George Gaylord Simpson
|George Gaylord Simpson|
Simpson in 1965
June 16, 1902|
|Died||October 6, 1984
|Known for||Modern synthesis; quantum evolution|
|Notable awards||Mary Clark Thompson Medal (1943)
Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal (1944)
Darwin-Wallace Medal (1958)
Darwin Medal (1962)
Fellow of the Royal Society
George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 – October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. Simpson was perhaps the most influential paleontologist of the twentieth century, and a major participant in the modern evolutionary synthesis, contributing Tempo and mode in evolution (1944), The meaning of evolution (1949) and The major features of evolution (1953). He was an expert on extinct mammals and their intercontinental migrations. He anticipated such concepts as punctuated equilibrium (in Tempo and mode) and dispelled the myth that the evolution of the horse was a linear process culminating in the modern Equus caballus. He coined the word hypodigm in 1940, and published extensively on the taxonomy of fossil and extant mammals. Simpson was influentially, and incorrectly, opposed to Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift.
He was Professor of Zoology at Columbia University, and Curator of the Department of Geology and Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History from 1945 to 1959. He was Curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University from 1959 to 1970, and a Professor of Geosciences at the University of Arizona until his retirement in 1982.
In 1943 Simpson was awarded the Mary Clark Thompson Medal from the National Academy of Sciences. For his work, Tempo and mode in evolution, he was awarded the Academy's Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal in 1944. He was awarded the Linnean Society of London's prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal in 1958. Simpson also received the Royal Society's Darwin Medal 'In recognition of his distinguished contributions to general evolutionary theory, based on a profound study of palaeontology, particularly of vertebrates,' in 1962.
At the University of Arizona, Tucson, the Gould-Simpson Building was named for Arizona geologist Lawrence M. Gould and Simpson. Simpson was noted for his work in the field of paleogeography and continental evolution relationships.
In the 1960s, Simpson "rubbished the then-nascent science of exobiology, which concerned itself with life on places other than Earth, as a science without a subject".
On his religious views, he was raised as a Christian. Later on, he became an agnostic.
- "Man is the result of a purposeless and natural process that did not have him in mind."
- "I don't think that evolution is supremely important because it is my specialty; it is my specialty because I think it is supremely important."
- "...exobiology [is] a curious development in view of the fact that this "science" has yet to demonstrate that its subject matter exists!"
- Attending marvels (1931)
- Tempo and mode in evolution (1944)
- The meaning of evolution (1949)
- Horses (1951)
- Evolution and geography (1953)
- The major features of evolution (1953)
- Life: an introduction to biology (1957)
- Quantitative Zoology (1960)
- Principles of animal taxonomy (1961)
- This view of life (1964)
- The geography of evolution (1965)
- Penguins (1976)
- Concession to the improbable (1978) (an autobiography)
- Splendid isolation (1980)
- The Dechronization of Sam Magruder (posthumously published novella, 1996)
- Annie Montague Alexander, who helped finance some of his early work
- Whittington, H. B. (1986). "George Gaylord Simpson. 16 June 1902-6 October 1984". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 32: 526–526. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1986.0017. JSTOR 770122. PMID 11621258.
- Simpson G.G. 1940. Mammals and land bridges. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 30: 137–163. See Charles H. Smith's website for full text: 
- Simpson, G. G. (1940). "Types in modern taxonomy". American Journal of Science 238 (6): 413–426. doi:10.2475/ajs.238.6.413. p. 418.
- Simpson G.G. 1953. Evolution and geography: an essay on historical biogeography with special reference to mammals. Oregon State System of Higher Education: Eugene, Oregon.
- "Mary Clark Thompson Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- "Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- Gould-Simpson Building, Univ. of Arizona
- Anon (2006). "Astrobiology at ten". Nature 440 (7084): 582–200. doi:10.1038/440582a.
- Léo F. Laporte, ed. (1987). Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to His Family, 1921-1970. University of California Press. p. 16. ISBN 9780520057920. "By his early teens, Simpson had given up being a Christian, although he had not formally declared himself an atheist. At college he began the gradual development of what might best be called positivistic agnosticism: a belief that the world could be known and explained by ordinary empirical observation without recourse to supernatural forces. Ultimate causation, he considered unknowable."
- George Gaylord Simpson, The Meaning of Evolution, revised edition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967), p. 345.
- Larson, Edward J. (2004), Evolution, Modern Library, p. 250, ISBN 0-679-64288-9
- Simpson, G. G. (1964). "The Nonprevalence of Humanoids". Science 143 (3608): 769–775. doi:10.1126/science.143.3608.769. PMID 17782833.
- Aronson, J. (2002). "'Molecules and monkeys': George Gaylord Simpson and the challenge of molecular evolution". History & Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (3–4): 441. doi:10.1080/03919710210001714503.
- Laporte, L. O. F. (1994). "Simpson on species". Journal of the History of Biology 27 (1): 141–159. doi:10.1007/BF01058629. PMID 11639257.
- Olson, E. C. (1991). "George Gaylord Simpson: June 16, 1902-October 6, 1984". Biographical memoirs. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) 60: 331–353. PMID 11616139.
- Laporte, Léo F. (1991). "George Gaylord Simpson as mentor and apologist for paleoanthropology". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 84 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330840102. PMID 2018099.
- Laporte, L. F. (1983). "Simpson's Tempo and Mode in Evolution revisited". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 127 (6): 365–417. PMID 11611330.
- Gershenowitz, H. (1978). "George Gaylord Simpson and Lamarck". Indian journal of history of science 13 (1): 56–61. PMID 11615952.
- George Gaylord Simpson — full and comprehensive biography by L. F. Laporte
- George Gaylord Simpson — biographical sketch from The Stephen Jay Gould Archive
- George Gaylord Simpson — a short biography from the PBS Evolution website
- George Gaylord Simpson Papers, American Philosophical Society.
- George Gaylord Simpson — Open Library