George Brownlee

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Professor George Brownlee
Born George Gow Brownlee
(1942-01-13)13 January 1942[1]
Fields Pathology
Institutions University of Cambridge
University of Oxford
Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology
Alma mater Emmanuel College, Cambridge
Thesis Nucleotide sequences in the low molecular weight ribosomal ribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli (1967)
Doctoral advisor Frederick Sanger
Notable awards Fellow of the Royal Society (1987)[2]
FMedSci
Website
www.linc.ox.ac.uk/Fellows/GeorgeBrownlee

Professor George Gow Brownlee FRS FMedSci is a British pathologist and fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford.[3][4][5][6][7]

Education[edit]

Brownlee was educated at the Emmanuel College, Cambridge where he was awarded a Master of Arts degree and PhD supervised by Fred Sanger.[8][9][10][11][12][13][3]


Career[edit]

Brownlee was Professor of Chemical Pathology at Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, from 1978 to 2008.[14][15][16][17][18][19]

Brownlee cloned and expressed human clotting factor IX,[20][21] providing a recombinant source of this protein for Haemophilia B patients who had previously relied on the hazardous blood-derived product. With Peter Palese[22][23][24]and co-workers, he developed the first reverse genetics system for influenza virus, markedly speeding up the process of developing influenza vaccines.

Brownlee is currently writing a scientific biography of Fred Sanger.[citation needed]

Awards and honours[edit]

Brownlee was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1987.[1] His nomination reads:

Distinguished for his work on the sequences of nucleic acids and their biological implications. He contributed to the development of methods using 32P-labelling and two-dimensional fractionation techniques, which greatly accelerated the early RNA sequencing. He used these methods to determine the sequence of the 5S ribosomal RNA, at that time the largest nucleic acid to be sequenced. He used fingerprint analysis of messenger RNA to demonstrate that immunoglobulin V- and C-regions were not discontinuous at the messenger RNA level, and early analysis of messenger RNA to identify a precursor for light chain synthesis. Parallel studies on globin messenger RNA demonstrated important features of eucaryotic translation. More recently he has developed faster methods for RNA sequencing and has applied them to transfer RNAs and ovalbumin messenger RNA. He also studied the DNA sequence of the ovalbumin gene and its insertion sequences. He determined the nucleotide sequence of the multiple gene coding for the 5S RNA in Xenopus laevis and showed that the coding regions alternated with a repetitious region and a "pseudogene" that had a sequence homologous with part of the 5S region.[2]

Brownlee was also elected a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (FMedSci).[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "BROWNLEE, Prof. George Gow". Who's Who 2013, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2013; online edn, Oxford University Press. (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b "Library and Archive Catalogue Brownlee". London: The Royal Society. Retrieved 2013-11-11. 
  3. ^ a b "Professor George Brownlee, Lincoln College, Oxford". Archived from the original on 2013-12-17. 
  4. ^ George Brownlee from the Scopus bibliographic database
  5. ^ Rao, Z.; Handford, P.; Mayhew, M.; Knott, V.; Brownlee, G. G.; Stuart, D. (1995). "The structure of a Ca(2+)-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain: Its role in protein-protein interactions". Cell 82 (1): 131–141. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90059-4. PMID 7606779.  edit
  6. ^ Caton, A. J.; Brownlee, G. G.; Yewdell, J. W.; Gerhard, W. (1982). "The antigenic structure of the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (H1 subtype)". Cell 31 (2 Pt 1): 417–427. PMID 6186384.  edit
  7. ^ Proudfoot, N. J.; Brownlee, G. G. (1976). "3′ Non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature 263 (5574): 211–214. doi:10.1038/263211a0. PMID 822353.  edit
  8. ^ Sanger, F.; Brownlee, G. G. (1970). "Methods for determining sequences in RNA". Biochemical Society symposium 30: 183–197. PMID 4923827.  edit
  9. ^ Brownlee, G. G.; Sanger, F. (1969). "Chromatography of 32P-labelled oligonucleotides on thin layers of DEAE-cellulose". European journal of biochemistry / FEBS 11 (2): 395–399. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1969.tb00786.x. PMID 4902612.  edit
  10. ^ Brownlee, G. G.; Sanger, F.; Barrell, B. G. (1968). "The sequence of 5 s ribosomal ribonucleic acid". Journal of molecular biology 34 (3): 379–412. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(68)90168-X. PMID 4938553.  edit
  11. ^ Brownlee, G. G.; Sanger, F.; Barrell, B. G. (1967). "Nucleotide sequence of 5S-ribosomal RNA from Escherichia coli". Nature 215 (5102): 735–736. doi:10.1038/215735a0. PMID 4862513.  edit
  12. ^ Brownlee, G. G.; Sanger, F. (1967). "Nucleotide sequences from the low molecular weight ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli". Journal of molecular biology 23 (3): 337–353. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(67)80109-8. PMID 4291728.  edit
  13. ^ Sanger, F.; Brownlee, G. G.; Barrell, B. G. (1965). "A two-dimensional fractionation procedure for radioactive nucleotides". Journal of molecular biology 13 (2): 373–398. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(65)80104-8. PMID 5325727.  edit
  14. ^ Poon, L. L.; Fodor, E.; Brownlee, G. G. (2000). "Polyuridylated mRNA synthesized by a recombinant influenza virus is defective in nuclear export". Journal of virology 74 (1): 418–427. doi:10.1128/JVI.74.1.418-427.2000. PMC 111553. PMID 10590131.  edit
  15. ^ Solorzano, A.; Zheng, H.; Fodor, E.; Brownlee, G. G.; Palese, P.; García-Sastre, A. (2000). "Reduced levels of neuraminidase of influenza a viruses correlate with attenuated phenotypes in mice". The Journal of general virology 81 (Pt 3): 737–742. PMID 10675411.  edit
  16. ^ Fodor, E.; Mikulasova, A.; Mingay, L. J.; Poon, L. L.; Brownlee, G. G. (2000). "Messenger RNAs that are not synthesized by RNA polymerase II can be 3' end cleaved and polyadenylated". EMBO reports 1 (6): 513–518. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kvd111. PMC 1083783. PMID 11263496.  edit
  17. ^ Leahy, M. B.; Pritlove, D. C.; Poon, L. L. M.; Brownlee, G. G. (2001). "Mutagenic Analysis of the 5' Arm of the Influenza a Virus Virion RNA Promoter Defines the Sequence Requirements for Endonuclease Activity". Journal of Virology 75 (1): 134–142. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.1.134-142.2001. PMC 113906. PMID 11119582.  edit
  18. ^ Leahy, M. B.; Dobbyn, H. C.; Brownlee, G. G. (2001). "Hairpin Loop Structure in the 3' Arm of the Influenza a Virus Virion RNA Promoter is Required for Endonuclease Activity". Journal of Virology 75 (15): 7042–7049. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.15.7042-7049.2001. PMC 114432. PMID 11435584.  edit
  19. ^ Brownlee, G. G.; Giangrande, P. L. F. (2001). "Clotting factors VIII and IX". Recombinant Protein Drugs. p. 67. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-8346-7_3. ISBN 978-3-0348-9527-9.  edit
  20. ^ Choo, K. H.; Gould, K. G.; Rees, D. J. G.; Brownlee, G. G. (1982). "Molecular cloning of the gene for human anti-haemophilic factor IX". Nature 299 (5879): 178–180. doi:10.1038/299178a0. PMID 6287289.  edit
  21. ^ Anson, D. S.; Austen, D. E. G.; Brownlee, G. G. (1985). "Expression of active human clotting factor IX from recombinant DNA clones in mammalian cells". Nature 315 (6021): 683–685. doi:10.1038/315683a0. PMID 2989700.  edit
  22. ^ Solorzano, A.; Zheng, H.; Fodor, E.; Brownlee, G. G.; Palese, P.; García-Sastre, A. (2000). "Reduced levels of neuraminidase of influenza a viruses correlate with attenuated phenotypes in mice". The Journal of general virology 81 (Pt 3): 737–742. PMID 10675411.  edit
  23. ^ Fodor, E.; Devenish, L.; Engelhardt, O. G.; Palese, P.; Brownlee, G. G.; García-Sastre, A. (1999). "Rescue of Influenza a Virus from Recombinant DNA". Journal of Virology 73 (11): 9679–9682. PMC 113010. PMID 10516084.  edit
  24. ^ Fodor, E.; Palese, P.; Brownlee, G. G.; García-Sastre, A. (1998). "Attenuation of influenza a virus mRNA levels by promoter mutations". Journal of virology 72 (8): 6283–6290. PMC 109764. PMID 9658066.  edit

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