George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
|George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies|
Marshall Center Logo
|Jurisdiction||Government of Germany, United States Government|
|Headquarters||Gernackerstrasse 2, 82467 Garmisch Partenkirchen|
|Agency executive||Retired Army Lt. Gen Keith Dayton, Director|
|Parent agency||Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, German Defense Ministry|
The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies is a unique U.S. Department of Defense and German Defense Ministry security and defense studies institute. Since its dedication in 1993, its mission has been to create a more stable security environment by advancing democratic institutions and relationships, especially in the field of defense; promoting active, peaceful, security cooperation; and enhancing enduring partnerships among the nations of North America, Europe, and Eurasia. The Marshall Center offers graduate-level resident programs as well as conferences and other outreach programs to military and civilian government officials from Europe, Eurasia, North America and beyond. Its international faculty consists of 35 faculty members from 10 countries — the United States and Germany, as well as Albania, Austria, Canada, France, Italy, Lithuania, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The Marshall Center’s College of International and Strategic Studies offers five resident courses that examine national, regional and international security issues. Each course is held two or three times a year.
The Marshall Center is co-located with the Armed Forces Recreation Center's Edelweiss Lodge and Resort, a U.S. Department of Defense owned hotel in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Located in the Bavarian Alps near the Austrian border, the Edelweiss opened in September 2004. Both the Marshall Center and the Edelweiss are supported by the Bavarian Military Community Garmisch, which falls under Army Installation Management Command-Europe.
After the failed August 1991 coup attempt in Russia, defense specialists identified the need for an institution such as the Marshall Center. The United States European Command (EUCOM) began to develop proposals to expand defense and security contacts with the emerging democracies of Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia in order to positively influence the development of security structures appropriate for democratic states. In February 1992, a proposal was submitted to then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Colin Powell to use the facilities of the former U.S. Army Russia Institute (USARI) to create a European center for security studies in order to rapidly develop opportunities to work with European and Eurasian defense establishments. He endorsed the plan on March 17, 1992. Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz approved the proposal that summer, and the staffs began developing a charter for the proposed center.
Former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney signed DOD Directive 5200.34 in November 1992, establishing the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies as an element of EUCOM under the authority, direction and control of the EUCOM commander. The Marshall Center became a German-American partnership when a memorandum of agreement was signed on December 2, 1994, between headquarters EUCOM and the German Ministry of Defense.
EUCOM Commander Gen. John M. Shalikashvili hosted the June 5, 1993 ceremony officially dedicating the Marshall Center in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. The center was given the charter of stabilizing and thereby strengthening post-Cold War Europe. Secretary of Defense Les Aspin and German Minister of Defense Volker Rühe were the keynote speakers.
The facilities of the Marshall Center encompass the Sheridan Kaserne and Artillery, formerly the Krafft von Dellmensingen Kaserne. Sheridan Kaserne, originally named Jaeger Kaserne, was built in 1937 to house German military (Wehrmacht) troops. The U.S. Army first used the installation in 1945 as a prisoner-of-war camp for officers. The headquarters of the First Mountain Division of the new German Army was located on the Kasernes from 1960 to 1992. The installation became home to the Garmisch U.S. military community, the headquarters of the Armed Forces Recreation Center and the former U.S. Army Russia Institute (USARI) in May 1964. In June 1992, the facilities transferred to the newly formed George C. Marshall Center.
On June 11, 2003, the Marshall Center celebrated its 10th anniversary. U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and German Minister of Defense Dr. Peter Struck were the keynote speakers. Nine other ministers of defense from the region also attended the festivities.
Since its dedication, the Marshall Center has addressed the most important security issues confronting Europe, Eurasia and North America through its resident and outreach programs. In keeping abreast of 21st century security challenges, the Marshall Center has continued to expand its offerings, adding three new resident courses since 2004 and focusing on the need for international, interagency and interdisciplinary cooperation in addressing those challenges.
MC Resident Courses
The Program on Advanced Security Studies - Capacity Building (PASS-CB) is the Marshall Center’s flagship resident program. This 10-week course of study for civilian government officials and military officers provides graduate-level education in security policy, defense affairs, international relations and related topics, such as international law and counterterrorism. PASS consists of core studies and electives, which include assigned readings, seminar discussions, panels and role-playing exercises, and includes a one-week field study that allows participants to see how theoretical knowledge is applied in the political arena.
The Program on Terrorism and Security Studies (PTSS) addresses numerous aspects of a threat that confronts nations around the globe. This five-week course is designed for government officials, police and military officers currently employed in mid- and upperlevel management of counterterrorism organizations throughout the world. The course focuses on methods to help a state effectively combat terrorism but still adhere to the fundamental values of a democratic society. Participants develop a common understanding of the definition of terrorism and establish contacts that help them approach this complex problem in an international environment.
The Senior Executive Seminar (SES) is an intensive eight-day program that offers policymakers a forum for exploring a current international security issue in depth. Participants include general officers, senior diplomats, ambassadors, ministers, deputy ministers and parliamentarians. Each SES focuses on a specific issue and includes formal presentations by senior officials and recognized experts, followed by discussions in seminar groups.
The Seminar on Transatlantic Civil Security (STACS) provides civil security professionals from Europe, Eurasia and North America an in-depth look at how nations can effectively address domestic security issues that have regional and international impact. The three-week seminar examines best practices for ensuring civil security and preventing, preparing for and managing the consequences of domestic and regional crises and disasters. STACS is offered for military officers and government officials responsible for civil security policies and programs, as well as representatives of intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations with civil security responsibilities.
The three-week Seminar on Regional Security provides national security professionals with a comprehensive overview on security dynamics and conflict resolution strategies within the European-Eurasian region. It does so by using case studies in which regional crises as a result of violent conflict occurred. In contrast to the traditional global perspective, this seminar shifts the focus to a regional outlook on the analysis of approaches and best practice examples toward peace and security, in the context of comprehensive international missions and a multitude of local, regional and international actors.
The Marshall Center also offers specialized language courses, the Security Studies Language Program and the Combating Terrorism Language Program, in conjunction with PASS-CB and PTSS.
The Marshall Center works to support and expand its network of alumni through dialogue and information exchange, continuing professional development opportunities, and collaboration with graduates who seek to uphold its ideals and vision. This network is supported through a comprehensive program including in-country events, web-based professional involvement and special opportunities for selected graduates. Many of these activities are conducted in cooperation with Marshall Center alumni associations.
Graduates have access to many resources via the Marshall Center’s alumni portal "GlobalNet." This password-protected website includes access to library databases of periodical and scholarly journal articles. The alumni portal also makes graduate essays and papers available, hosts discussion forums about the key security challenges of the day, and links to other materials of topical interest to alumni. The portal also provides a searchable directory of alumni maintained by the Graduate Support Program as a networking tool for security professionals.
Special opportunities for selected graduates include the opportunity for practitioners or experts in specific security fields to return to Garmisch as part of a Community of Interest, to focus and collaborate with other graduates in their specific areas of expertise. Additionally, graduates with exceptional scholarly and writing skills can return as a Marshall Center Scholar to conduct research under the sponsorship of Marshall Center faculty.
Through its outreach and nonresident programs, the Marshall Center is able to extend programs on critical security and defense issues to the widest possible audiences within partner nations, including those who may not be able to attend resident courses in Garmisch Partenkirchen, and respond to requests for special focused events. The Marshall Center plans, develops and conducts more than 100 outreach activities a year.
Conferences and Workshops: The Marshall Center organizes approximately 30 conferences and workshops per year. These events, typically three to four working days in length, allow for focused sharing of information and viewpoints among experts and policymakers, leading to a summary report with concrete policy recommendations. Conferences and workshops are conducted in single nation or multinational regional formats either in Germany or at a location in a participating country.
Regional Education Team Seminars: Teams of Marshall Center faculty routinely conduct customized Regional Education Team Seminars (RETS) throughout the world, bringing Marshall Center expertise directly to partner nations in tailored, compressed form. RETS typically are five-day packages of detailed, interactive instruction for audiences of 20-50 officials on requested topics of interest. Currently available packages include Terrorism; Stability,[disambiguation needed] Security, Transformation and Reconstruction; NATO; Euro-Atlantic Security; and Defense Institution Building.
Speakers Bureau: Marshall Center faculty are available to speak on a wide range of contemporary security issues, such as regional security, peace and stability operations, terrorism, border security, combating organized crime and corruption, intelligence, international law, and defense transformation. Speakers are available to give presentations in English, German, Russian and several other regional languages.
Also located at the Marshall Center are the Eurasian Foreign Area Officer Program (FAO) and the Partner Language Training Center Europe (PLTCE.)
The FAO program prepares U.S. military officers and officers of allied nations to be leading regional experts and to serve in key political-military assignments throughout Eurasia. While each FAO executes a unique, tailored, individual training program, most FAOs can expect to spend 12–18 months living, working, and traveling in Eurasia, as well as participating in Marshall Center activities. After completing the program, FAOs will go on to serve in U.S. embassies in the region, on NATO and major U.S. theater command staffs, and on numerous operational missions throughout the world.
The PLTCE conducts classroom language instruction in more than ten languages and dialects to U.S., NATO and Partnership for Peace military and civilian linguists. English and German classes are also offered to the international participants in the College’s resident programs.
Additionally, the operations staff of the Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes is located at the Marshall Center. This international organization is dedicated to strengthening defense and military education and research through enhanced institutional and national cooperation.
In cooperation with Bundeswehr University of Munich the Marshall Center has introduced a Master's degree program (International Strategic Studies) for senior leaders.
As part of its continuing engagement with alumni, the Marshall Center offers support for alumni-led activities, such as security cooperation roundtables, which provide an opportunity for security professionals to discuss important security issues in an inter-ministerial forum. As of March 2009, 199 graduates of Marshall Center resident programs are serving in the following positions: President - 1 (Atifete Jahjaga); Speakers of Parliament - 2; Minister - 10; Deputy Minister - 25; Chief of Defense - 6; Ambassador - 122; Member of Parliament - 60.
The Research Library
The Marshall Center Research Library supports the education, information, research and outreach requirements of the Marshall Center. The library staff provides professional research and reference assistance to faculty, staff, course participants and alumni in the Center’s three working languages, Russian, German and English. The library named Federal Library/Information Center of the Year for 2006, small library category, by the Library of Congress, in recognition of the staff’s effectiveness, versatility and the dedication to its customers.
The library’s collection was developed as part of the U.S. Army Russian Institute. These unique Cold War materials formed the basis of the research library when the Marshall Center was established in 1993. Some of the more unusual holdings include bound volumes of prominent Russian newspapers such as Izvestia, Red Star and Pravda from 1948–1985, as well as Russian encyclopedias from the early 20th century. Today, the library offers more than 55,000 books in Russian, English, and German, 300 current periodical subscriptions, and 1,200 total periodicals in paper and microform, as well as specialized documents and reports.
The library is a member of MERLN, the Military Education Research Library Network, maintained by the National Defense University Library at http://merln.ndu.edu/. The site contains links to digitized collections, e-resources and the electronic publications of participating members. The MERLN group catalog provides easy access to the holdings of major U.S. military libraries.
The Marshall Center Occasional Papers series provides a publication forum for research topics in the wide scope of political-military affairs. It offers up-to-date research information and analysis on the issues being discussed by scholars and security experts. Occasional Papers are written by Marshall Center faculty and research staff, Marshall Center alumni and invited contributors.
The Marshall Center Security Insights series provides short articles that identify, explain, and put into context significant current defense and security issues. The series is aimed at the needs of political decision makers, their aides and others who are looking for concise summaries and analyses of current security topics. The Marshall Center Security Insights are generally authored by Marshall Center faculty and staff.
The Marshall Center's original publications series, The Marshall Center Papers, focused on comparative and interdisciplinary topics and is still available online.
The Research Program has also published four book-length research studies.
DSCA Regional Centers
The Marshall Center is one of five regionally-focused security studies organizations, all of which are managed by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. The other four are:
The Africa Center (ACSS) http://www.africacenter.org supports the development of U.S. strategic policy towards Africa by providing a variety of programs, fostering awareness of and dialogue on U.S. strategic priorities and African security issues, building trusting long-term relationships with African military and civilian leaders, assisting U.S. policy-makers in formulating effective African policy, and articulating African perspectives to U.S. policymakers
The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) http://www.apcss.org officially opened September 4, 1995, in Honolulu, Hawaii. The APCSS is a regional study, conference and research center with a non-warfighting mission to enhance Asia-Pacific security cooperation through programs of executive education, professional exchange and policy relevant research. The Center provides a focal point where national officials, decision makers and policy makers can gather to exchange ideas, explore pressing issues and achieve a greater understanding of the challenges that shape the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region.
The Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) http://www.ndu.edu/chds/ is a premier regional forum offering strategic level defense and security education, research assistance and dialog regarding the development of effective security policy within the Western Hemisphere. The Center’s civilian and military graduates and partner institutions comprise communities of influence that work toward a more cooperative and stable international security environment.
The mission of the Near East-South Asia Center (NESA) http://nesa-center.org/ is to enhance stability in the Near East and in South Asia by providing an academic environment where strategic issues can be addressed, understanding deepened, partnerships fostered, defense-related decision-making improved, and cooperation strengthened among military and civilian leaders from the region and the United States.
- German Marshall Fund
- George C. Marshall High School
- Marshall Scholarship
- Marshall Mission to China
- Marshall Space Flight Center
- The George C. Marshall Foundation
- USS George C. Marshall (SSBN-654)
- Defense Diplomacy
- US DoD http://www.defenselink.mil
- German MOD http://www.bundesregierung.de/Webs/Breg/EN/Federal-Government/Ministries/FederalMinistryOfDefence/federal-ministry-of-defence.html
- Bavarian Military Community Garmisch http://www.garmisch.army.mil/
- U.S. Army Installation Management Command - Europe http://www.imcom-europe.army.mil/sites/local/
- U.S. European Command http://www.eucom.mil
- DoD Directive 5200.34 http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/520041p.pdf
- See de:1. Gebirgsdivision (Bundeswehr)
- Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes http://www.pfpconsortium.org/
- MC Occasional Papers http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/en/nav-occasional-papers.html
- MC Security Insights http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/en/nav-security-insights.html
- The Marshall Center Papers http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/en/nav-mc-papers.html
- Research Studies http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/en/nav-pubs-res-books.html
- George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
- Learning to Understand Evil The George C. Marshall Center dedicates itself to countering terrorism – By Mehmet Toprak The Atlantic Times, September 2008
- The German Marshall Fund of the United States - Strengthening Transatlantic Cooperation
- The German Marshall Fund Blog - Expert Commentary
- Garmisch-Partenkirchen's Official website
- Alpine Ski Maps.com - winter map of Garmisch-Partenkirchen area
- Richard-Strauss-Institut (German)
- Virtual Tour through Garmisch-Partenkirchen (German)
- Webshots Album of Garmisch Pictures