George Jivajirao Scindia

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Jivajirao Scindia
The Maharaja of Gwalior.jpg
The Maharaja of Gwalior: a hand-coloured photograph, c.1930's
Maharaja of Gwalior
Reign 5 June 1925 – 28 May 1948
Predecessor Madho Rao Scindia
Successor Monarchy abolished, Gwalior merged into Madhya Bharat
Titular Maharaja of Gwalior
Pretendence 28 May 1948 – 16 July 1961
Successor Madhavrao Scindia
Spouse Vijayaraje Scindia
Issue
Usha Raje
Madhavrao
Vasundhara Raje
Yashodhara Raje[1]
House Scindia
Father Madho Rao Scindia
Born (1916-06-25)25 June 1916
Died 16 July 1961(1961-07-16) (aged 45)
Religion Hinduism

Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia (26 June 1916 – 16 July 1961) of the Scindia dynasty of the Marathas was the last reigning Maharaja of Gwalior state in central India, and the rajpramukh (appointed governor) of the erstwhile Madhya Bharat state of independent India.The Maharaja was and till date is very popular due to his interests in the toy trains and cars. He also assembeled a toy train made up of silver in his palace dining table in jai vilas palace , Gwalior to server food , wines and chutneys to the guests .

Family history[edit]

Jivajirao was a scion of the Scindia family, descended from the Maratha general Ranojirao Scindia. Ranojirao was the head of the Maratha armies in Malwa during the first part of the 18th century, as the Maratha Empire was expanding rapidly at the expense of the Mughal Empire. Daulatrao Scindia shifted the capital from Ujjain to the new city of Lashkar, near the historic fortress-city of Gwalior. The Scindias accepted British suzerainty in 1818 at the conclusion of the their benefits from them after they lost 3rd War Third Anglo-Maratha War. At 68,291 km², Gwalior was the largest state in the Central India Agency, and among the five largest princely states in all of India.

Personal life[edit]

Jivajirao became Maharaja on 5 June 1925, succeeding his father Madho Rao Scindia upon his death. On 21 February 1941, he married Lekha Divyeshwari Devi, afterwards known as Vijayraje Scindia, who was descended from the powerful Rana family of Nepal. They were the parents of five children, four daughters and a son, including:

  • Padma Raje, was married to HH Maharaja Kirit Dev Burman of Tripura. Died in Calcutta, circa 1965.
  • Usha Raje, is married to Pashupati Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana, Kathmandu, Nepal. Both are parents of Devyani Rana.
  • Madhavrao Scindia (born 10 March 1945 – 30 Sep 2001), former union cabinet minister in India.
  • Vasundhara Raje, present chief minister of the Indian state of Rajasthan.
  • Yashodhara Raje, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader and Member of Parliament.

Career[edit]

Jivajirao on a 1942 half anna coin.

Jivajirao ruled Gwalior state as absolute monarch and a British vassal until shortly after India's independence on 15 August 1947. The rulers of Indian princely states were required to accede to either of the two dominions (India and Pakistan) created by the India Independence Act 1947. Jivajirao signed a covenant with the rulers of the adjoining princely states that united their several states form a new state within the Union of India known as Madhya Bharat. This new covenanted state was to be governed by a council headed by a ruler to be known as the Rajpramukh. Madhya Bharat signed a fresh Instrument of Accession with the Government of India effective 15 June 1948. Jivajirao Scindia became the first rajpramukh, or appointed governor, of the state on 28 May 1948. He served as Rajpramukh until 31 October 1956, when the state was merged into Madhya Pradesh.

Family[edit]

After his death in 1961, Jivajirao's family remained involved in politics. In 1962, his widow, Rajmata Vijayraje Scindia, was elected to the Lok Sabha, beginning the family's career in electoral politics. She was initially a member of the Indian National Congress party and later became an influential member of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Their son, Madhavrao Scindia, was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1971, representing the Congress Party. He served until his death in 2001. Madhavrao's son, Jyotiraditya Scindia, also a member of the Congress Party, was elected in 2002 to the seat formerly held by his father. Jivajirao's daughter Vasundhara Raje is an eminent politician associated with the Bharatiya Janata Party. She was the first woman Chief Minister of Rajasthan and also was a member of the Lok Sabha for four consecutive terms since 1989.

Full name and titles[edit]

Jivajirao was also known with his full name: Lieutenant-General His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Azim ul-Iqtidar, Rafi-us-Shan Wala Shikoh, Muhtasham-i-Dauran, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant George Jivaji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Shrinath, Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidvi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Mua'zzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior, GCSI, GCIE.

During his life he acquired several titles and honorific names:

  • 1916 – 1925: Yuvaraja Maharaj Shrimant George Jivaji Rao Scindia Bahadur
  • 1925 – 1937: His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Azim ul-Iqtidar, Rafi-us-Shan Wala Shikoh, Muhtasham-i-Dauran, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant George Jivaji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Shrinath, Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidvi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Mua'zzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior
  • 1937 – 1941: His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Azim ul-Iqtidar, Rafi-us-Shan Wala Shikoh, Muhtasham-i-Dauran, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant George Jivaji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Shrinath, Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidvi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Mua'zzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior, KStJ
  • 1941 – 1943: Captain His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Azim ul-Iqtidar, Rafi-us-Shan Wala Shikoh, Muhtasham-i-Dauran, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant Sir George Jivaji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Shrinath, Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidvi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Mua'zzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior, GCIE, KStJ
  • 1943 – 1945: Major His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Azim ul-Iqtidar, Rafi-us-Shan Wala Shikoh, Muhtasham-i-Dauran, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant Sir George Jivaji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Shrinath, Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidvi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Mua'zzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior, GCIE, KStJ
  • 1945 – 1946: Major-General His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Azim ul-Iqtidar, Rafi-us-Shan Wala Shikoh, Muhtasham-i-Dauran, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant Sir George Jivaji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Shrinath, Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidvi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Mua'zzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior, GCIE, KStJ
  • 1946 – 1961: Lieutenant-General His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Azim ul-Iqtidar, Rafi-us-Shan Wala Shikoh, Muhtasham-i-Dauran, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant Sir George Jivaji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Shrinath, Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidvi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Mua'zzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ

Honours[edit]

(ribbon bar, as it would look today)

Ord.Stella.India.jpg Order of the Indian Empire Ribbon.svg

Order of St John (UK) ribbon.png 39-45 Star BAR.svg War Medal 39-45 BAR.svg India Service Medal BAR.svg

GeorgeVSilverJubileum-ribbon.png GeorgeVICoronationRibbon.png UK Queen EII Coronation Medal ribbon.svg Indian Independence medal 1947.svg

References[edit]

George Jivajirao Scindia
Born: 26 June 1916 Died: 16 July 1961
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Madhavrao II
Maharaja of Gwalior
1925–1948
Succeeded by
Monarchy abolished
(Merge within the Republic of India)
Political offices
Preceded by
Post created 15 June 1948
Rajpramukh of Madhya Bharat
1948–1956
Succeeded by
Post abolished by the Government of India 31 October 1956; succeeded by that of Governor of Madhya Pradesh
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
None; monarchy abolished in 1948
— TITULAR —
Maharaja of Gwalior
1948–1961
Reason for succession failure:
Monarchy abolished in 1948
Succeeded by
Madhavrao III