List of countries where Portuguese is an official language

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Global spread of Portuguese.
  Native language
  Official and administrative language
  Cultural or secondary language
  Portuguese-speaking minorities
  Portuguese-based creole

The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Portuguese is an official or de facto language.

Countries and territories where Portuguese is official[edit]

Country Population (2013 est.)[1] More information
Brazil Brazil 201,009,622 Portuguese in Brazil
Mozambique Mozambique 24,096,669 Portuguese in Mozambique
Angola Angola 18,565,269 Portuguese in Angola
Portugal Portugal 10,799,270 Portuguese in Portugal
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 1,660,870 Portuguese in Guinea-Bissau
East Timor East Timor 1,172,390 Portuguese in East Timor
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 736,296
Macau Macau 583,003 Portuguese in Macau
Cape Verde Cape Verde 531,046 Portuguese in Cape Verde
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe 186,817 Portuguese in São Tomé and Príncipe
Total 259, 341,252

Countries and territories where Portuguese has a significant/cultural presence[edit]

Country Population (2011)[1]
India Goa (India) 1,457,723
India Daman and Diu (India) 242,911

Spread of Portuguese[edit]

Europe[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Portuguese is spoken as a first language in Portugal by nearly all of the nation's 10.6 million people.[2] The ancestor of modern Portuguese, Galician-Portuguese, began developing in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, in an area encompassing present-day northern-Portugal and Galicia, at around the 9th century. Modern Portuguese started developing in the early 16th century. During a period of Portuguese discoveries and through a large colonial empire, the language was spread to areas in Africa, Asia and the Americas by Portugal.

Rest of Europe[edit]

The Galician language spoken natively in Galicia, Spain is the closest related language to Portuguese and is co-official with Spanish in the region. Portuguese-speaking immigrants from Portugal, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking Africa and Macau have also settled in Andorra (around 15 000 speakers), Belgium, France (around 500 000 speakers), Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

The Americas[edit]

Brazil[edit]

With a population of over 200 million, Brazil is by far the world's largest Portuguese-speaking nation and the only one in the Americas.[3] Portuguese was introduced during the Portuguese colonial period but has not been the only language in Brazil ever since, competing with Nheengatu and língua geral paulista, creole languages created by the Jesuits to catechize Amerindians of various different tribes speaking different but closely related languages. Portuguese has also served as a lingua franca between the various ethnic groups in Brazil and the native Amerindian population[4] after the Jesuits were expelled from every Portuguese territory and the languages associated with them prohibited.

Portuguese is the first language of the overwhelming majority of Brazilians, at 97-99%.[5] It is followed by various German dialects, such as Riograndenser Hunsrückisch, at a distant 0.8%.[citation needed]

The form of Portuguese spoken in Brazil is different from that spoken in Europe, with differences in vocabulary and grammar that can be compared to the differences between American and British English,[6] but with the phonology and prosody much more distinct to[clarification needed] each other (on a slightly larger scale than that of the Metropolitan and Québécois varieties of French);[citation needed] nevertheless, the vast majority of Brazilian characteristics are also found in some rural, remote European registers (or the African and Asian ones, indicating an Old Portuguese feature lost in Europe), while nearly all distinctive European characteristics can be found in a major dialect of Brazil (such as fluminense, specially its carioca sociolect, and florianopolitano), due to a stronger or more recent Portuguese and other European immigration.

Migration from Brazil also led to the vast majority of Portuguese speakers in the Southern Cone (especially Uruguay with portunhol da pampa), Paraguay (see brasiguayos), other regions of South America (especially Bolivia) except Venezuela, Japan (see Brazilians in Japan and dekasegi, official numbers do not include second generation Portuguese speakers and naturalized citizens), South Korea, the Philippines (see Brazilians in the Philippines), and Israel (see Aliyah from Latin America in the 2000s).

Rest of South America[edit]

Although Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in South America, it has the largest population, area and economy on the continent. Thus, the South American trading bloc Mercosul uses Portuguese alongside Spanish as its working languages. A mixed language called Riverense Portuñol is spoken in the northern Uruguayan border area with Brazil and is a hybrid dialect of Spanish and Portuguese. Given the proximity and trading relations between Brazil and their respective nations, Portuguese is offered as a foreign language course at most schools in Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia.

In Venezuela and Guyana, there are communities of Portuguese immigrants (mostly Madeirans) and their descendants who speak Portuguese as their native language.[7]

North America[edit]

There are a little under 1.5 million Portuguese Americans and over 300,000 Brazilian Americans living in the United States.[8][9] Portuguese is spoken by over 730,000 people at home in the country.[10] There are over 400,000 people of Portuguese descent living in Canada; however, the majority of the community's population now speaks English or French as their primary language.[11]

Africa[edit]

Angola[edit]

Portuguese is the sole official language of Angola, and 80% of the population professes fluency in the language.[12] Additionally, nearly half of Angolan households speak Portuguese as their primary language, and native Bantu languages have been influenced by Portuguese through loanwords.[12]

Painting depicting Portuguese explorers in Africa. Today, Portuguese is an official language in six African countries.

Mozambique[edit]

Portuguese is the sole official language of Mozambique and serves as a lingua franca between the various ethnic groups in the country. Slightly over 20% of the population are native speakers of Portuguese, while 61.4% professes fluency.[13] Most of Mozambican media is available solely in Portuguese, and the country receives several Portuguese and Brazilian television stations.

Guinea-Bissau[edit]

Despite being the sole official language, only 49.5% of the population professes fluency in Portuguese.[14] However, a Portuguese-based creole called Guinea-Bissau Creole (Kriol) is spoken by the majority of the population.

Cape Verde[edit]

Similar to Guinea-Bissau, although Portuguese is the only official language, a Portuguese-based creole known as Cape Verdean Creole is spoken by the majority of the population. However, education and media are available largely in standard European Portuguese only.

São Tomé and Príncipe[edit]

In São Tomé and Príncipe, Portuguese is by far the most spoken language, with around 95% of the population speaking it at home or professing fluency.[15] A Portuguese-based creole called Forro is also spoken.

Equatorial Guinea[edit]

Equatorial Guinea was a Spanish colony between 1778 and 1968 and was originally a group of Portuguese colonies between 1474 and 1778. A Portuguese creole is spoken by locals on the island of Annobón.

In 2007, President Teodoro Obiang Nguema announced a decision to make Portuguese the third official language of the country after Spanish and French. This was in an effort by the government to improve its communications, trade, and bilateral relations with Portuguese-speaking countries.[16] However, the bill is still yet to be passed, and despite government promotions, Portuguese remains rarely spoken in Equatorial Guinea.[17] The majority of the population (~90%)[citation needed] still speaks Spanish as its primary language, and Spanish is still the administrative language and that of education, while French is the second official language.[18]

Rest of Africa[edit]

Portuguese-speaking minorities are found in Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia due to immigration from the Lusophone African countries.

Asia[edit]

East Timor[edit]

Portuguese is co-official with Tetum in East Timor and was introduced during the colonial period. A little under 39% of the population professes fluency in Portuguese. The local Tetum language has been heavily influenced by Portuguese through loanwords, and code-switching between the two languages is common.[19]

Macau[edit]

A sign in Macau translated in both official languages, Portuguese and Cantonese

Due to the one country, two systems policy of China regarding its special administrative regions, Macau is able to retain Portuguese as an official language alongside Cantonese. Portuguese was first introduced to Macau when Portuguese traders established a permanent settlement there in 1537. Despite being a Portuguese colony for over four centuries, the Portuguese language was never widely spoken in Macau and remained limited to administration and higher education and was spoken primarily by the Portuguese colonists, Macanese people of mixed ancestry and elites of pure Chinese blood. As a consequence, when Macau was handed back to China in 1999, Portuguese did not have a strong presence like English had in Hong Kong and continued its decline which began when Portuguese rule was still occurring. Ironically, it was only after Portuguese rule ended when the Portuguese language in Macau began to see an increase in speakers due to China's increased trading relations with Lusophone countries. Today, about 3% of Macau's population speaks Portuguese as a first language and 7% of the population professes fluency.[20] A Portuguese creole called Macanese (Patuá) was spoken by Macanese of mixed ancestry but is near extinction today.

India[edit]

Portuguese is present in the enclave of Goa, which was a Portuguese colony until 1961. Although it was the sole official language during Portuguese colonial rule, it is mostly spoken by only the elderly and educated populations today and is not an official language. Rather, Goa's official state language is Konkani, which has however picked up some Portuguese vocabulary as a legacy of Portuguese influence. Attempts to make Konkani be written in the Portuguese alphabet and possibilities of reintroducing Portuguese as a co-official language of Goa have been made in recent years.[21]

Portuguese rule in Daman and Diu has also left a smaller Portuguese influence on the territory. A Portuguese-based creole called Língua da Casa is spoken in the territory.

Portuguese were also in the area of Vasai(present)previously Bassein or Bacaim since 1560 till 1739. Though the Portuguese were defeated by Marathas there are some words which are used by the locals which are the words in Portuguese Language. Today there is a large no of Catholic population and many churches built during those days are still being worshiped.

Rest of Asia[edit]

Portuguese is spoken in Japan among returned immigrants or migrant workers from Brazil known as dekasegi.[22] Portuguese loanwords are also present in the Japanese language due to trading relations between Japan and the Portuguese Empire in the 16th century.

In Malacca, Malaysia, a Portuguese creole known as Papiá Kristang or Cristão is still spoken by some of the Eurasian population.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Population - CIA". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-04-06. 
  2. ^ "Special Eurobarometer 243 "Europeans and their Languages"". European Commission. 2006. p. 6. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  3. ^ "Geography of Brazil". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  4. ^ Darcy Ribeiro. O Povo Brasileiro, Vol. 07, 1997 (1997).
  5. ^ "Portuguese language in Brazil". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  6. ^ Karen Keller (2006-08-07). Portuguese For Dummies. Wiley. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-470-04973-0. 
  7. ^ www.guyana.org
  8. ^ 2008 Community Survey
  9. ^ "United States - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Brazilian (360-364))". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  10. ^ Population: Ancestry, Language Spoken At Home, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 2011-12-27 
  11. ^ "Ethnic Origin, Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses and Sex for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data". Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  12. ^ a b Medeiros, Adelardo Portuguese in Africa – Angola
  13. ^ Medeiros, Adelardo Portuguese in Africa – Moçambique
  14. ^ Medeiros, Adelardo Portuguese in Africa – Guiné-Bissau
  15. ^ 99.8% declared speaking Portuguese in the 1991 census
  16. ^ "Equatorial Guinea Adds Portuguese as the Country's Third Official Language". PRNewsWire. 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  17. ^ Público (Lisbon), 2012-07-20
  18. ^ Oficina de Información y Prensa de Guinea Ecuatorial, Ministerio de Información, Cultura y Turismo
  19. ^ "Timor Leste, Tetum, Portuguese, Bahasa Indonesia or English?". April 20, 2012. 
  20. ^ Leach, Michael (2007), "talking Portuguese; China and East Timor", Arena Magazine, retrieved 2011-05-18 
  21. ^ "Konkani:The Tussule over the script". Navhind Times. Retrieved 18 October 2008. 
  22. ^ Instituto Camões, Português – a 3ª língua materna do Japão