George H. Crosman
|George H. Crosman|
November 2, 1799|
|Died||May 28, 1882
|Place of burial||The Woodlands Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Allegiance||United States of America
|Service/branch||United States Army
|Years of service||1823 – 1866|
Brevet Major General
|Battles/wars||Black Hawk War
Second Seminole War
American Civil War
After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1823, Crosman served at various army posts in the Midwestern United States during the 1820s and 1830s. He was among the first army officers to propose the establishment of a U.S. Camel Corps to better transport supplies. As an officer in the Quartermaster Corps, he played a notable role in the Second Seminole War, the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War. During the Civil War, he rose to the rank of brevet major general and held a number of important posts in the Quartermaster Corps, most notably as quartermaster of the Schuylkill Arsenal in Philadelphia, the army's largest supply depot of that era.
Born in Taunton, Massachusetts in 1799 to George Crosman and Amelia Keith Crosman, George H. Crosman enrolled in the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1819. After his graduation, he was commissioned second lieutenant in the 6th United States Infantry. During the 1820s, he served at various posts on the frontier with the 6th Infantry including Fort Mackinac in Michigan, Fort Atkinson in Iowa, and Jefferson Barracks in Missouri. Crosman served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Second Seminole War in 1838 with the Quartermaster's Corps.
Crosman was among the first officers in the U.S. army to advocate the military use of camels for transportation of supplies. In 1836, he submitted an extensive study on the subject to his superiors, proposing a U.S. Camel Corps. Subsequently, camels were successfully used in several minor army expeditions in the desert regions of the Southwestern United States in the 1840s and 1850s. By the time of the Civil War, however, the concept of a Camel Corps had been abandoned.
During the Mexican-American War, Captain Crosman served as an assistant quartermaster. Although his duties did not typically require him to be in the line of fire, he was nonetheless awarded the brevet rank of major during the Battle of Palo Alto "for gallant and meritorious service" when the supply train of which he was in charge came under attack.
Civil War service
With the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, Crosman was appointed Chief Quartermaster of the Department of Pennsylvania. During the summer of 1861, this military department encompassed all army installations and military personnel stationed in Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland. In this capacity, Crosman was in charge of distributing food and supplies across three states.
After the Department of Pennsylvania was merged with the Department of the Potomac in August 1861, Crosman served as quartermaster for units in the field, most notably as quartermaster for the V Corps and later the II Corps in the spring and summer of 1862. Crosman coordinated supplies to these units, consisting of thousands of soldiers, during their involvement in the Peninsular Campaign and the Northern Virginia Campaign.
In September 1862, Crosman was transferred to Philadelphia and served as quartermaster of the Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot, also known as the Schuylkill Arsenal, which was the chief supply depot for the U.S. Department of War. Crosman served at this post for almost two years until August 1864. He was promoted to colonel in the Regular Army in February 1863. On June 30, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Crosman for the award of the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general, U.S.A., (Regular Army), to rank from March 13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services during the war, and the U.S. Senate confirmed the award on July 25, 1866. On April 11, 1866, after Crosman's retirement, President Andrew Johnson nominated Crosman for the award of the honorary grade of brevet major general, U.S.A., (Regular Army), to rank from March 13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services during the war, and the U.S. Senate confirmed the award on April 16, 1867.
Post-war life and legacy
On the day following the confirmation of his award of the grade of brevet brigadier general, July 26, 1865, Crosman resigned from the army after approximately 41 years of service. Following his resignation, he went into retirement and lived with his wife, Hannah Blair Foster Crosman, in Philadelphia. He died on May 28, 1882 in Philadelphia.
The George H. Crosman United States Army Reserve Center in Taunton, Massachusetts was named for him.
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- Heidler, 587.
- Heidler, 1584.
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- Eicher, 733
- Hunt and Brown, 125
- Eicher, 706
- 1880 U.S. Census
- Department of Defense Base Structure Report
- Bowen, James L. (1889). Massachusetts in the War, 1861–1865. Springfield, Massachusetts: Clark W. Bryan & Co. OCLC 1986476.
- Eicher, David J.; Eicher, John H. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Field, Ron; Hook, Adam (2006). Forts of the American Frontier, 1820-91 : the Southern Plains and Southwest. New York: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-040-6.
- Heidler, David S.; Heidler, Jeanne T. (2000). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: a Political, Social and Military History. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
- Hunt, Roger D. and Brown, Jack R. Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue. Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books, Inc., 1990. ISBN 1-56013-002-4.
- "George H. Crosman". The U.S. Mexican War: The Zachary Taylor Encampment in Corpus Christi, 1845-1846. Corpus Christi Public Libraries. 2004. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- "Department of Defense Base Structure Report Fiscal Year 2008". U.S. Department of Defense. 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2010.