the Loir-et-Cher département in France, which features in his poetry. He died in 1985 in Broad Town, Wiltshire, and is buried there in Christ Church Churchyard.[10]

Family[edit]

Grigson was born in 1905, the youngest of seven sons of Canon William Shuckforth Grigson (1845–1930), a Norfolk clergyman who had settled in Cornwall as vicar of Pelynt, and Mary Beatrice Boldero, herself the daughter of a clergyman. The inscription on his father's slate headstone in Pelynt Churchyard is the work of Eric Gill, 1931.[11] Five of Grigson's six brothers died serving in the first[12][13][14][15] and second world wars,[16][17] among them John Grigson.[18] This was one of the highest prices paid by any British family during the conflicts of the twentieth century.[19] Grigson's one surviving brother Wilfrid Grigson died in an air accident in 1948, while serving as Commissioner for Refugees in Pakistan.

Geoffrey Grigson's first wife was Frances Franklin Galt[4] (who died in 1937 of tuberculosis). With her, he founded New Verse. They had one daughter, Caroline (who was married to the designer Colin Banks). Grigson's second marriage was to Berta (Bertschy) Emma Kunert, who bore him two children, Anna and Lionel Grigson, the jazz musician and educator. Following their divorce, Grigson's third and last marriage was to Jane Grigson, née McIntire (1928–90), the writer on food and cookery. Their daughter is the cookery writer Sophie Grigson.

Honours and legacy[edit]

Grigson was awarded the Duff Cooper Prize for his 1971 volume of poetry Discoveries of Bones and Stones.

A collection of tributes entitled Grigson at Eighty, compiled by R. M. Healey (Cambridge: Rampant Lions Press), was published in 1985, the year of his death.[4]

In 2005, to mark the centenary of Grigson's birth a conference was held at St Edmund Hall, Oxford.[3]

Works[edit]

  • The Arts To-day (1935), editor.
  • Several Observations (Cresset Press, 1939), poems.
  • Under the Cliff, and Other Poems (Routledge, 1943).
  • Henry Moore (Penguin, 1944).
  • Visionary Poems and Passages or The Poet's Eye (Frederick Muller, 1944), editor. Lithographs by John Craxton.
  • Wild Flowers in Britain (William Collins, 1944).
  • The Isles of Scilly and Other Poems (Routledge, 1946).
  • The Mint: a Miscellany of Literature, Art and Criticism (George Routledge & Sons, 1946).
  • Before the Romantics: an Anthology of the Enlightenment (Routledge & Sons, 1946), editor.
  • Samuel Palmer: the Visionary Years (Kegan Paul, 1947).
  • Wild Flowers in Britain (Collins, 1947).
  • John Craxton. Paintings and Drawings (Horizon, 1948).
  • Poems of John Clare's Madness (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1949), editor.
  • Poetry of the Present: an Anthology of the 'Thirties and After (Phoenix House, 1949), editor.
  • The Crest on the Silver: an Autobiography (Cresset Press, 1950).
  • The Victorians: an Anthology (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1950).
  • Festival of Britain 'About Britain' Guides (Collins, 1951), general editor.
  • Thornton's Temple of Flora (Collins, 1951).
  • Essays From the Air: 29 Broadcast Talks (1951).
  • A Master of Our Time: a Study of Wyndham Lewis (Methuen, 1951).
  • Gardenage, or the Plants of Ninhursaga (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952).
  • Legenda Suecana. Twenty-odd Poems (printed for the author, 1953)[20]
  • Freedom of the Parish (Phoenix House, 1954). (About Pelynt, Cornwall.)
  • The Englishman's Flora (Phoenix House, 1955).
  • The Shell Guide to Flowers of the Countryside (Phoenix House, 1955).
  • The Shell Guide to Trees and Shrubs (Phoenix House, 1958).
  • English Villages in Colour (Batsford, 1958).
  • The Three Kings: a Christmas Book of Carols, Poems and Pieces (Gordon Fraser, 1958), editor.
  • The Shell Guide to Wild Life (Phoenix, 1959).
  • Looking and Finding (John Baker, 1958).
  • A Herbal of All Sorts (Macmillan, 1959).
  • The Cherry Tree (Phoenix House, 1959), poems.
  • English Excursions (Country Life, 1960).
  • Samuel Palmer's Valley of Vision (Phoenix House, 1960).
  • The Shell Country Book (Phoenix House, 1962).
  • Poets in Their Pride (Dent, 1962).
  • Gerard Manley Hopkins (Longmans, Green & Co., 1962).
  • Collected Poems 1924–1962 (Phoenix House, 1963).
  • O Rare Mankind! (Phoenix House, 1963).
  • The Shell Nature Book (Phoenix House, 1964).
  • Shapes and Stories [with Jane Grigson] (Readers Union, 1965).
  • The Shell Country Alphabet (Michael Joseph, 1966; Particular Books, 2009, with introdcution by Sophie Grigson).[21]
  • William Allingham's Diary (Centaur Press, 1967).
  • A Skull in Salop, and Other Poems (Macmillan, 1967).
  • An Ingestion of Ice Cream and Other Poems (Macmillan, 1969).
  • Shapes and People – A Book about Pictures (J. Baker, 1969).
  • Poems and Poets (Macmillan, 1969).
  • Notes from an Odd Country (Macmillan, 1970).
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Modern World Literature (Hawthorn Books, 1970), editor.
  • The Faber Book of Popular Verse (1971), editor.
  • Discoveries of Bones and Stones (Macmillan Poets; Macmillan, 1971).
  • Sad Grave of an Imperial Mongoose (Macmillan, 1973), poems.
  • The Faber Book of Love Poems (Faber & Faber, 1973), editor.
  • The Faber Book of Popular Verse (Faber & Faber, 1973), editor.
  • The First Folio (Poem of the Month Club, 1973).
  • The Contrary View: Glimpses of Fudge and Gold (Macmillan, 1974).
  • A Dictionary of English Plant Names (and some products of plants) (Allen Lane, 1974).
  • Angles and Circles and Other Poems (Gollancz, 1974).
  • Britain Observed: the Landscape Through Artists' Eyes (1975).
  • The Penguin Book of Ballads (Penguin, 1975), editor.
  • The Faber Book of Epigrams and Epitaphs (1977), editor.
  • The Goddess of Love: The Birth, Triumph, Death and Return of Aphrodite (Quartet, 1978).
  • The Faber Book of Epigrams and Epitaphs (Faber & Faber, 1978).
  • The Faber Book of Nonsense Verse: With a Sprinkling of Nonsense Prose (Faber & Faber, 1979) editor.
  • The Oxford Book of Satirical Verse (Oxford University Press, 1980), editor.
  • The Penguin Book of Unrespectable Verse (Penguin, 1980), editor.
  • The Faber Book of Poems and Places (Faber & Faber, 1980), editor.
  • History of Him (Secker & Warburg, 1980), poems.
  • Blessings, Kicks and Curses: a critical collection (Allison & Busby, 1982).
  • Collected Poems 1963–1980 (Allison & Busby, 1982).
  • The Private Art: a Poetry Notebook (Allison & Busby, 1982).
  • The Cornish Dancer and Other Poems (Secker & Warburg, 1982).
  • Geoffrey Grigson's Countryside (Ebury Press, 1982).
  • Recollections, Mainly of Writers and Artists (Hogarth Press, 1984).
  • The English Year from Diaries and Letters (Oxford Paperbacks, 1984).
  • The Faber Book of Reflective Verse (Faber & Faber, 1984), editor.
  • Country Writings (Century, 1984).
  • Montaigne's Tower and Other Poems (Secker & Warbury, 1984).
  • Persephone's Flowers and Other Poems (David & Charles, 1986).

New Verse: An Anthology (1942 edition)[edit]

Compiled by Grigson. Poets included were:

C. Day-LewisE. V. SwartBernard SpencerPhilip O'ConnorLouis MacNeiceGeorge BarkerKathleen RaineFrederic ProkoschA. J. YoungArchibald MacLeishNorman CameronStephen SpenderGeoffrey TaylorDylan ThomasA. J. M. SmithW. H. AudenPablo Neruda – Geoffrey Grigson – Hugh ChisholmKenneth AllottAlberto GiacomettiPaul ÉluardBernard GutteridgeRuthven ToddGavin EwartCharles Madge

Poetry of the Present (1949)[edit]

Drummond AllisonKenneth AllottW. H. AudenGeorge BarkerJohn BaylissJohn BetjemanNorman CameronCecil Day-LewisWilliam EmpsonG. S. FraserChristopher FryDavid Gascoyne – Geoffrey Grigson – John HewittEsmé HootonGlyn JonesSidney KeyesJames KirkupLaurie LeeLouis MacNeiceCharles MadgeHubert NicholsonNorman NicholsonClere ParsonsKathleen RaineW. R. RodgersE. J. ScovellJohn ShortBernard SpencerStephen SpenderDerek StanfordDylan ThomasEvan ThomasRuthven ToddRex WarnerVernon Watkins

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ian Ousby, ed. (1993). The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 395. ISBN 0-521-44086-6. 
  2. ^ "Geoffrey Grigson", Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  3. ^ a b "Geoffrey Grigson", St Edmund Hall, University of Oxford.
  4. ^ a b c Julian Symons, "Grigson, Geoffrey Edward Harvey (1905–1985)", rev. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2009, accessed 2 December 2013.
  5. ^ "History", ICA website.
  6. ^ Barry Miles, London Calling: A Countercultural History of London since 1945, Atlantic Books, 2010.
  7. ^ "British Drawings and Watercolours of the 20th Century from the Collection of the British Council", Visual Arts, British Council.
  8. ^ Frances Spaulding, John Piper, Myfanwy Piper: Lives in Art, OUP, 2009, pp. 126–7.
  9. ^ Desert Island Discs Castaway Archive, BBC Radio 4.
  10. ^ "Geoffrey Grigson (1905-1985)", The Literary Cemetery.
  11. ^ Nikolaus Pevsner, N. (1970), Cornwall, Penguin Books, p. 132.
  12. ^ "Find War Dead – First World War", Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC).
  13. ^ Grigson, Kenneth Walton, died 20 July 1918 aged 23. CWGC.
  14. ^ Grigson, Lionel Henry Shuckforth, died 9 May 1917 aged 19. CWGC.
  15. ^ Grigson, Claude Vivian, died 15 October 1918 aged 18. CWGC.
  16. ^ "Find War Dead – Second World War", Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
  17. ^ Grigson, Aubrey Herbert, died 27 April 1942 aged 41. CWGC.
  18. ^ Grigson, John William Boldero, died 3 July 1943 aged 50. CWGC.
  19. ^ Jeremy Archer, "One Family's Sacrifice – The Story of the Seven Sons of Canon and Mrs William Shuckforth Grigson", the Keep Military Museum, Dorchester, Dorset.
  20. ^ "Geoffrey Grigson. Legenda Suecana 1953", Bookride, 21 May 2009.
  21. ^ "Kathryn Hughes welcomes the reissue of a forthright 1960s guide to touring the countryside", The Guardian, 8 August 2009.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]