George Town, Penang

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George Town
City
Skyline of George Town
Official logo of George Town
Coat of Arms of the Municipal Council of Penang Island
Malay: Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang
Motto: "Leading We Serve"
George Town is located in Peninsular Malaysia
George Town
George Town
Location in Peninsular Malaysia
George Town is located in Malaysia
George Town
George Town
Location in Malaysia
Coordinates: 5°25′00″N 100°19′00″E / 5.41667°N 100.31667°E / 5.41667; 100.31667
Country Malaysia
State Penang
District North-East Penang Island
Founded 1786
Municipality established 1857
Granted city status 1957
Merged with neighbouring district 1974
Area
 • City 121 km2 (47 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,748 km2 (1,061 sq mi)
Elevation 4 m (13.1 ft)
Population (2010)
 • City 740,200
 • Density 4,299/km2 (11,130/sq mi)
 • Metro 2.5 million
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC)
Website http://www.mppp.gov.my/home

Coordinates: 05°25′N 100°19′E / 5.417°N 100.317°E / 5.417; 100.317 George Town[1] (less commonly also spelt Georgetown,[2]) is the capital of the state of Penang in Malaysia. Named after Britain's King George III, George Town is located on the north-east corner of Penang Island. The inner city has a population of 720,202 and the metropolitan area known as George Town Conurbation which consists of Penang Island, Seberang Prai, Sungai Petani and Kulim has a combined population of 2,251,042, making it the second largest metropolitan area in Malaysia.[3]

Formerly a municipality and then a city in its own right, since 1976 George Town has been part of the Municipality of Penang Island, though the area formerly governed by the City Council of George Town is still commonly referred to as a city. George Town is also known as Tanjung ("The Cape") in Malay, 乔治市 (Qiáozhì Shì) in Chinese and ஜோர்ஜ் டவுன் (Georgetown) in Tamil. Its Malay name is derived from the older name of the town, Tanjung Penaga ("Cape Penaigre").

The inner city of George Town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History[edit]

1811 print of early George Town
1884 map of early George Town and the hills to the west
The coat of arms of the City Council of George Town

George Town was founded on 11 August 1786 by Captain Francis Light, a trader for the British East India Company, as base for the company in the Malay States. He obtained the island of Penang from the Sultan of Kedah and built Fort Cornwallis on the north-eastern corner of the island. The fort became the nexus of a growing trading post and the island's population reached 12,000 by 1804.[citation needed]

The town was built on swampy land that had to be cleared of vegetation, levelled and filled. The original commercial town was laid out between Light Street, Beach Street (then running close to the seashore), Malabar Street (subsequently called Chulia Street) and Pitt Street (now called Masjid Kapitan Keling Street).

The warehouses and godowns extended from Beach Street to the sea. By the 1880s, there were ghauts leading from Beach Street to the wharf and jetties as Beach Street receded inland due to land reclamation. A new waterfront was created at Weld Quay, where commercial buildings sprang up.

The historic commercial centre was segmented into the banking and trading areas related to port activities which included shipping companies, the import and export trade, and the wholesalers who dominate the southern section of Beach Street until now. It has been listed as a World Heritage site since July 2008.[4]

At the turn of the 19th century, the northern section of Beach Street and the adjacent Bishop Street were the ‘high street’ where the ‘modern’ European emporium and stores selling imported merchandise were situated.

Among the early foreign companies that located their offices on Beach Street were the Netherlands Trading Society, the Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), the Chartered Bank, Boustead & Co., Guthne & Co., Caldbeck & Macgregor, Behn Meyer, Sandilands & Buttery, G.H. Slot and the stores of Pritchard & Co., Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co., and others. Among the local businesses that were established here during this period were H.M. Nooradin, Tiang Lee & Co., Guan Lee Hin Steamship, Tye Sin Tat, Pinang Sales Room, Koe Guan and others. Penang’s first petroleum lamps were installed on this section of Beach Street by Huttenbach & Co..

Governance[edit]

The City Hall housing the Municipal Council of Penang Island


A Committee of Assessors was established in George Town in 1801, and was the first local authority established in Malaya. In 1857, a board of partly elected Municipal Commissioners was established, but elections were abolished in 1913, before being reintroduced in the run-up to Independence in 1951. In 1956, George Town became the first municipality in the Federation of Malaya to have a fully elected council, and on 1 January 1957, the municipality became a city by a royal charter granted by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, becoming the first (and until 1972, the only) city in the Federation. In 1965, the federal Government suspended local elections as a result of the Indonesian Confrontation, and in 1966 the functions of the City Council were transferred to the Chief Minister of Penang. In 1974, a Local Government Management Board (Lembaga Pengurus Kerajaan Tempatan) was established for the whole of Penang Island, which became the Municipal Council of Penang Island (Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang) in 1976.

Parliament And State Assembly[edit]


List of George Town representatives in the Federal Parliament (Dewan Rakyat)

Parliament Seat Name Member of Parliament Party
P.048 Bukit Bendera Zairil Khir Johari PR DAP
P.049 Tanjong Ng Wei Aik PR DAP
P.050 Jelutong Ooi Chuan Aun PR DAP
P.051 Bukit Gelugor Karpal Singh A/L Ram Singh PR DAP


List of George Town representatives in State Legislative Assembly

Parliament State Seat Name State Assemblyman Party
P.048 N.22 Tanjong Bunga Teh Yee Cheu PR DAP
P.048 N.23 Air Puteh Lim Guan Eng PR DAP
P.048 N24 Kebun Bunga Cheah Kah Peng PR PKR
P.048 N.25 Pulau Tikus Yap Soo Huey PR DAP
P.049 N.26 Padang Kota Chow Kon Yeow PR DAP
P.049 N.27 Pengkalan Kota Lau Keng Ee PR DAP
P.049 N.28 Komtar Teh Lai Heng PR DAP
P.050 N.29 Dato Keramat Jagdeep Singh Deo PR DAP
P.050 N.30 Sungai Pinang Lim Siew Khim PR DAP
P.050 N.31 Batu Lanchang Law Heng Kiang PR DAP
P.051 N.32 Seri Delima Nethaji Rayer PR DAP
P.051 N.33 Air Itam Wong Hon Wai PR DAP
P.051 N.34 Paya Terubong Yeoh Soon Hin PR DAP
The State Assembly Building

Unesco World Heritage Site[edit]

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv
Reference 1223
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 2008 (32nd Session)

On 7 July 2008, George Town was, together with Malacca, formally inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is officially recognized as having a unique architectural and cultural townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia.[5]

ECA International[edit]

George Town has been ranked as the most liveable city in Malaysia, eighth most liveable in Asia and the 62nd in the world in 2010 by ECA International, an improvement in ranking from recent years.[16]

Transportation[edit]

State of Penang map with the George Town capital labelled
The 13.5 km (8.4 mi) long Penang Bridge
Penang Port
Rapid Penang in Jetty Bus Terminal
Tanjung City Marina (foreground), with a cruise liner docking at the Swettenham Pier, George Town
Komtar, as seen along Penang Road, near the junction of Argyll Road.

In the past, George Town boasted of having the best public transportation system in Malaysia, with Electric Trams, Trolleybuses and also Double-decker buses. They have since been stopped in the 1970.

George Town is well connected by roads, buses and etc. The Jelutong Expressway connects the city to Bayan Lepas and the Penang International Airport. With this highway, trips to the airport were cut short to 30 minutes instead of almost an hour in the past. The Penang International Airport serves as the main airport of the northern part of Malaysia.

To get over to Butterworth in the mainland, the Penang Ferry Service at Weld Quay operates every day since 1920. Passengers, cars and motorcycles can all travel in the ferry. Other than that, commuters can drive to the Penang Bridge, located in Gelugor, to cross over to the mainland. To travel elsewhere around Malaysia, through the Penang Bridge, commuters can take the North-South Expressway to reach their destinations.

Public transportation in George Town is operated mainly by Rapid Penang, the main bus company in Penang now. Almost every bus connects George Town to their respective destinations, with Weld Quay being the main terminal of Rapid Penang in Penang Island and Komtar being the main hub. There is also a free bus service operated by Rapid Penang. This bus service is only located within George Town, and it also operates every day, taking commuters a drive along George Town's famous heritage sites.

Express buses used to stop at Komtar but has since been relocated to the Sungai Nibong Bus Terminal, which is not that far away. There are many express bus companies operating 24-hours there, and main destinations are usually Genting Highlands and Kuala Lumpur. There are also some buses travelling out of Malaysia mainly to Singapore and Southern Thailand.

Other than that, George Town is famous for having trishaws plying the city. The Port of Penang has 4 ports, with 3 on the mainland and one terminal here, Swettenham Pier. There is also a cruise ship situated here and it has become an attraction here.

Due to strict rent controls, George Town retains many of its colonial-era shophouses to this day and is often considered an architectural gem. Since the repeal of the rent controls in 2000, many pre-war buildings have given way to new high rises. Partly for this reason, the city was listed in the 2000 and 2002 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund (WMF). Heritage guidelines are still in its infancy and much needs to be done to conserve architectural treasures for the benefit of future generations. In 2005 WMF helped restore an 1870s structure within the George Town Historic Enclave, with support from American Express. The structure is used by the Penang Heritage Trust as a model to further its mission to protect the most significant buildings in the community.[6]

On 2 August 2006, the federal government announced a plan to build a monorail urban transit system connecting George Town to Tanjung Tokong in the north and Bayan Lepas in the south. However, due to the defeat in Penang of the Barisan Nasional coalition after the 2008 General Election, the proposed development project was called-off after the mid-term review of the Ninth Malaysia Plan which was tabled in Parliament on June 26, 2008.[citation needed]

Shopping[edit]

The iconic 65-storey KOMTAR tower in the heart of George Town is Penang's tallest building
  • Gurney Plaza
  • Gurney Paragon
  • Queensbay Mall 7 km (4 mi) from City Centre
  • Island Plaza
  • Komtar Tower
  • Prangin Mall
  • 1st Avenue Georgetown
  • Parkson Grand
  • Penang Times Square
  • Midlands Park Centre
  • Tesco Jelutong
  • Tesco Tanjung Pinang
  • Kamdar
  • Mydin
  • Sunshine Square
  • Gama
  • All Seasons Place
  • Penang Plaza
  • Econsave

Sports[edit]

Healthcare[edit]

  • Penang General Hospital
  • Island Hospital
  • Gleneagles Medical Centre
  • Pantai Mutiara Hospital
  • Loh Guan Lye Specialist Centre
  • Lam Wah Ee Hospital
  • Penang Adventist Hospital
  • Tanjung Medical Centre
  • Mt Miriam Hospital
  • Tropicana Medical Centre Penang

George Town’s city suburbs[edit]

Night scene of Jelutong Penang.
Gurney Drive in Nov 2008
Tanjung Bungah view at night
Seh Tek Tong Cheah Kongsi at Armenian Road.
  • City Centre
  • Gurney Drive
  • Tanjung Bungah
  • Tanjung Tokong
  • Tanjong Pinang
  • Seri Tanjong
  • Pulau Tikus
  • Desa Baiduri
  • Batu Lanchang
  • Belachan Village
  • Dodol Village
  • Hijau Village
  • Makam Village
  • Masjid Village
  • Masjid Bagan Village
  • Rawa Village
  • Raya Baharu Village
  • Syed Village
  • Port Weld
  • Jelutong
  • Abidin Garden
  • Ara Garden
  • Air Itam
  • Farlim
  • West Garden
  • Cemerlang Garden
  • Cheeseman Garden
  • Continental Garden
  • Desa Green Garden
  • Dhoby Ghaut
  • Free School Garden
  • Green Lane Garden
  • Greenview
  • Guan Joo Seng
  • Islands Glades
  • Jeliemas Garden
  • Jelutong Garden
  • Jesselton Height
  • Kampar Garden
  • Kennedy Garden
  • Taman Lita
  • P. Ramlee Garden
  • Penang Garden
  • Perak Garden
  • Rampas Garden
  • Scotland Garden
  • Selamat Garden
  • Sri Husin Garden
  • Windmill Garden
  • Minden Heights
  • Gelugor
  • Sungai Dua
  • Sungai Nibong
  • Batu Uban

George Town metropolitan satellite towns[edit]

  • Bayan Lepas Bayan Baru Balik Pulau Kepala Batas Butterworth Permatang Pauh Bukit Mertajam Perai Nibong Tebal in Penang
  • Sungai Petani Kulim Yan Serdang Baling Sik in Kedah
  • Parit Buntar Bagan Serai Selama Taiping Kuala Kangsar Gerik in Perak

[4] The George Town Conurbation Plan

Climate[edit]

George Town features a tropical rainforest climate, under the Köppen climate classification. As is the norm for many cities with this climate, George Town experiences relatively consistent temperatures throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of about 31 degrees Celsius and an average low of 24 degrees Celsius. While George Town does not have a true dry season, its driest months are from December through February. The city sees on average around 2,550 mm (100.4 in) of precipitation annually.

Climate data for George Town
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(87)
31
(87)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(87)
31
(88)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(74)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
Precipitation mm (inches) 70
(2.76)
90
(3.54)
140
(5.51)
230
(9.06)
240
(9.45)
170
(6.69)
190
(7.48)
240
(9.45)
350
(13.78)
390
(15.35)
240
(9.45)
110
(4.33)
2,540
(100)
Source: http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=10684&refer=&units=metric

Education[edit]

The city is one of main education centers in Malaysia, especially for the Tertiary education. There are several college in Georgetown. IPG College, now known as PTPL Penang is the first college in Penang, established by Malaysia's first Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman and his friend Mr K L Goon in 1981.

Penang is known as a regional education hub which attracts students from foreign countries due to its quality education and affordable tuition fees. Although it has been an important centre of education, Penang is one of the states in Malaysia that suffers from brain drain. The Malaysian New Economic Plan has been criticized by many people to be one of the key contributors to this social effect. However, this is not the only factor. University graduates do not have much opportunity to experience cutting-edge technologies in many areas of industry, from hard sciences (e.g. nanotechnology, grid computing, algorithmic research etc.) to high finance (e.g. risk management etc.) to global corporate management.

English Schools[edit]

Chinese schools[edit]

Tamil Schools[edit]

International schools[edit]

  • Tenby International School, Penang
  • Dalat International School
  • St. Christopher's International Primary School
  • Prince of Wales Island International School
  • Fairview International School
  • Sri Pelita International School
  • International School of Penang (Uplands)

Colleges[edit]

Media[edit]

Newspaper[edit]

Newspaper Ethnic Name Language Founded
National (19 daily newspapers)
Berita Harian Malay (1957-07-01) 1 July 1957 (age 56)
Utusan Malaysia Malay (1939-05-29) 29 May 1939 (age 74)
Harian Metro Malay (1991-03-26) 26 March 1991 (age 23)
Kosmo! Malay (2004-08-30) 30 August 2004 (age 9)
The Star English (1971-09-09) 9 September 1971 (age 42)
New Straits Times English (1845-07-15) 15 July 1845 (age 168)
The Sun English (1993-06-01) 1 June 1993 (age 20)
The Edge English (1994-02-06) 6 February 1994 (age 20)
The Malaysian Reserve English (2007-05-28) 28 May 2007 (age 6)
The Malay Mail English (1896-12-01) 1 December 1896 (age 117)
Kwong Wah Yit Poh 光華日報 Chinese (1910-12-20) 20 December 1910 (age 103)
Sin Chew Daily 星洲日報 Chinese (1929-01-15) 15 January 1929 (age 85)
Guang Ming Daily 光明日報 Chinese (1987-12-18) 18 December 1987 (age 26)
China Press 中國報 Chinese (1946-02-01) 1 February 1946 (age 68)
Nanyang Siang Pau 南洋商報 Chinese (1923-09-06) 6 September 1923 (age 90)
Oriental Daily News 東方日報 Chinese (2003-01-01) 1 January 2003 (age 11)
Tamil Nesan தமிழ் நேசன் Tamil (1924-09-24) 24 September 1924 (age 89)
Malaysia Nanban மலேசியா நண்பன் Tamil (1986-10-01) 1 October 1986 (age 27)
Makkal Osai மக்கள் ஓசை Tamil (1981-03-12) 12 March 1981 (age 33)

Radio[edit]

FM Name Network Language
National (22 radio stations)
87.8-MHz Radio One MPB Chinese
88.2-MHz Radio Hot MPB Malay
89.0-MHz Radio Islam IKIM Arabic
89.9-MHz Radio Fly MPB English
91.0-MHz Radio Mix AMP English
92.8-MHz Radio Hitz AMP English
94.5-MHz Radio 988 STAR Radio Chinese
94.9-MHz Klasik Nasional FM RTM Malay
95.7-MHz Mutiara FM RTM Malay
96.7-MHz Radio Minnal RTM Tamil
97.1-MHz Radio Sinar AMP Malay
97.5-MHz Kedah FM RTM Malay
98.1-MHz Red FM STAR Radio English
98.7-MHz Radio TraXX RTM English
99.7-MHz Radio MY AMP Chinese
101.3-MHz Radio Ai RTM Chinese
102.4-MHz Radio THR AMP Tamil
103.6-MHz Radio Era AMP Malay
104.4-MHz Radio Lite AMP English
106.5-MHz Radio X AMP Malay
106.9-MHz Radio Suria STAR Radio Malay
107.6-MHz Capital FM STAR Radio English

Television[edit]

Terrestrial[edit]

Channel Band Video Frequency Audio Frequency Station Network Transmission Format Status
National (7-television channels)
7 UHF 189.250-MHz 194.750-MHz TV1 RTM Analog SDTV Public
27 519.250-MHz 524.750-MHz TV2
29 535.250-MHz 540.750-MHz TV3 MPB Commercial
37 599.250-MHz 604.750-MHz NTV7
44 655.250-MHz 660.750-MHz 8TV
48 687.250-MHz 692.750-MHz TV9
55 743.250-MHz 748.750-MHz TV Alhijrah Alhijrah Media Public

Cable[edit]

Channel Name Language Country of Regions Group
Television
3 CNN English  Hong Kong News
4 Discovery Channel English (subtitle in Malay)  Singapore Education
7 ESPN English  Hong Kong Sports
8 HBO English (subtitle in Malay)  Singapore Movies
9 Turner Network Television and Cartoon Network  Hong Kong Entertainment

Satellite[edit]

Channel Name Language Country of Regions Group
Television
1 Saluran 1 Malay  Malaysia Sensasi
2 Saluran 2 Tamil
10 CNN English  Hong Kong News
20 Saluran 20  Malaysia Sports
21 ESPN  Hong Kong
22 STAR TV Sports
30 Discovery Channel English (subtitle in Malay)  Singapore Education
40 HBO Movies
41 STAR TV Movies  Hong Kong
42 Metro Goldwyn Mayer  Singapore
43 Hallmark Movies Channel
50 Turner Network Television and Cartoon Network  Hong Kong Entertainment
51 Disney Channel  Singapore
52 STAR TV World  Hong Kong
53 STAR TV Music
54 MTV  Singapore
55 NBC Asia  Hong Kong
60 Saluran 60 Cantonese (subtitle in Chinese)  Malaysia Chinatown
61 Pioneer Karaoke Channel Chinese/Cantonese/Taiwanese  Malaysia
62 China Entertainment Television Family Chnnel Chinese/Cantonese  Hong Kong
63 STAR TV Movies Cantonese (subtitle in Malay)
64 Shaw Brothers Classic Movies
Radio
851 Western Country English  Malaysia Classic Country
852 Classical Classical Opera
853 Country Gospel Protestant Country

Holiday & Festivals[edit]

Public holidays[edit]

Date English Name Malay Name Chinese Name Tamil Name Type
1 January New Year's Day Hari Tahun Baru 公曆新年 கிரிகோரியன் புத்தாண்டு Gregorian
1 May Labour Day Hari Pekerja 勞動節 நாள் மே Gregorian
June King of Malaysia's Birthday Hari Keputeraan Yang di-Pertuan Agong 最高元首誕辰 மாநிலம் பிறந்த நாள் உச்ச தலைமை Gregorian
7 July Declaration of George Town as World Heritage Site Perisytiharan George Town sebagai Tapak Warisan Dunia 喬治市文化遗产日 உலக பாரம்பரிய களம் ஜார்ஜ் டவுன் அறிவிப்பு Gregorian
14 July Governor of Penang's Birthday Hari Keputeraan Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Pulau Pinang 檳城州元首誕辰 பெர்சுவா பிறந்த நாள் Gregorian
11 August Mayor of Georgetown's Birthday Hari Keputeraan Datuk Bandar George Town 喬治市人民政府 ஜோர்ஜ் டவுன் மாநகர மக்கள் அரசு Gregorian
31 August National Independence Day Hari Kemerdekaan 國慶日 தேசிய தினம் Gregorian
16 September Malaysia Day Hari Malaysia 馬來西亞成立日 மலேஷியா அமைத்தல் நாள் Gregorian
24 December Christmas Eve Malam Krismas 平安夜 கிறிஸ்துமஸ் ஈவ் Christian
25 December Christmas Day Hari Krismas 聖誕節 கிறிஸ்து பிறந்த திருநாள் Christian
26 December Boxing Day Boxing Day 節禮日 பாக்ஸிங் டே Christian
31 December New Year's Eve Malam Tahun Baru 前跨新年 மற்ற புத்தாண்டு முன் Gregorian
1 Muharram Islamic New Year Awal Muharram 回曆新年 ஹிஜிரி புத்தாண்டு Islamic
12 Rabiul Awal Birthday of Prophet Muhammad Maulidur Rasul 默罕默德誕辰 முகமது பிறந்த நாள் Islamic
17 Ramadhan Day of Nuzul Al-Quran Nuzul Al-Quran 可蘭經降世日 குரானை இன்றுவரை உலகின் வந்தது Islamic
1 Syawal Hari Raya Puasa (1st day) Hari Raya Aidil Fitri (Hari ke-1) 開齋節 (第1天) ஈத் அல் பித்ர் (தினம் 1) Islamic
2 Syawal Hari Raya Puasa (2nd day) Hari Raya Aidil Fitri (Hari ke-2) 開齋節 (第2天) ஈத் அல் பித்ர் (தினம் 1) Islamic
10 Zulhijah Hari Raya Qurban Hari Raya Aidil Adha 哈芝節 ஹஜ்ஜிப் பெருநாள் Islamic
Pausha-Magha Thaipusam Thaipusam 大寶森節 தைப்பூசம் Indian
1 Kartik Deepavali Hari Deepavali 屠妖節 தீபாவளித் திருநாள் Indian
1st day of the 1st month Chinese New Year (1st day) Tahun Baru Cina (Hari ke-1) 農曆新年 (第1天) சந்திர புத்தாண்டு (தினம் 1) Chinese
2nd day of the 1st month Chinese New Year (2nd day) Tahun Baru Cina (Hari ke-2) 農曆新年 (第2天) சந்திர புத்தாண்டு (தினம் 2) Chinese
3rd day of the 1st month Chinese New Year (3rd day) Tahun Baru Cina (Hari ke-3) 農曆新年 (第3天) சந்திர புத்தாண்டு (தினம் 3) Chinese
15th day of the 1st month Lantern Festival Pesta Tanglung 元宵節 விளக்கு திருவிழா Chinese
15th day of the 4th month Wesak Day Hari Wesak 衛塞節 விசாக தினம் Buddhist

Festivals[edit]

Islamic festivals[edit]

Christian festivals[edit]

Gregorian festivals[edit]

Buddhist festivals[edit]

  • Wesak (15th day of the 4th month)

Indian festivals[edit]

Chinese festivals[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Image gallery[edit]

Location[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History of Penang". Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  2. ^ "Penang Info > History". Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  3. ^ "Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristics, 2010". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "Eight new sites, from the Straits of Malacca, to Papua New Guinea and San Marino, added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List". July 7, 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  5. ^ "Eight new sites, from the Straits of Malacca, to Papua New Guinea and San Marino, added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List". UNESCO. 2008-07-07. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  6. ^ World Monuments Fund - George Town Historic Enclave
  7. ^ SJKT Ramakrishna. Facebook. Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
  8. ^ Tamil school data – Penang |. Mynadi.wordpress.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
  9. ^ KDU College Malaysia, Penang Campus. Kdupg.edu.my (2013-06-05). Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
  10. ^ SEGi College Penang | SEGi University. Segi.edu.my. Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
  11. ^ Georgetown. Adelaidecitycouncil.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-11.
  12. ^ Penang Bridge International Marathon official visit to Xiamen Marathon | Penang – Hotels, Resorts, Entertainment & Events. . Retrieved on 2011-08-11.
  13. ^ [1]. The Star Online. Retrieved on 2012-08-19.
  14. ^ http://www.pemkomedan.go.id/news_detail.php?id=106 MEDAN MENJALIN HUBUNGAN KOTA KEMBAR KEEMPAT Retrieved September 10, 2013 Archived 23 April 2007
  15. ^ Xiamen, Penang and Adelaide as Sister cities – What's On Xiamen. Whatsonxiamen.com (9 May 2007). Retrieved on 2011-08-11.
  16. ^ Malaysia: Taipei, Georgetown ink friendship memorandum – Taiwan News Onli.com.tw (29 March 2011). Retrieved on 2011-08-11.
  17. ^ "Taipei - International Sister Cities". Taipei City Council. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  18. ^ [2].CM Lim Guan Eng official facebook page (4 April 2012). Retrieved on 2012-04-06.
  19. ^ [3]. About Changwon (20 November 2012). Retrieved on 2014-04-11.

Literature[edit]

  • Khoo Salma Nasution. More Than Merchants: A History of the German-speaking Community in Penang, 1800s-1940s. Areca Books. (2006). ISBN 978-983-42834-1-4

External links[edit]

Media related to George Town, Penang at Wikimedia Commons