Geographic information retrieval
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Information retrieval generally views documents as a collection or `bag' of words. In contrast, geographic information retrieval requires a small amount of semantic data to be present (namely a location or geographic feature associated with a document). Because of this it is common in GIR to separate the text indexing and analysis from the geographic indexing.
GIR systems can commonly be broken down into the following stages: GeoTagging, text and Geographic indexing, data storage, geographic relevance ranking (wrt a geographic query) and browsing results (commonly with a map interface).
GIR involves extracting and resolving the meaning of locations in unstructured text. This is known as Geoparsing.
After identifying location references in text, a GIR system must index this information for search and retrieval.