George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham

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The Most Honourable
The Marquess of Buckingham
KG KP PC
1stMarquessOfBuckingham.jpg
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
19 December 1783 – 23 December 1783
Prime Minister William Pitt
Preceded by Charles James Fox
Succeeded by Marquess of Carmarthen
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
In office
27 October 1787 – 24 October 1789
Prime Minister William Pitt
Preceded by The Duke of Rutland
Succeeded by The Earl of Westmorland

George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham KG KP PC, (17 June 1753 – 11 February 1813), known as The Earl Temple between 1779 and 1784, was a British statesman.

Background and education[edit]

Buckingham, as the second son of George Grenville, Prime Minister of Great Britain, and of Elizabeth Wyndham, daughter of Sir William Wyndham, 3rd Baronet, was the nephew of Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, and the elder brother of Thomas Grenville and of William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, also Prime Minister of Great Britain. He received his education at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford.

Political career[edit]

Statue sculpted by Edward Smyth in 1783, showing Buckingham in the robes of a Knight of the Order of St Patrick[1]

Buckingham was appointed a Teller of the Exchequer in 1764. Ten years later, he was returned to Parliament as one of the Members for Buckinghamshire. In the House of Commons, he was a sharp critic of the American policy of Lord North. In September 1779, he succeeded his uncle as Earl Temple and moved to the House of Lords. In 1782, Buckingham was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire; in July of the same year, he became a member of the Privy Council and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the Ministry of Lord Shelburne. He was instrumental in the enactment of the Renunciation Act of 1783, which supplemented the legislative independence granted to Ireland in 1782. In his capacity as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and by Royal Warrant, he created the Order of St Patrick in February 1783, with himself as the first Grand Master. He left Ireland in 1783 and again turned his attention to English politics. He enjoyed the confidence of King George III, and having opposed Fox's East India Bill, he was authorized by the King to say that "whoever voted for the India Bill was not only not his friend, but would be considered by him as an enemy", a message which ensured the defeat of the Bill. He was appointed a Secretary of State when the younger Pitt (who was his first cousin, being his father's sister's son) formed his Ministry in December 1783, but resigned only three days later.

In December 1784, he was created Marquess of Buckingham. In November 1787, he was again appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, this time under Pitt, but his second tenure of this office was hardly as successful as the first. He was denounced by Grattan for extravagance; was censured by the Irish Houses of Parliament for refusing to transmit to England an address calling upon the Prince of Wales to assume the regency; and he could only maintain his position by resorting to bribery on a large scale. Having become very unpopular, he resigned his office in September 1789. He subsequently took very little part in politics, although he spoke in favour of the Act of Union of 1800. He died at his residence, Stowe in Buckinghamshire, and was buried at Wotton whence his ancestors had hailed.

Personal life[edit]

In 1775, George married Lady Mary Nugent, daughter of the 1st Viscount Clare (later the 1st Earl Nugent). When his father-in-law died in 1788, George succeeded him as 2nd Earl Nugent. However, since he already held the higher rank of Marquess, he was never known by this title. His wife died in 1812 and he died the following year.

George and Mary had two sons: Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos; and George Nugent-Grenville, 2nd Baron Nugent.

Styles from birth to death[edit]

  • George Grenville, Esq. (1753–1774)
  • George Grenville, Esq., MP (1774–1779)
  • The Rt Hon. The Earl Temple (1779–1782)
  • The Rt Hon. The Earl Temple, PC (1782–1784)
  • The Most Hon. The Marquess of Buckingham, PC (1784–1786)
  • The Most Hon. The Marquess of Buckingham, KG, PC (1786–1813)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Casey, Christine (2005). The Buildings of Ireland: Dublin. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 622. ISBN 978-0-300-10923-8. 

External links[edit]

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Richard Lowndes
The Earl Verney
Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire
1774 – 1779
With: The Earl Verney
Succeeded by
The Earl Verney
Thomas Grenville
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Macclesfield
Teller of the Exchequer
1763 – 1813
Succeeded by
Spencer Perceval
Preceded by
The Duke of Portland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1782 – 1783
Succeeded by
The Earl of Northington
Preceded by
Charles James Fox
Foreign Secretary
1783
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Carmarthen
Preceded by
Lord North
Home Secretary
1783
Succeeded by
The Lord Sydney
Preceded by
The Duke of Rutland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1787 – 1789
Succeeded by
The Earl of Westmorland
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Chesterfield
Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire
1782 – 1813
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Buckingham
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Marquess of Buckingham
1784–1813
Succeeded by
Richard Grenville
Preceded by
Richard Grenville-Temple
Earl Temple
1779–1813
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
Robert Nugent
Earl Nugent
1788–1813
Succeeded by
Richard Grenville