Geometric modeling kernel

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A geometric modeling kernel is a 3D solid modeling software component used in computer-aided design packages[1] .[2] Available modelling kernels include:

Kernel market[edit]

The kernel market is currently dominated by Parasolid and ACIS, which were introduced in late 1980s. The latest kernels to enter the market are C3D and Convergence Geometric Modeler, which were developed in 1995 and 1998 respectively; they were introduced as standalone products in 2013 and 2011 respectively. ShapeManager has no presence in this market and in 2001 Autodesk clearly stated they were not going into this business.

The world's newest geometric modeling kernel is Russian Geometric Kernel owned by the Russian government, and it is not clear if it is going to be commercially available. However, it has superior features over the other kernels on the market.[examples needed][citation needed]

Kernel developers[edit]

In the table below you can see a representative list of developers that belong to companies developing their own kernel or licensing the kernel from third-party.

Application Developed by Country Platforms Domain Kernel
4MCAD IntelliCAD 4M S.A. Greece Windows CAD, AEC Open CASCADE Technology
KOMPAS-3D ASCON Group Russia Windows MCAD C3D
KOMPAS-Builder ASCON Group Russia Windows AEC C3D
Renga Architecture[8][9] ASCON Group Russia Windows AEC C3D
KOMPAS:24 ASCON Group Russia Android MCAD C3D
nanoCAD NanoSoft Russia Windows CAD Own Kernel
T-FLEX Top Systems Russia Windows MCAD Parasolid
APM Studio APM Russia Windows MCAD APM Engine
TECHTRAN NIP-Informatic Russia Windows CAM C3D
PASSAT NTP Truboprovod Russia Windows CAD C3D
Rhinoceros 3D Robert McNeel and Associates USA Windows, Mac CAD, CAM SOLIDS++
ESPRIT Extra CAD LO CNITI, Rubius Russia Windows CAD C3D
BAZIS System BAZIS Center Russia Windows CAD C3D
Adams MSC Software USA Windows CAE Parasolid
ADEM ADEM Group Russia Windows CAD, CAM, CAPP ACIS
ADINA Modeler ADINA R&D Inc. USA Windows CAE Parasolid
AutoCAD Autodesk USA Windows CAD, AEC, GIS ShapeManager
Autodesk Inventor Autodesk USA Windows, Linux, Mac MCAD ShapeManager
BricsCAD Bricsys Belgium Windows, Linux, Mac MCAD, AEC ACIS
Siemens NX Siemens PLM Software USA, Germany Windows, Mac CAD, CAM, CAE Parasolid
Solid Edge Siemens PLM Software USA, Germany Windows MCAD Parasolid (previous versions used ACIS)
SolidWorks Dassault Systèmes USA, France Windows MCAD Parasolid
MicroStation Bentley Systems USA Windows AEC Parasolid (previous versions used ACIS)
CATIA Dassault Systèmes France Windows, Unix CAD, CAM, CAE, AEC CGM
PTC Creo Elements/Pro Parametric Technology Corporation USA Windows CAD ACIS
GstarCAD Suzhou Gstarsoft Co., Ltd China Windows CAD ACIS
ArchiCAD Graphisoft Hungary Windows, Mac AEC, BIM Own Kernel
ZWCAD ZWCAD Software China Windows, Linux, Mac MCAD , AEC ACIS



  1. ^ Tyrka, Katherine (2001-12-01). "Kernel strategies". Design News. 
  2. ^ Shah, Jami (2004-06-27). Parametric and Feature-Based CAD/CAM. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 449. ISBN 0-471-00214-3. 
  3. ^ Yares, Evan. "Spatial, ACIS, CGM, and the future of geometric modelers". 3D CAD World. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ "GRANITE Interoperability Kernel FAQ". PTC Inc. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  6. ^ Levin, David. "Geometric Kernels and Irremovability of Presidents from Office". LEDAS Ltd. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  7. ^ Yares, Evan (April 2013). "Russian CAD". Design World (WTWH Media, LLC) 8 (4). ISSN 1941-7217. 
  8. ^ "Renga Architecture". ASCON Group. 2015-03-17. 
  9. ^ "Renga Architecture is brand-new AEC software by an MCAD vendor". WorldCAD Access. 2015-03-13. 
  10. ^ Ushakov, Dmitry. "Russian National 3D Kernel". LEDAS Ltd. Retrieved April 3, 2012.