|George Francis FitzGerald|
George Francis FitzGerald
|Born||3 August 1851
|Died||22 February 1901
|Institutions||Trinity College Dublin|
|Alma mater||Trinity College Dublin|
George Francis FitzGerald (3 August 1851 – 22 February 1901) was an Irish professor of "natural and experimental philosophy" (i.e., physics) at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, during the last quarter of the 19th century. He is known for his work in electromagnetic theory and for the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, which became an integral part of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. The FitzGerald crater on the far side of the Moon is named for him.
Life and work in physics
FitzGerald was born at No. 19, Lower Mount Street in Dublin on 3 August 1851 to the Reverend William FitzGerald and his wife Anne Frances Stoney (sister of George Johnstone Stoney and Bindon Blood Stoney). Professor of Moral Philosophy in Trinity and vicar of St Anne's, Dawson Street, at the time of his son's birth, William FitzGerald was consecrated Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross in 1857 and translated to Killaloe and Clonfert in 1862. George returned to Dublin and entered Trinity as a student at the age of 16. He became a Fellow of Trinity in 1877 and spent the rest of his career at this college.
Along with Oliver Lodge, Oliver Heaviside and Heinrich Hertz, FitzGerald was a leading figure among the group of "Maxwellians" who revised, extended, clarified, and confirmed James Clerk Maxwell's mathematical theories of the electromagnetic field during the late 1870s and the 1880s.
In 1883, following from Maxwell's equations, FitzGerald suggested a device for producing rapidly oscillating electric currents to generate electromagnetic waves, a phenomenon which was first shown to exist experimentally by the German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1888.
FitzGerald married, on 21st December 1885, Harriette Mary, daughter of the Reverend John Hewitt Jellett, Provost of Trinity College Dublin. He had eight children by her, three sons and five daughters.
FitzGerald was also the nephew of George Johnstone Stoney, the Irish physicist who coined the term "electron". After the particles were discovered by J. J. Thomson and Walter Kaufmann in 1896, FitzGerald was the one to propose calling them electrons.
FitzGerald suffered from many digestive problems for much of his shortened life. He became very ill with stomach problems. He died at his home in Dublin shortly after an operation on a perforated ulcer on 21 February 1901.
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FitzGerald is better known for his conjecture in his short paper "The Ether and the Earth's Atmosphere" (1889) that if all moving objects were foreshortened in the direction of their motion, it would account for the curious null-results of the Michelson-Morley experiment. FitzGerald based this idea in part on the way electromagnetic forces were known to be affected by motion. In particular, FitzGerald used some equations that had been derived a short time before by his friend the electrical engineer Oliver Heaviside. The Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz hit on a very similar idea in 1892 and developed it more fully into Lorentz transformations, in connection with his theory of electrons.
The FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction (or Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction hypothesis) became an essential part of the Special Theory of Relativity, as Albert Einstein published it in 1905. He demonstrated the kinematic nature of this effect, by deriving it from the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "George FitzGerald", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Millenium Trinity Monday Memorial Discourse by Professor J. M. D. Coey
- FitzGerald letters at the Royal Dublin Society, with digitized images of over 2000 letters to and from FitzGerald
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