Utah

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This article is about the U.S. state of Utah. For other uses, see Utah (disambiguation).
State of Utah
Flag of Utah State seal of Utah
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Beehive State
Motto(s): Industry
Map of the United States with Utah highlighted
Official language English
Demonym Utahn or Utahan[1]
Capital
(and largest city)
Salt Lake City
Largest metro Salt Lake City
Area Ranked 13th
 - Total 84,899 sq mi
(219,887 km2)
 - Width 270 miles (435 km)
 - Length 350 miles (565 km)
 - % water 3.25
 - Latitude 37° N to 42° N
 - Longitude 109° 3′ W to 114° 3′ W
Population Ranked 33rd
 - Total 2,900,872 (2013 est)[2]
 - Density 34.3/sq mi  (13.2/km2)
Ranked 41st
 - Median household income $50,614 (11th)
Elevation
 - Highest point Kings Peak[3][4][5]
13,518 ft (4,120.3 m)
 - Mean 6,100 ft  (1,860 m)
 - Lowest point Beaver Dam Wash at Arizona border[4][5][6]
2,180 ft (664.4 m)
Before statehood Utah Territory
Admission to Union January 4, 1896 (45th)
Governor Gary Herbert (R)
Lieutenant Governor Spencer J. Cox (R)
Legislature State Legislature
 - Upper house State Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Orrin Hatch (R)
Mike Lee (R)
U.S. House delegation 1: Rob Bishop (R)
2: Chris Stewart (R)
3: Jason Chaffetz (R)
4: Jim Matheson (D) (list)
Time zone Mountain: UTC −7/−6
Abbreviations UT, US-UT
Website www.utah.gov

Utah (/ˈjuːtɔː/ or Listeni/ˈjuːtɑː/; Arapaho: Wo'tééneihí [7]) is a state in the United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the Union on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest, the 33rd-most populous, and the 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of about 2.9 million, approximately 80% of whom live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City, leaving vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited.[8] Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, and Nevada to the west. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast.

Utah is the most religiously homogeneous state in the Union. Approximately 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or LDS (Mormons), which greatly influences Utah culture and daily life.[9] The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is located in Utah's state capital, Salt Lake City.[10][11]

The state is a center of transportation, education, information technology and research, government services, mining, and a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation. According to U.S. Census Bureau population estimates, Utah is the second fastest-growing state in the United States as of 2013.[12] St. George was the fastest–growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005.[13] A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic, lifestyle, and health-related outlook metrics.[14]

Etymology[edit]

The name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe. It means "people of the mountains" in the Ute language.[15]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Utah

Pre-Columbian[edit]

Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Anasazi/Ancestral Pueblo and the Fremont tribes lived in what is now known as Utah. These Native American tribes are subgroups of the Ute-Aztec Native American ethnicity, and were sedentary. The Anasazi built their homes through excavations in mountains, and the Fremont built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century.

Map showing Utah in 1838 when it was part of Mexico. From Britannica 7th edition.

Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, and the Ute people, also settled in the region. These five groups were present when the first European explorers arrived.

Spanish exploration (1540)[edit]

The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California. The expedition traveled as far north as Utah Lake and encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region of Utah became part of Mexico, as part of Alta California.

Trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one of those men, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825. The city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley.

In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first white person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, Bridger thought he had found the Pacific Ocean; he subsequently found that this body of water was nothing but a giant salt lake. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of people traveling from the East toward the U.S. West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake, then known as Lake Youta.[citation needed]

LDS settlement (1847)[edit]

Brigham Young led the first Mormon pioneers to the Great Salt Lake.

Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young as president of the Quorum of the Twelve became the effective leader of the Latter Day Saints in Nauvoo, Illinois.[16] To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.[17]

Brigham Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers came to the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers crossed the plains and settled in Utah.[18]

For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive. The barren desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment.

Utah was the source of many pioneer settlements located elsewhere in the West. Salt Lake City was the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth"[19] of Mormon settlements. Fed by a continuing supply of church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders often assigned groups of church members to establish settlements throughout the West. Beginning with settlements along Utah's Wasatch front (Salt Lake City, Bountiful and Weber Valley, and Provo and Utah Valley), irrigation enabled the establishment of fairly large pioneer populations in an area that Jim Bridger had advised Young would be inhospitable for the cultivation of crops because of frost.[20] Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers called by Brigham Young would leave Salt Lake City and establish hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Wyoming, California, Canada, and Mexico – including in Las Vegas, Nevada; Franklin, Idaho (the first white settlement in Idaho); San Bernardino, California; Star Valley, Wyoming; and Carson Valley, Nevada.

Prominent settlements in Utah included St. George, Logan, and Manti (where settlers completed the first three temples in Utah, each started after but finished many years before the larger and better known temple built in Salt Lake City was completed in 1893), as well as Parowan, Cedar City, Bluff, Moab, Vernal, Fillmore (which served as the territorial capital between 1850 and 1856), Nephi, Levan, Spanish Fork, Springville, Provo Bench (now Orem), Pleasant Grove, American Fork, Lehi, Sandy, Murray, Jordan, Centerville, Farmington, Huntsville, Kaysville, Grantsville, Tooele, Roy, Brigham City, and many other smaller towns and settlements. Young had an expansionist's view of the territory that he and the Mormon pioneers were settling, calling it Deseret – which according to the Book of Mormon was an ancient word for "honeybee" – hence the beehive which can still be found on the Utah flag, and the state's motto, "Industry."[21]

Utah was Mexican territory when the first pioneers arrived in 1847. Early in the Mexican-American War in late 1846, the United States had captured New Mexico and California, and the whole Southwest became U.S. territory upon the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848. The treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on March 11. Learning that California and New Mexico were applying for statehood, the settlers of the area (originally having planned to petition for territorial status) applied for statehood with an ambitious plan for a State of Deseret.

Utah Territory (1850–1896)[edit]

Salt Lake City in 1850.
A sketch of Salt Lake City in 1860.
Deseret Village recreates pioneer life in Utah for tourists.
The Golden Spike where the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in the U.S. on May 10, 1869 in Promontory, Utah.

The Utah Territory was much smaller than the proposed state of Deseret, but it still contained all of the present states of Nevada and Utah as well as pieces of modern Wyoming and Colorado.[22] It was created with the Compromise of 1850, and Fillmore, named after President Millard Fillmore, was designated the capital. The territory was given the name Utah after the Ute tribe of Native Americans. Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856.

Disputes between the Mormon inhabitants and the U.S. government intensified due to prejudice against The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Northeast and the practice of plural marriage, or polygamy, among its members. The Mormons were still pushing for the establishment of a State of Deseret with the new borders of the Utah Territory. Most, if not all of the members of the U.S. government opposed the polygamous practices of the Mormons.

Members of the LDS Church were viewed as un-American and rebellious when news of their polygamous practices spread. In 1857, particularly heinous accusations of abdication of government and general immorality were stated by former associate justice William W. Drummond, among others. The detailed reports of life in Utah caused the administration of James Buchanan to send a secret military "expedition" to Utah. When the supposed rebellion should be quelled, Alfred Cumming would take the place of Brigham Young as territorial governor. The resulting conflict is known as the Utah War, nicknamed "Buchanan's Blunder" by the Mormon leaders.

In September 1857, about 120 American settlers of the Baker–Fancher wagon train, en route to California from Arkansas, were murdered by Utah Territorial Militia and some Paiute Native Americans in the Mountain Meadows massacre.[23]

Before troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston entered the territory, Brigham Young ordered all residents of Salt Lake City to evacuate southward to Utah Valley and sent out a force, known as the Nauvoo Legion, to delay the government's advance. Although wagons and supplies were burned, eventually the troops arrived in 1858, and Young surrendered official control to Cumming, although most subsequent commentators claim that Young retained true power in the territory. A steady stream of governors appointed by the president quit the position, often citing the traditions of their supposed territorial government. By agreement with Young, Johnston established Camp Floyd, 40 miles (60 km) away from Salt Lake City, to the southwest.

Salt Lake City was the last link of the First Transcontinental Telegraph, completed in October 1861. Brigham Young was among the first to send a message, along with Abraham Lincoln and other officials.

Because of the American Civil War, federal troops were pulled out of Utah Territory in 1861. This was a boon to the local economy as the army sold everything in camp for pennies on the dollar before marching back east to join the war. The territory was then left in LDS hands until Patrick E. Connor arrived with a regiment of California volunteers in 1862. Connor established Fort Douglas just 3 miles (4.8 km) east of Salt Lake City and encouraged his people to discover mineral deposits to bring more non-Mormons into the territory. Minerals were discovered in Tooele County and miners began to flock to the territory.

Beginning in 1865, Utah's Black Hawk War developed into the deadliest conflict in the territory's history. Chief Antonga Black Hawk died in 1870, but fights continued to break out until additional federal troops were sent in to suppress the Ghost Dance of 1872. The war is unique among Indian Wars because it was a three-way conflict, with mounted Timpanogos Utes led by Antonga Black Hawk fighting federal and LDS authorities.

On May 10, 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed at Promontory Summit, north of the Great Salt Lake.[24] The railroad brought increasing numbers of people into the territory and several influential businesspeople made fortunes there.

During the 1870s and 1880s laws were passed to punish polygamists due, in part, to the stories coming forth regarding Utah. Notably, Ann Eliza Young—tenth wife to divorce Brigham Young, women's advocate, national lecturer and author of Wife No. 19 or My Life of Bondage and Mr. and Mrs. Fanny Stenhouse, authors of The Rocky Mountain Saints (T. B. H. Stenhouse, 1873) and Tell It All: My Life in Mormonism (Fanny Stenhouse, 1875) . Both of these women, Ann Eliza and Fanny, testify to the happiness of the very early Church members before polygamy began to be practiced. They independently published their books in 1875. These books and the lectures of Ann Eliza Young have been credited with the United States Congress passage of anti-polygamy laws by newspapers throughout the United States as recorded in "The Ann Eliza Young Vindicator", a pamphlet which detailed Ms Young's travels and warm reception throughout her lecture tour.

T. B. H. Stenhouse, former Utah Mormon polygamist, Mormon missionary for thirteen years and a Salt Lake City newspaper owner, finally left Utah and wrote The Rocky Mountain Saints. His book gives a witnessed account of his life in Utah, both the good and the bad. He finally left Utah and Mormonism after financial ruin occurred when Brigham Young sent Stenhouse to relocate to Ogden, Utah, according to Stenhouse, to take over his thriving pro-Mormon Salt Lake Telegraph newspaper. In addition to these testimonies, The Confessions of John D. Lee, written by John D. Lee—alleged "Scape goat" for the Mountain Meadow Massacre—also came out in 1877. The corroborative testimonies coming out of Utah from Mormons and former Mormons had an impact on Congress and the people of the United States.

In the 1890 Manifesto, the LDS Church banned polygamy. When Utah applied for statehood again, it was accepted. One of the conditions for granting Utah statehood was that a ban on polygamy be written into the state constitution. This was a condition required of other western states that were admitted into the Union later. Statehood was officially granted on January 4, 1896.

20th century[edit]

Children reading in Santa Clara, Utah, in 1940

Beginning in the early 20th century, with the establishment of such national parks as Bryce Canyon National Park and Zion National Park, Utah became known for its natural beauty. Southern Utah became a popular filming spot for arid, rugged scenes, and such natural landmarks as Delicate Arch and "the Mittens" of Monument Valley are instantly recognizable to most national residents. During the 1950s, '60s, and '70s, with the construction of the Interstate highway system, accessibility to the southern scenic areas was made easier.

Beginning in 1939, with the establishment of Alta Ski Area, Utah has become world-renowned for its skiing. The dry, powdery snow of the Wasatch Range is considered some of the best skiing in the world (thus the license plate, "the Greatest Snow on Earth").[25][26] Salt Lake City won the bid for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in 1995, and this has served as a great boost to the economy. The ski resorts have increased in popularity, and many of the Olympic venues scattered across the Wasatch Front continue to be used for sporting events. This also spurred the development of the light-rail system in the Salt Lake Valley, known as TRAX, and the re-construction of the freeway system around the city.

In 1957, Utah created the Utah State Parks Commission with just four parks. Today, Utah State Parks manages 43 parks and several undeveloped areas totaling over 95,000 acres (380 km2) of land and more than 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km2) of water. Utah's state parks are scattered throughout Utah; from Bear Lake State Park at the Utah/Idaho border to Edge of the Cedars State Park Museum deep in the Four Corners region, and everywhere in between. Utah State Parks is also home to the state's off highway vehicle office, state boating office and the trails program.[27]

During the late 20th century, the state grew quickly. In the 1970s growth was phenomenal in the suburbs of the Wasatch Front. Sandy was one of the fastest-growing cities in the country at that time. Today, many areas of Utah are seeing phenomenal growth. Northern Davis, southern and western Salt Lake, Summit, eastern Tooele, Utah County, Utah, Wasatch, and Washington counties are all growing very quickly. Transportation and urbanization are major issues in politics as development consumes agricultural land and wilderness areas.

Geography[edit]

Landscape in American Fork Canyon
Utah county boundaries

Utah is known for its natural diversity and is home to features ranging from arid deserts with sand dunes to thriving pine forests in mountain valleys. It is a rugged and geographically diverse state that is located at the convergence of three distinct geological regions: the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and the Colorado Plateau.

Utah is one of the Four Corners states, and is bordered by Idaho in the north, Wyoming in the north and east; by Colorado in the east; at a single point by New Mexico to the southeast; by Arizona in the south; and by Nevada in the west. It covers an area of 84,899 sq mi (219,890 km2). The state is one of only three U.S. states (with Colorado and Wyoming) that have only lines of latitude and longitude for boundaries.

One of Utah's defining characteristics is the variety of its terrain. Running down the northern center of the state is the Wasatch Range, which rises to heights of about 12,000 ft (3,700 m) above sea level. Utah is home to world-renowned ski resorts, made popular by the light, fluffy snow and easy accessibility. In the northeastern section of the state, running east to west, are the Uinta Mountains, which rise to heights of 13,000 feet (4,000 m) or more. The highest point in the state, Kings Peak, at 13,528 feet (4,123 m),[28] lies within the Uinta Mountains.

At the western base of the Wasatch Range is the Wasatch Front, a series of valleys and basins that are home to the most populous parts of the state. It stretches approximately from Brigham City at the north end to Nephi at the south end. Approximately 75 percent of the population of the state live in this corridor, and population growth is rapid.

Western Utah is mostly arid desert with a basin and range topography. Small mountain ranges and rugged terrain punctuate the landscape. The Bonneville Salt Flats are an exception, being comparatively flat as a result of once forming the bed of ancient Lake Bonneville. Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake, Sevier Lake, and Rush Lake are all remnants of this ancient freshwater lake,[29] which once covered most of the eastern Great Basin. West of the Great Salt Lake, stretching to the Nevada border, lies the arid Great Salt Lake Desert. One exception to this aridity is Snake Valley, which is (relatively) lush due to large springs and wetlands fed from groundwater derived from snow melt in the Snake Range, Deep Creek Range, and other tall mountains to the west of Snake Valley. Great Basin National Park is just over the Nevada state line in the southern Snake Range. One of western Utah's most famous attractions is Notch Peak, the tallest limestone cliff in North America, located west of Delta.

Much of the scenic southern and southeastern landscape (specifically the Colorado Plateau region) is sandstone, specifically Kayenta sandstone and Navajo sandstone. The Colorado River and its tributaries wind their way through the sandstone, creating some of the world's most striking and wild terrain (the area around the confluence of the Colorado and Green Rivers was the last to be mapped in the lower 48 United States). Wind and rain have also sculpted the soft sandstone over millions of years. Canyons, gullies, arches, pinnacles, buttes, bluffs, and mesas are the common sight throughout south-central and southeast Utah.

This terrain is the central feature of protected state and federal parks such as Arches, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Capitol Reef, and Zion national parks, Cedar Breaks, Grand Staircase-Escalante, Hovenweep, and Natural Bridges national monuments, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (site of the popular tourist destination, Lake Powell), Dead Horse Point and Goblin Valley state parks, and Monument Valley. The Navajo Nation also extends into southeastern Utah. Southeastern Utah is also punctuated by the remote La Sal, Abajo, and Henry mountain ranges.

Eastern (northern quarter) Utah is a high-elevation area covered mostly by plateaus and basins, particularly the Tavaputs Plateau and San Rafael Swell, which remain mostly inaccessible, and the Uinta Basin, where the majority of eastern Utah's population lives. Economies are dominated by mining, oil shale, oil, and natural gas-drilling, ranching, and recreation. Much of eastern Utah is part of the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. The most popular destination within northeastern Utah is Dinosaur National Monument near Vernal.

Southwestern Utah is the lowest and hottest spot in Utah. It is known as Utah's Dixie because early settlers were able to grow some cotton there. Beaverdam Wash in far southwestern Utah is the lowest point in the state, at 2,000 feet (610 m).[28] The northernmost portion of the Mojave Desert is also located in this area. Dixie is quickly becoming a popular recreational and retirement destination, and the population is growing rapidly. Although the Wasatch Mountains end at Mount Nebo near Nephi, a complex series of mountain ranges extends south from the southern end of the range down the spine of Utah. Just north of Dixie and east of Cedar City is the state's highest ski resort, Brian Head.

Like most of the western and southwestern states, the federal government owns much of the land in Utah. Over 70 percent of the land is either BLM land, Utah State Trustland, or U.S. National Forest, U.S. National Park, U.S. National Monument, National Recreation Area or U.S. Wilderness Area.[30] Utah is the only state where every county contains some national forest.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

Joshua Trees, yucca plants, and jumping cholla cactus occupy the far southwest corner of the state in the Mojave Desert.

Utah features a dry, semi-arid to desert climate, although its many mountains feature a large variety of climates, with the highest points in the Uinta Mountains being above the timberline. The dry weather is a result of the state's location in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada in California. The eastern half of the state lies in the rain shadow of the Wasatch Mountains. The primary source of precipitation for the state is the Pacific Ocean, with the state usually lying in the path of large Pacific storms from October to May. In summer, the state, especially southern and eastern Utah, lies in the path of monsoon moisture from the Gulf of California.

Most of the lowland areas receive less than 12 inches (305 mm) of precipitation annually, although the I-15 corridor, including the densely populated Wasatch Front, receive approximately 15 inches (381 mm). The Great Salt Lake Desert is the driest area of the state, with less than 5 inches (127 mm). Snowfall is common in all but the far southern valleys. Although St. George only receives about 3 inches (8 cm) per year, Salt Lake City sees about 60 inches (152 cm), enhanced by the lake-effect snow from the Great Salt Lake, which increases snowfall totals to the south, southeast, and east of the lake.

Some areas of the Wasatch Range in the path of the lake-effect receive up to 500 inches (1,270 cm) per year. The consistently dry, fluffy snow led Utah's ski industry to adopt the slogan "the Greatest Snow on Earth" in the 1980s. In the winter, temperature inversions are a common phenomenon across Utah's low basins and valleys, leading to thick haze and fog that can sometimes last for weeks at a time, especially in the Uintah Basin. Although at other times of year its air quality is good, winter inversions give Salt Lake City some of the worst wintertime pollution in the country.

Utah's temperatures are extreme, with cold temperatures in winter due to its elevation, and very hot summers statewide (with the exception of mountain areas and high mountain valleys). Utah is usually protected from major blasts of cold air by mountains lying north and east of the state, although major Arctic blasts can occasionally reach the state. Average January high temperatures range from around 30 °F (−1 °C) in some northern valleys to almost 55 °F (13 °C) in St. George.

Temperatures dropping below 0 °F (−18 °C) should be expected on occasion in most areas of the state most years, although some areas see it often (for example, the town of Randolph averages about 50 days per year with temperatures dropping that low). In July, average highs range from about 85 to 100 °F (29 to 38 °C). However, the low humidity and high elevation typically leads to large temperature variations, leading to cool nights most summer days. The record high temperature in Utah was 118 °F (48 °C), recorded south of St. George on July 4, 2007,[31] and the record low was −69 °F (−56 °C), recorded at Peter Sinks in the Bear River Mountains of northern Utah on February 1, 1985.[32] However, the record low for an inhabited location is −49 °F (−45 °C) at Woodruff on December 12, 1932.[33]

Utah, like most of the western United States, has few days of thunderstorms. On average there are fewer than 40 days of thunderstorm activity during the year, although these storms can be briefly intense when they do occur. They are most likely to occur during monsoon season from about mid-July through mid-September, especially in southern and eastern Utah. Dry lightning strikes and the general dry weather often spark wildfires in summer, while intense thunderstorms can lead to flash flooding, especially in the rugged terrain of southern Utah. Although spring is the wettest season in northern Utah, late summer is the wettest period for much of southern and eastern Utah. Tornadoes are uncommon in Utah, with an average of two striking the state yearly, rarely higher than EF1 intensity.[34]

One exception of note, however, was the unprecedented F2 Salt Lake City Tornado that moved directly across downtown Salt Lake City on August 11, 1999, killing 1 person, injuring 60 others, and causing approximately $170 million in damage.[35] The only other reported tornado fatality in Utah's history was a 7-year-old girl who was killed while camping in Summit County on July 6, 1884. The last tornado of above (E)F0 intensity occurred on September 8, 2002, when an F2 tornado hit Manti. On August 11, 1993, an F3 tornado hit the Uinta Mountains north of Duchesne at an elevation of 10,500 feet (3,200 m), causing some damage to a Boy Scouts campsite. This is the strongest tornado ever recorded in Utah.

Demographics[edit]

Main article: Demographics of Utah

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Utah was 2,900,872 on July 1, 2013, a 5.0% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[2] The center of population of Utah is located in Utah County in the city of Lehi.[36] Much of the population lives in cities and towns along the Wasatch Front, a metropolitan region that runs north-south with the Wasatch Mountains rising on the eastern side. Growth outside the Wasatch Front is also increasing. The St. George metropolitan area is currently the second-fastest growing in the country after the Las Vegas metropolitan area, while the Heber micropolitan area is also the second-fastest growing in the country (behind Palm Coast, Florida).[37]

Utah contains 5 metropolitan areas (Logan, Ogden-Clearfield, Salt Lake City, Provo-Orem, and St. George), and 6 micropolitan areas (Brigham City, Heber, Vernal, Price, Richfield, and Cedar City).

Health and fertility[edit]

Utah ranks 47th in teenage pregnancy, lowest in percentage of births out of wedlock, lowest in number of abortions per capita, and lowest in percentage of teen pregnancies terminated in abortion. However, statistics relating to pregnancies and abortions may also be artificially low from teenagers going out of state for abortions because of parental notification requirements.[38][39] Utah has the lowest child poverty rate in the country, despite its young demographics.[40] According to the Gallup State of Well-Being Report, Utah has the fourth highest well-being in the United States as of 2013.[41] A widely circulated national prescription drug study from 2002 observed that antidepressant drugs were "prescribed in Utah more often than in any other state, at a rate nearly twice the national average"; however, more recent studies by the CDC have shown rates of depression in Utah to be no higher than the national average.[42][43]

Ancestry and race[edit]

At the 2010 Census, 80.4% of the population was non-Hispanic White, down from 91.2% in 1990,[44] 0.9% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 1% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, 2% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.9% non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 1.8% of two or more races (non-Hispanic). 13.0% of Utah's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (of any race).

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 11,380
1860 40,273 253.9%
1870 86,336 114.4%
1880 143,963 66.7%
1890 210,779 46.4%
1900 276,749 31.3%
1910 373,351 34.9%
1920 449,396 20.4%
1930 507,847 13.0%
1940 550,310 8.4%
1950 688,862 25.2%
1960 890,627 29.3%
1970 1,059,273 18.9%
1980 1,461,037 37.9%
1990 1,722,850 17.9%
2000 2,233,169 29.6%
2010 2,763,885 23.8%
Est. 2013 2,900,872 5.0%
Source: 1910–2010[45]
2013 Estimate[46]
Utah Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1970[47] 1990[47] 2000[48] 2010[49]
White 97.4% 93.8% 89.2% 86.1%
Asian 0.6% 1.9% 1.7% 2.0%
Native 1.1% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2%
Black 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 1.1%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.7% 0.9%
Other race 0.2% 2.2% 4.2% 6.0%
Two or more races 2.1% 2.7%
Utah Population Density Map.

The largest ancestry groups in the state are:[50]

Most Utahns are of Northern European descent.[51] Interestingly, a full third of Utah's workforce is bilingual.[52]

In 2011, 28.6% of Utah's population younger than the age of one were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.[53]

Religion[edit]

The LDS Salt Lake Temple, the primary attraction in the city's Temple Square
A Holi Festival called The Festival of Color takes place each Spring at the Sri Sri Radha Krishna Temple in Spanish Fork.
First Presbyterian Church in Salt Lake City

A majority of the state's residents are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). As of 2012, 62.2% of Utahns are counted as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, although only 41.6% of them are active members.[54] Mormons now make up about 34%–41% of Salt Lake City, while rural and suburban areas tend to be prominently Mormon. The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 4,815 congregations).[55]

Though the LDS Church officially maintains a policy of neutrality in regards to political parties,[56] the church's doctrine has a strong regional influence on politics.[57] Another doctrine effect can be seen in Utah's high birth rate (25 percent higher than the national average; the highest for a state in the U.S.).[58] The Mormons in Utah tend to have conservative views when it comes to most political issues and the majority of voter-age Utahns are unaffiliated voters (60%) who vote overwhelmingly Republican.[59] Mitt Romney received 72.8% of the Utahn votes in 2012, while John McCain polled 62.5% in the United States presidential election, 2008 and 70.9% for George W. Bush in 2004. In 2010 the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) reported that the three largest denominational groups in Utah are The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 1,910,504 adherents; the Catholic with 160,125 adherents, and the Southern Baptist Convention with 12,593 adherents.[60]

According to a report produced by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life the self-identified religious affiliations of Utahns over the age of 18 as of 2008 are:[10]

Margin of error +/− 6%

According to results from the 2010 United States Census, Mormons (members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) represented 62.1% of Utah's total population. The Utah county with the lowest percentage of Mormons was Grand County, at 26.5%, while the county with the highest percentage was Morgan County, at 86.1%. In addition, the result for the most populated county, Salt Lake County, was 51.4%.[61]

According to a Gallup poll, Utah had the 2nd-highest number of people reporting as "Very Religious" in 2011, at 57% (trailing only Mississippi). However, it also had a higher rate of people reporting as "Nonreligious" (28%) than any of the other "most religious" states, and the smallest percentage of people reporting as "Moderately Religious" (15%) of any state.[62]

Age and gender[edit]

Utah has the highest total birth rate[58] and accordingly, the youngest population of any U.S. state. In 2010, the state's population was 50.2% male and 49.8% female.

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Utah
The Wasatch Front region has seen large growth and development despite the economic downturn. Shown is the City Creek Center project, a development in downtown Salt Lake City with a price tag of $1.5–2.5 billion.
1 out of every 14 flash memory chips in the world is produced in Lehi, Utah.[63]
Zion National Park in southern Utah is one of five national parks in the state.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the gross state product of Utah in 2012 was $130.5 billion, or 0.87% of the total United States GDP of $14.991 trillion for the same year.[64] The per capita personal income was $45,700 in 2012. Major industries of Utah include: mining, cattle ranching, salt production, and government services.

According to the 2007 State New Economy Index, Utah is ranked the top state in the nation for Economic Dynamism, determined by "the degree to which state economies are knowledge-based, globalized, entrepreneurial, information technology-driven and innovation-based". In 2014, Utah was ranked number one in Forbes' list of "Best States For Business".[65] A November 2010 article in Newsweek highlighted Utah and particularly the Salt Lake City area's economic outlook, calling it "the new economic Zion", and examined how the area has been able to bring in high-paying jobs and attract high-tech corporations to the area during a recession.[66] As of June 2013, the state's unemployment rate was 4.7%.[67] In terms of "small business friendliness", in 2014 Utah emerged as number one, based on a study drawing upon data from over 12,000 small business owners.[68]

In eastern Utah petroleum production is a major industry.[69] Near Salt Lake City, petroleum refining is done by a number of oil companies. In central Utah, coal production accounts for much of the mining activity.

A 2009 study published in the Journal of Economic Perspectives found that Utah residents were the largest consumers of paid internet pornography per capita in the United States.[70] However Edelman, the study's author, came to this conclusion after looking at subscriptions for just one top-10 seller of online adult entertainment, comparing ZIP codes associated with all credit card subscriptions between 2006 and 2008. The author is also quick to admit that the difference in usage between states is relatively small.[71] Another report found that Utah was not significantly higher than other states in regards to pornographic Google search terms; and in regards to the most common search term, was ranked last.[72]

According to Internal Revenue Service tax returns, Utahns rank first among all U.S. states in the proportion of income given to charity by the wealthy. This is due to the standard 10% of all earnings that Mormons give to the LDS Church.[40] According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, Utah had an average of 884,000 volunteers between 2008 and 2010, each of whom contributed 89.2 hours per volunteer. This figure equates to $3.8 billion of service contributed, ranking Utah number one for volunteerism in the nation.[73]

Taxation[edit]

Utah collects personal income tax; since 2008 the tax has been a flat 5 percent for all taxpayers.[74] The state sales tax has a base rate of 6.45 percent,[75] with cities and counties levying additional local sales taxes that vary among the municipalities. Property taxes are assessed and collected locally. Utah does not charge intangible property taxes and does not impose an inheritance tax.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is a major industry in Utah and is well known for its year-round outdoor and recreational activities among other attractions. With five national parks (Arches, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Capitol Reef, and Zion), Utah has the third most national parks of any state after Alaska and California. In addition, Utah features seven national monuments (Cedar Breaks, Dinosaur, Grand Staircase-Escalante, Hovenweep, Natural Bridges, Rainbow Bridge, and Timpanogos Cave), two national recreation areas (Flaming Gorge and Glen Canyon), seven national forests (Ashley, Caribou-Targhee, Dixie, Fishlake, Manti-La Sal, Sawtooth, and Uinta-Wasatch-Cache), and numerous state parks and monuments.

The Moab area, in the southeastern part of the state, is known for its challenging mountain biking trails, including Slickrock. Moab also hosts the famous Moab Jeep Safari semiannually.

Utah is well known for its winter activities and has seen an increase in tourism since the 2002 Winter Olympics. Park City is home to the United States Ski Team. Utah's ski resorts are primarily located in northern Utah near Salt Lake City, Park City, Ogden, and Provo. In 2011, for a fifth year in a row, Deer Valley, in Park City, has been ranked the top ski resort in North America by more than 20,000 readers of Ski Magazine, which has a circulation of over 1.6 million subscribers.[76]

In addition to having prime snow conditions and world-class amenities, Northern Utah's ski resorts are well liked among tourists for their convenience and proximity to a large city and international airport, as well as the close proximity to other ski resorts, allowing skiers the ability to ski at multiple locations in one day. This is in contrast to most other states with large ski industries, where resorts are more often located in remote locations, away from large cities, and more spread apart. The 2009 Ski Magazine reader survey concluded that six out of the top ten resorts deemed most "accessible" and six out of the top ten with the best snow conditions were located in Utah.[77] In Southern Utah, Brian Head Ski Resort is located in the mountains near Cedar City. Former Olympic venues including Utah Olympic Park and Utah Olympic Oval are still in operation for training and competition and allows the public to participate in numerous activities including ski jumping, bobsleigh, and speed skating.

Utah features many cultural attractions such as Temple Square, the Sundance Film Festival, the Red Rock Film Festival, the DOCUTAH Film Festival, and the Utah Shakespearean Festival. Temple Square is ranked as the 16th most visited tourist attraction in the United States by Forbes Magazine, with over five million annual visitors.[78]

Other attractions include Monument Valley, the Great Salt Lake, the Bonneville Salt Flats, and Lake Powell.

Bryce Canyon National Park Amphitheater (winter view)

Mining[edit]

Mining has been a large industry in Utah since it was first settled. The Bingham Canyon Mine in Salt Lake County is one of the largest open pit mines in the world.

Beginning in the late 19th century with the state's mining boom (including the Bingham Canyon Mine, among the world's largest open pit mines), companies attracted large numbers of immigrants with job opportunities. Since the days of the Utah Territory mining has played a major role in Utah's economy. Historical mining towns include Mercur in Tooele County, Silver Reef in Washington County, Eureka in Juab County, Park City in Summit County and numerous coal mining camps throughout Carbon County such as Castle Gate, Spring Canyon, and Hiawatha.[79]

These settlements were characteristic of the boom and bust cycle that dominated mining towns of the American West. During the early part of the Cold War era, uranium was mined in eastern Utah. Today mining activity still plays a major role in the state's economy. Minerals mined in Utah include copper, gold, silver, molybdenum, zinc, lead, and beryllium. Fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and natural gas continue to play a large role in Utah's economy, especially in the eastern part of the state in counties such as Carbon, Emery, Grand, and Uintah.[79]

Incidents[edit]

In 2007, nine people were killed at the Crandall Canyon Mine collapse.

On March 22, 2013, one miner died and another was injured after they became trapped in a cave-in at a part of the Castle Valley Mining Complex, about 10 miles west of the small mining town of Huntington in Emery County.[80]

Energy[edit]

Utah has the potential to generate 31,552 GWh/year from 13,104 MW of wind power, and 10,290,000 GWh/year from solar power using 4,048,000 MW of photovoltaic (PV), including 5,645 MW of rooftop photovoltaic, and 1,638,000 MW of concentrated solar power.[81]

Utah Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh)
Year Capacity
(MW)
Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
2009 223 160 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 33 47 15 35
2010 223 448 31 17 46 44 50 38 36 56 39 26 26 42
2011 325 576 18 54 59 45 57 70 55 63 23 38 65 32
2012 36 40 97 62 80 93 56 40 34

Source:[82][83][84]

Utah Grid-Connected PV Capacity (MW)[85][86]
Year Capacity Installed % Growth
2007 0.2
2008 0.2 0
2009 0.6 0.4 200%
2010 2.1 1.4 250%
2011 4.4 2.3 110%

Transportation[edit]

Salt Lake International Airport is the largest airport in Utah.
FrontRunner commuter rail serves cities from Ogden to Salt Lake City to Provo.
TRAX light rail serves Salt Lake County.

I-15 and I-80 are the main interstate highways in the state, where they intersect and briefly merge near downtown Salt Lake City. I-15 traverses the state north-to-south, entering from Arizona near St. George, paralleling the Wasatch Front, and crossing into Idaho near Portage. I-80 spans northern Utah east-to-west, entering from Nevada at Wendover, crossing the Wasatch Mountains east of Salt Lake City, and entering Wyoming near Evanston. I-84 West enters from Idaho near Snowville (from Boise) and merges with I-15 from Tremonton to Ogden, then heads southeast through the Wasatch Mountains before terminating at I-80 near Echo Junction.

I-70 splits from I-15 at Cove Fort in central Utah and heads east through mountains and rugged desert terrain, providing quick access to the many national parks and national monuments of southern Utah, and has been noted for its beauty. The 103-mile (163 km) stretch from Salina to Green River is the longest stretch of interstate in the country without services and, when completed in 1970, was the longest stretch of entirely new highway constructed in the U.S. since the Alaska Highway was completed in 1943.

TRAX, a light rail system in the Salt Lake Valley, consists of three lines. The Blue Line (formerly Salt Lake/Sandy Line) begins in the suburb of Draper and ends in Downtown Salt Lake City. The Red Line (Mid-Jordan/University Line) begins in the Daybreak Community of South Jordan, a southwestern valley suburb, and ends at the University of Utah. The Green Line begins in West Valley City passes through downtown Salt Lake City and ends at the Salt Lake City International Airport.

The Utah Transit Authority (UTA), which operates TRAX, also operates a bus system that stretches across the Wasatch Front, west into Grantsville, and east into Park City. In addition, UTA provides winter service to the ski resorts east of Salt Lake City, Ogden, and Provo. Several bus companies also provide access to the ski resorts in winter, and local bus companies also serve the cities of Cedar City, Logan, Park City, and St. George. A commuter rail line known as FrontRunner, also operated by UTA, runs between Pleasant View and Provo via Salt Lake City. Amtrak's California Zephyr, with one train in each direction daily, runs east-west through Utah with stops in Green River, Helper, Provo, and Salt Lake City.

The cities of Logan, Hyrum, Smithfield, Richmond, in addition to nearby Preston, Idaho, are served by a local sales-tax-funded zero-fare bus system called the Cache Valley Transit District (CVTD). It is the only system-wide free public transit system in the state.

Salt Lake City International Airport is the only international airport in the state and serves as one of the hubs for Delta Air Lines. The airport has consistently ranked first in on-time departures and had the fewest cancellations among U.S. airports.[87] The airport has non-stop service to over 100 destinations throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico, as well as to Paris and Tokyo. Canyonlands Field (near Moab), Cedar City Regional Airport, Ogden-Hinckley Airport, Provo Municipal Airport, St. George Municipal Airport, and Vernal Regional Airport all provide limited commercial air service. An entirely new regional airport at St. George opened on January 12, 2011, replacing the old airport that existed on top of a plateau and had no room for expansion. SkyWest Airlines is also headquartered in St. George and maintains a hub at Salt Lake City. The airlines and service from Provo have seem to remain in a state of change since commercial service began in 2011.

Law and government[edit]

Utah state symbols
Flag of Utah.svg
Seal of Utah.svg
Animal and Plant insignia
Bird(s) California Gull
Fish Bonneville Cutthroat Trout
Flower(s) Sego Lily
Grass Indian ricegrass
Insect Western honey bee
Mammal(s) Elk
Tree Quaking Aspen
Inanimate insignia
Dance Square dance
Dinosaur Allosaurus
Firearm M1911 pistol[88]
Gemstone Topaz
Mineral Copper
Rock Coal
Ship(s) USS Utah (BB-31)
Slogan(s) "Life Elevated"
Song(s) Utah, This is the Place
Tartan Utah State Tartan
Route marker(s)
Utah Route Marker
State Quarter
Quarter of Utah
Released in 2007
Lists of United States state symbols
Gary Herbert, 17th governor of Utah.
Jake Garn (top-right), former Senator of Utah (1974-1993), and astronaut on Space Shuttle flight STS-51-D.

Utah government, like most U.S. states, is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The current governor of Utah is Gary Herbert,[89] who was sworn in on August 11, 2009. The governor is elected for a four-year term. The Utah State Legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. State senators serve four-year terms and representatives two-year terms. The Utah Legislature meets each year in January for an annual forty-five-day session.

The Utah Supreme Court is the court of last resort in Utah. It consists of five justices, who are appointed by the governor, and then subject to retention election. The Utah Court of Appeals handles cases from the trial courts.[90] Trial level courts are the district courts and justice courts. All justices and judges, like those on the Utah Supreme Court, are subject to retention election after appointment.

Counties[edit]

Utah is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. Since 1918 there have been 29 counties in the state, ranging from 298 to 7,819 square miles (772 to 20,300 km2).

County name County seat Year founded 2010 U.S. Census Percent of total Area % of state
Beaver Beaver 1856 6,162 0.22% 2,589 sq mi (6,710 km2) 3.2%
Box Elder Brigham City 1856 49,975 1.81% 5,745 sq mi (14,880 km2) 7.0%
Cache Logan 1856 112,656 4.08% 1,164 square miles (3,010 km2) 1.4%
Carbon Price 1894 21,403 0.77% 1,478 sq mi (3,830 km2) 1.8%
Daggett Manila 1918 938 0.03% 696 sq mi (1,800 km2) 0.8%
Davis Farmington 1852 306,479 11.09% 298 sq mi (770 km2) 0.4%
Duchesne Duchesne 1915 18,607 0.67% 3,240 sq mi (8,400 km2) 3.9%
Emery Castle Dale 1880 10,976 0.40% 4,462 sq mi (11,560 km2) 5.4%
Garfield Panguitch 1882 4,658 0.17% 5,175 sq mi (13,400 km2) 6.3%
Grand Moab 1890 9,589 0.35% 3,671 sq mi (9,510 km2) 4.5%
Iron Parowan 1852 46,163 1.67% 3,296 sq mi (8,540 km2) 4.0%
Juab Nephi 1852 10,246 0.37% 3,392 sq mi (8,790 km2) 4.1%
Kane Kanab 1864 6,577 0.24% 3,990 sq mi (10,300 km2) 4.9%
Millard Fillmore 1852 12,503 0.45% 6,572 sq mi (17,020 km2) 8.0%
Morgan Morgan 1862 8,669 0.31% 609 sq mi (1,580 km2) 0.7%
Piute Junction 1865 1,404 0.05% 757 sq mi (1,960 km2) 0.9%
Rich Randolph 1868 2,205 0.08% 1,028 sq mi (2,660 km2) 1.3%
Salt Lake Salt Lake City 1852 1,029,655 37.25% 742 sq mi (1,920 km2) 0.9%
San Juan Monticello 1880 14,746 0.53% 7,819 sq mi (20,250 km2) 9.5%
Sanpete Manti 1852 27,822 1.01% 1,590 sq mi (4,100 km2) 1.9%
Sevier Richfield 1865 20,802 0.75% 1,910 sq mi (4,900 km2) 2.3%
Summit Coalville 1854 36,324 1.31% 1,871 sq mi (4,850 km2) 2.3%
Tooele Tooele 1852 58,218 2.11% 6,941 sq mi (17,980 km2) 8.4%
Uintah Vernal 1880 32,588 1.18% 4,479 sq mi (11,600 km2) 5.5%
Utah Provo 1852 516,564 18.69% 2,003 sq mi (5,190 km2) 2.4%
Wasatch Heber 1862 23,530 0.85% 1,175 sq mi (3,040 km2) 1.4%
Washington St. George 1852 138,115 5.00% 2,426 sq mi (6,280 km2) 3.0%
Wayne Loa 1892 2,509 0.09% 2,460 sq mi (6,400 km2) 3.0%
Weber Ogden 1852 231,236 8.37% 576 sq mi (1,490 km2) 0.7%
  • Total Counties: 29
  • Total 2010 population: 2,763,885[91]
  • Total state area: 82,154 sq mi (212,780 km2)

Women's rights[edit]

Further information: Women's suffrage in Utah

Utah granted full voting rights to women in 1870, 26 years before becoming a state. Among all U.S. states, only Wyoming granted suffrage to women earlier.[92] However, in 1887 the initial Edmunds-Tucker Act was passed by Congress in an effort to curtail excessive Mormon influence in the territorial government. One of the provisions of the Act was the repeal of women's suffrage; full suffrage was not returned until Utah was admitted to the Union in 1896.

Utah is one of the 15 states that have not ratified the U.S. Equal Rights Amendment.[93]

Constitution[edit]

Main article: Constitution of Utah

The constitution of Utah was enacted in 1895. Notably, the constitution outlawed polygamy, as requested by Congress when Utah had applied for statehood, and reestablished the territorial practice of women's suffrage. Utah's Constitution has been amended many times since its inception.[94]

Alcohol, tobacco and gambling laws[edit]

Utah's laws in regard to alcohol, tobacco and gambling are strict. Utah is an alcoholic beverage control state. The Utah Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control regulates the sale of alcohol; wine and spirituous liquors may only be purchased at state liquor stores, and local laws may prohibit the sale of beer and other alcoholic beverages on Sundays. The state bans the sale of fruity alcoholic drinks at grocery stores and convenience stores. The law states that such drinks must now have new state-approved labels on the front of the products that contain capitalized letters in bold type telling consumers the drinks contain alcohol and at what percentage. The Utah Indoor Clean Air Act is a statewide smoking ban, that prohibits smoking in many public places.[95] Utah is one of few states to set a smoking age of 19, as opposed to 18, as in most other states. Utah is also one of only two states in the United States to outlaw all forms of gambling; the other is Hawaii.

Same-sex marriage[edit]

Same-sex marriage became legal in Utah on December 20, 2013 when judge Robert J. Shelby of the United States District Court for the District of Utah issued a ruling in Kitchen v. Herbert.[96][97] As of close of business December 26, more than 1,225 marriage licenses were issued, with at least 74 percent, or 905 licenses, issued to gay and lesbian couples. Utah's counties generated more than $49,000 in a three-and-a-half-day period from licenses, which cost $30–$50.[98] The state Attorney General's office was granted a stay of the ruling by the United States Supreme Court on January 6, 2014 while the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals considers the case.[99] On Monday October 6th, 2014, the Supreme Court of the United States declined a Writ of Certiorari, and the 10th Circuit Court issued their mandate later that day, lifting their stay. Same-sex marriages commenced again in Utah that day. [100]

Politics[edit]

Presidential election results[101]
Year Republican Democrat
2012 72.79% 740,600 24.75% 251,813
2008 62.25% 596,030 34.22% 327,670
2004 71.54% 663,742 26.00% 241,199
2000 66.83% 515,096 26.34% 203,053
1996 54.37% 361,911 33.30% 221,633
1992 43.36% 322,632 24.65% 183,429
1988 66.22% 428,442 32.05% 207,343
1984 74.50% 469,105 24.68% 155,369
1980 72.77% 439,687 20.57% 124,266
1976 62.44% 337,908 33.65% 182,110
1972 67.64% 323,643 26.39% 126,284
1968 56.49% 238,728 37.07% 156,665
1964 45.14% 180,682 54.86% 219,628
1960 54.81% 205,361 45.17% 169,248
The Utah State Capitol, Salt Lake City
The Scott Matheson Courthouse is the seat of the Utah Supreme Court

In the late 19th century, the federal government took issue with polygamy in the LDS Church. The LDS Church discontinued plural marriage in 1890, and in 1896 Utah gained admission to the Union. Many new people settled the area soon after the Mormon pioneers. Relations have often been strained between the LDS population and the non-LDS population.[102] These tensions have played a large part in Utah's history (Liberal Party vs. People's Party).

Utah was the single most Republican-leaning state in the country in every presidential election from 1976 to 2004, measured by the percentage point margin between the Republican and Democratic candidates. In 2008 Utah was only the third-most Republican state (after Wyoming and Oklahoma), but in 2012, with Mormon Mitt Romney atop the Republican ticket, Utah returned to its position as the most Republican state.

Both of Utah's U.S. Senators, Orrin Hatch and Mike Lee, are Republican. Three more Republicans, Rob Bishop, Chris Stewart, and Jason Chaffetz, as well as one member of the Democratic Party, Jim Matheson, represent Utah in the United States House of Representatives. After Jon Huntsman, Jr., resigned to serve as U.S. Ambassador to China, Gary Herbert was sworn in as governor on August 11, 2009. Herbert was elected to serve out the remainder of the term in a special election in 2010, defeating Democratic nominee Salt Lake County Mayor Peter Corroon with 64% of the vote. He won election to a full four-year term in 2012, defeating Democratic Businessman Peter Cooke with 68% of the vote.

The LDS Church maintains an official policy of neutrality with regard to political parties and candidates.[56]

Utah votes predominately Republican. Self-identified Latter-day Saints are more likely to vote for the Republican ticket than non-Mormons, and Utah is one of the most Republican states in the nation.[103]

In the 1970s, then-Apostle Ezra Taft Benson was quoted by the Associated Press that it would be difficult for a faithful Latter-day Saint to be a liberal Democrat.[104] Although the LDS Church has officially repudiated such statements on many occasions, Democratic candidates—including LDS Democrats—believe that Republicans capitalize on the perception that the Republican Party is doctrinally superior.[105] Political scientist and pollster Dan Jones explains this disparity by noting that the national Democratic Party is associated with liberal positions on gay marriage and abortion, both of which the LDS Church is against.[106] The Republican Party in heavily Mormon Utah County presents itself as the superior choice for Latter-day Saints. Even though Utah Democratic candidates are predominantly LDS, socially conservative, and pro-life, no Democrat has won in Utah County since 1994.[107]

David Magleby, dean of Social and Behavioral Sciences at Brigham Young University, a lifelong Democrat and a political analyst, asserts that the Republican Party actually has more conservative positions than the LDS Church. Magleby argues that the locally conservative Democrats are in better accord with LDS doctrine.[108] For example, the Republican Party of Utah opposes almost all abortions while Utah Democrats take a more liberal approach, although more conservative than their national counterparts. On Second Amendment issues, the state GOP has been at odds with the LDS Church position opposing concealed firearms in places of worship and in public spaces.

In 1998 the church expressed concern that Utahns perceived the Republican Party as an LDS institution and authorized lifelong Democrat and Seventy Marlin Jensen to promote LDS bipartisanship.[104]

Utah is much more conservative than the United States as a whole, particularly on social issues. Compared to other Republican-dominated states in the Mountain West such as Wyoming, Utah politics have a more moralistic and less libertarian character according to David Magleby.[109]

Governor elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2012 68.4% 624,678 27.7% 253,514
2008 77.6% 734,049 19.7% 186,503
2004 57.7% 531,190 41.4% 380,359
2000 56.0% 422,357 43.0% 320,141
1996 75.0% 503,693 23.3% 156,616
Salt Lake County Mayor
Year Republican Democratic
2008 32% 114,097 66% 233,655
2004 44% 144,928 48% 157,287
2000 52% 158,787 47% 144,011
Senator Bennett results
Year Republican Democratic
2004 69% 626,640 28% 258,955
1998 64% 316,652 33% 163,172
Senator Hatch results
Year Republican Democratic
2006 63% 356,238 31% 177,459
2000 66% 501,925 32% 241,129


About 80% of Utah's Legislature are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[110] while they account for 61 percent of the population.[111] Since becoming a state in 1896, Utah has had only two non-Mormon governors.[112]

In 2006, the legislature passed legislation aimed at banning joint-custody for a non-biological parent of a child. The custody measure passed the legislature and was vetoed by the governor, a reciprocal benefits supporter.

Carbon County's Democrats are generally made up of members of the large Greek, Italian, and Southeastern European communities, whose ancestors migrated in the early 20th century to work in the extensive mining industry. The views common amongst this group are heavily influenced by labor politics, particularly of the New Deal Era.[113]

The Democrats of Summit County are the by-product of the migration of wealthy families from California in the 1990s to the ski resort town of Park City; their views are generally supportive of the economic policies favored by unions and the social policies favored by the liberals.

The state's most Republican areas tend to be Utah County, which is the home to Brigham Young University in the city of Provo, and nearly all the rural counties.[114][115] These areas generally hold socially conservative views in line with that of the national Religious Right.

The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964. Historically, Republican presidential nominees score one of their best margins of victory here. Utah was the Republicans' best state in the 1976,[116] 1980,[117] 1984,[118] 1988,[119] 1996,[120] 2000,[121] and 2004[122] elections. In 1992, Utah was the only state in the nation where Democratic candidate Bill Clinton finished behind both Republican candidate George HW Bush and Independent candidate Ross Perot.[123] In 2004, Republican George W. Bush won every county in the state and Utah gave him his largest margin of victory of any state. He won the state's five electoral votes by a margin of 46 percentage points with 71.5% of the vote. In the 1996 Presidential elections the Republican candidate received a smaller 54% of the vote while the Democrat earned 34%.[124]

Major cities and towns[edit]

Utah's population is concentrated in two areas, the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, with a population of over 2 million; and Washington County, in southwestern Utah, locally known as "Dixie", with over 150,000 residents.

According the 2010 Census, Utah was the second-fastest growing state (at 23.8 percent) in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (behind Nevada). St. George, in the southwest, is the second-fastest growing metropolitan area in the United States, trailing Greeley, Colorado.

The three fastest-growing counties from 2000 to 2010 were Wasatch County (54.7%), Washington County (52.9%), and Tooele County (42.9%). However, Utah County added the most people (148,028). Between 2000 and 2010, Saratoga Springs (1,673%), Herriman (1,330%), Eagle Mountain (893%), Cedar Hills (217%), South Willard (168%), Nibley (166%), Syracuse (159%), West Haven (158%), Lehi (149%), Washington (129%), and Stansbury Park (116%) all at least doubled in population. West Jordan (35,376), Lehi (28,379), St. George (23,234), South Jordan (20,981), West Valley City (20,584), and Herriman (20,262) all added at least 20,000 people.

Utah
Rank
City Population
(2010)
within
city limits
Land
area
Population
density
(/mi²)
Population
density
(/km²)
County
1 Salt Lake City 186,440 109.1 sq mi (283 km2) 1,666.1 630 Salt Lake
2 West Valley City 129,480 35.4 sq mi (92 km2) 3,076.3 1236 Salt Lake
3 Provo 112,488 39.6 sq mi (103 km2) 2,653.2 1106 Utah County
4 West Jordan 103,712 30.9 sq mi (80 km2) 2,211.3 1143 Salt Lake
5 Orem 88,328 18.4 sq mi (48 km2) 4,572.6 1881 Utah County
6 Sandy 87,461 22.3 sq mi (58 km2) 3,960.5 1551 Salt Lake
7 Ogden 82,825 26.6 sq mi (69 km2) 2,899.2 1137 Weber
8 St. George 72,897 64.4 sq mi (167 km2) 771.2 385 Washington
9 Layton 67,311 20.7 sq mi (54 km2) 2,823.9 1153 Davis
10 Taylorsville 58,652 10.7 sq mi (28 km2) 5,376.1 2094 Salt Lake
Combined statistical area Population
(2010)
Salt Lake City-Ogden-Clearfield
comprises:
Salt Lake City and Ogden-Clearfield Metropolitan Areas and
Brigham City and Heber Micropolitan Areas (as listed below)
1,744,886
Utah
Rank
Metropolitan area Population
(2010)
Counties
1 Salt Lake City* 1,124,197 Salt Lake, Tooele, Summit
2 Ogden-Clearfield* 547,184 Weber, Davis, Morgan
3 Provo-Orem 526,810 Utah
4 St. George 138,115 Washington
5 Logan 125,442 Cache, Franklin (Idaho)
  • Until 2003, the Salt Lake City and Ogden-Clearfield metropolitan areas were considered as a single metropolitan area.[citation needed]
Utah
Rank
Micropolitan area Population
(2010)
1 Brigham City 49,015
2 Cedar City 44,540
3 Vernal 29,885
4 Heber 21,066
5 Price 19,549
6 Richfield 18,382

Colleges and universities[edit]

Davis Applied Technology College Kaysville, UT

Sports[edit]

The Utah Jazz playing against the Houston Rockets.

Utah is the least populous U.S. state to have a major professional sports league franchise (they now have two). The Utah Jazz of the National Basketball Association play at EnergySolutions Arena[125] in Salt Lake City. The team moved to the city from New Orleans in 1979 and has been one of the most consistently successful teams in the league (although they have yet to win a championship). Salt Lake City was previously host to the Utah Stars, who competed in the ABA from 1970–76 and won 1 championship, and to the Utah Starzz of the WNBA from 1997 to 2003.

Real Salt Lake of Major League Soccer were founded in 2005 and play their home matches at Rio Tinto Stadium in Sandy. The team has enjoyed several years of success as the Utah outpost of the world's most popular sport. RSL remain the only Utah major league sports team to have won a major league national championship, having won the MLS Cup in 2009.[citation needed]

The Utah Blaze began play in the original AFL in 2006 that folded before the 2009 season, then returned to play when the league was re-founded in 2010. They compete at the Maverik Center in West Valley City.

Utah's highest level minor league baseball team is the Salt Lake Bees, who play at Smith's Ballpark in Salt Lake City and are part of the AAA level Pacific Coast League, one notch below Major League Baseball. Utah also has one minor league hockey team, the Utah Grizzlies, who play at the Maverik Center and compete in the ECHL (the third tier of U.S. hockey).

Utah has six universities that compete in Division I of the NCAA. Three of the schools have football programs that participate in the top-level Football Bowl Subdivision: Utah in the Pacific-12 Conference, Utah State in the Mountain West Conference, and BYU as an independent. Two more schools participate in FCS football: Weber State and Southern Utah (SUU) in the Big Sky Conference. Utah Valley, which has no football program, is a full member of the Great West Conference.

Salt Lake City hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics. After early financial struggles and scandal, the 2002 Olympics eventually became among the most successful Winter Olympics in history from a marketing and financial standpoint.[citation needed] Watched by over 2 billion viewers, the Games ended up with a profit of 40 million dollars.[citation needed]

Rugby has been growing quickly in the state of Utah, growing from 17 teams in 2009 to 70 teams as of 2013, including with over 3,000 players, and more than 55 high school varsity teams.[126][127] The growth has been inspired in part by the 2008 movie Forever Strong.[127] Utah fields two of the most competitive teams in the nation in college rugby — BYU and Utah.[128]

Branding[edit]

The Delicate Arch Utah license plate with the "Life Elevated" state slogan.

The state of Utah relies heavily on income from tourists and travelers taking advantage of the state's ski resorts and natural beauty, and thus the need to "brand" Utah and create an impression of the state throughout the world has led to several state slogans, the most famous of which being "The Greatest Snow on Earth", which has been in use in Utah officially since 1975 (although the slogan was in unofficial use as early as 1962) and now adorns nearly 50 percent of the state's license plates. In 2001, Utah Governor Mike Leavitt approved a new state slogan, "Utah! Where Ideas Connect", which lasted until March 10, 2006, when the Utah Travel Council and the office of Governor Jon Huntsman announced that "Life Elevated" would be the new state slogan.[129]

Entertainment[edit]

Utah is the setting of or the filming location for many books, films,[130] television series,[130] music videos, and video games. A selective list of each appears below.

Books[edit]

Film[edit]

Monument Valley in southeastern Utah. This area was used to film many Hollywood Westerns.
The otherworldly look of the Bonneville Salt Flats has been used in many movies and commercials.

See Category:Films shot in Utah

Utah's Monument Valley has been location to several productions, such as 127 Hours, Tim Burton's Planet of the Apes, and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.

Television[edit]

Music videos[edit]

Video games[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the website of the Division of Utah State Parks and Recreation.

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External links[edit]

General[edit]

Government[edit]

Military[edit]

Maps and demographics[edit]

Tourism and recreation[edit]

Other[edit]

Preceded by
Wyoming
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on January 4, 1896 (45th)
Succeeded by
Oklahoma

Coordinates: 39°N 111°W / 39°N 111°W / 39; -111