George Henry Preble
|George Henry Preble|
February 25, 1816|
|Died||March 1, 1885
|Place of burial||Eastern Cemetery, Portland, Maine|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1835–78|
State of Georgia
South Pacific Station
|Battles/wars||Second Seminole War
American Civil War
|Relations||Edward Preble (uncle)|
|Other work||Writer of historical and genealogical studies|
George Henry Preble (February 25, 1816 – March 1, 1885) was an American naval officer and writer, notable for his history of the flag of the United States and for taking the first photograph of the Fort McHenry flag that inspired The Star-Spangled Banner.
He was born in Portland, Maine into a seafaring family; his father was sea captain Enoch Preble, whose brother was the noted Commodore Edward Preble. George entered the Navy as a midshipman on December 10, 1835, serving on the United States until 1838.
He was in the Florida war in 1841, and was on the St. Louis for its circumnavigation of the world in 1843–1845, taking ashore the first American force to land in China. In the Mexican–American War, he participated in the capture of Alvarado, Veracruz, and Tuxpan. He became master on July 15, 1847, and lieutenant on February 5, 1848. While serving on the frigate St. Lawrence, he went with Matthew C. Perry to Japan in 1853, during which Preble surveyed various harbors in the Far East.
After a period as lighthouse inspector and at Charlestown Navy Yard, he served on the Narragansett, 1859–1861, then took command of the steam-gunboat Katahdin, serving with David Farragut on the Mississippi River, was promoted to commander on July 16, 1862, and given command of the steam-sloop Oneida blockading Mobile Bay.
Additionally, each of the officers on the Oneida testified that Preble had done no wrong. According to their accounts, the Florida appeared at around 5:00 PM on September 4, 1862 bearing the ensign of a ship of the English Navy. Preble was in command of the Oneida and the Winona. Because the other ships were in for repairs, the usual complement of six ships had been reduced to two. The Winona had been dispatched to chase another blockade runner and was returning from that chase when the Florida began her run. One of the Oneida's iron boilers had been shut down for repairs leaving only one in operation. (One of the officers stated that the Navy's choice to use cheaper iron rather than steel was the actual cause of the problem.) When the Florida began her run, Preble moved to place the Oneida in front of the Florida. At 6:00 PM, he ordered shots fired across her bow. Believing that the ship was English, two warning shots were fired over her bow and a third shot into her forefoot (The part of a ship at which the prow joins the keel) instead of the customary single warning shot. All three shots were fired within three minutes of her being in range of the Oneida's guns. When the Florida did not stop, Preble ordered the fourth shot be sent into the enemy ship. This shot missed, at which time the Florida lowered her false ensign, and made directly for Fort Morgan. It was not until this point that Preble could be sure that the ship was a Confederate vessel. With one boiler out of commission, the Oneida was unable to keep pace with the Florida, which escaped into the bay. However, the Oneida kept up fire on the ship for 29 minutes until it was safely under the protection of Fort Morgan. In addition to the speed issue, the reports state that there were some visibility issues that contributed to poor marksmanship of the Oneida's gun crew.
After the war, Preble commanded the steamer State of Georgia, and rescued 600 passengers from the wrecked steamer Golden Rule. He was at the Boston Navy Yard from 1865 to 1868, where he was promoted to captain on March 16, 1867, then commanded the screw steamer Pensacola until 1870. He became commodore on November 2, 1871, commanded the Philadelphia Navy Yard from 1873 to 1875, became rear admiral on September 30, 1876 and retired in 1878.
Preble died while living near Boston, Massachusetts, on March 1, 1885.
Preble was also known as a writer on naval and historical topics, and as a collector of naval documents. His extensive personal library of books and documents related to the sea are located in The George Henry Preble Collection at the Navy Department Library. He was also active in various learned and genealogical societies of the time. In 1868, he published a genealogical history of the Preble family in America, which included his biography and portrait, as well as that of his famous uncle, Edward The book also set forth a defense of his actions that led to his dismissal from the Navy, as well as the efforts of himself and others that led to his exoneration and reinstatement. In 1872, he published his History of the American Flag, which is still cited as a source. He also took care of the original "Star-Spangled Banner" which had flown over Fort Henry, and had the flag sewn to a piece of sailcloth in order to preserve it.
- Chase of the Rebel Steamer of War "Oreto" (Cambridge, 1862)
- A genealogical Sketch of the First Three Generations of Prebles in America (Boston, 1868)
- First Cruise of the United States Frigate "Essex" (Salem, 1870)
- History of the American Flag (Albany, 1872)
- History of Steam Navigation (Philadelphia, 1883)
- "Abraham Lincoln: Message to the Senate Nominating George Henry Preble to be a Commander in the Navy". presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- United States Congressional serial set, Issue 3332, PP 432–68.. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "George Henry Preble Collection". history.navy.mil. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- "Excerpt, pp. 162–180, A Genealogical Sketch of the First Three Generations of Prebles in America". preblefamily.org. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the Naval History & Heritage Command document "The George Henry Preble Collection".
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1891). "article name needed". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- Photograph of Rear Admiral George Henry Preble from the Maine Memory Network
- Guide to the George Henry Preble Papers, 1858–1869 MS 381 held by Special Collection & Archives, Nimitz Library at the United States Naval Academy