George V of Hanover

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George V
Georgv.jpg
King of Hanover
Reign 18 November 1851 – 20 September 1866
Predecessor Ernest Augustus I
Consort Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
Issue Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Princess Frederica of Hanover
Princess Marie of Hanover
Full name
George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus
German: Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August
House House of Hanover
Father Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Mother Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Born 27 May 1819
Berlin, Prussia
Died 12 June 1878(1878-06-12) (aged 59)
Paris, France
Burial St George's Chapel, Windsor
Signature

George V (George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus; German: Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August; 27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus I. George V's reign was ended by the Unification of Germany.

Early life[edit]

Prince George of Cumberland was born in Berlin, the only son of Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, himself fifth son of George III, and his wife Princess Frederica, Duchess of Cumberland.

He was baptized on 8 July 1819, at a hotel in Berlin where his parents were staying, by the Rev. Henry Thomas Austen (brother of author Jane Austen). His godparents were the Prince Regent (represented by the Duke of Cumberland), the King of Prussia, the Emperor of Russia, the Crown Prince of Prussia, Prince William of Prussia, Prince Frederick Louis of Prussia, Prince Henry of Prussia, the Prince William of Prussia, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Duke Charles of Mecklenburg, the Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, the Queen of the Netherlands, the Princess Augusta Sophia, the Hereditary Princess of Hesse-Homburg, the Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Princess Sophia, Princess Alexandrine of Prussia, the Electoral Princess of Hesse-Kassel, the Duchess of Anhalt-Dessau, Princess William of Prussia, Princess Ferdinand of Prussia, Princess Louisa of Prussia and Princess Radziwill.[1]

George spent his childhood in Berlin and in Britain, losing the sight of one eye following a childhood accident and illness in 1828.[2] He lost the sight in the other eye in 1833.[3] His uncle, William IV, created him a Knight of the Garter on 15 August 1835. His father had hoped that the young prince might marry his cousin Victoria, who was older by three days, thus keeping the British and Hanoverian thrones united, but nothing ever came of that desire.

Crown Prince[edit]

Upon the death of William IV and the accession of Queen Victoria to the British throne, the 123-year personal union of the British and Hanoverian thrones ended due to the operation of Salic Law in the German states. The Duke of Cumberland succeeded to the Hanoverian throne as Ernst August I, and Prince George became the Crown Prince of Hanover. As a legitimate male-line descendant of George III, he remained a member of the British Royal Family, and second in line to the British throne, until the birth of Queen Victoria's first child, Victoria, Princess Royal, in 1840. Since he was totally blind, there were doubts as to whether the Crown Prince was qualified to succeed as king of Hanover; but his father decided that he should do so.[citation needed]

Carte de visite made by Nadar in Paris, 1874

Marriage[edit]

George married, on 18 February 1843, at Hanover, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, the eldest daughter of Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, by his wife, Duchess Amelia of Württemberg.

King of Hanover[edit]

The Crown Prince succeeded his father as the King of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, as well as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, in the Peerage of Great Britain, and Earl of Armagh, in the Peerage of Ireland, on 18 November 1851, assuming the style George V.[citation needed]

From his father and from his maternal uncle, Prince Charles Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, one of the most influential men at the Prussian court, George had learned to take a very high and autocratic view of royal authority. During his 15-year reign, he engaged in frequent disputes with the Hanoverian parliament. Having supported Austria in the Diet of the German Confederation in June 1866, he refused, contrary to the wishes of his parliament, to assent to the Prussian demand that Hanover should observe an unarmed neutrality during the Austro-Prussian War. As a result, the Prussian army occupied Hanover and the Hanoverian army surrendered on 29 June 1866, the King and royal family having fled to Austria. The Prussian government formally annexed Hanover on 20 September, but the deposed King never renounced his rights to the throne nor acknowledged Prussia's actions. From exile in Gmunden, Austria, he appealed in vain for the European great powers to intervene on behalf of Hanover. From 1866, George V maintained the Guelphic Legion at his own expense.[citation needed]

British Royalty
House of Hanover
Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or; II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules; III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent; overall an escutcheon tierced per pale and per chevron, I Gules two lions passant guardant Or, II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure, III Gules a horse courant Argent, the whole inescutcheon surmounted by crown
George III
George IV
Frederick, Duke of York
William IV
Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg
Edward, Duke of Kent
Princess Augusta Sophia
Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Mary, Duchess of Gloucester
Princess Sophia
Princess Amelia
Grandchildren
Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Victoria
George V, King of Hanover
George, Duke of Cambridge
Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck

Death[edit]

George V died at his residence in the Rue de Presbourg, Paris, in June 1878. He was buried in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle.[citation needed]

Legacy[edit]

The king supported industrial development – in 1856 the "Georgs-Marien-Bergwerks- und Hüttenverein" was founded which was named after him and his wife. The company erected an iron and steel works which gave the city Georgsmarienhütte its name.[citation needed]

Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 27 May 1819 – 20 June 1837:His Royal Highness Prince George of Cumberland
  • 20 June 1837 – 18 November 1851:His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Hanover
  • 18 November 1851 – 12 June 1878:His Majesty The King of Hanover

Arms[edit]

By grant dated 15 August 1835, George's arms in right of the United Kingdom were those of his father (being the arms of the United Kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point charged with a fleur-de-lys azure, and each of the other points charged with a cross gules), the whole differenced by a label gules bearing a horse courant argent.[4]

Ancestors[edit]

George's ancestors in three generations
George V of Hanover Father:
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Paternal grandfather:
George III of the United Kingdom
Paternal great-grandfather:
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Paternal great-grandmother:
Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Paternal grandmother:
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Paternal great-grandfather:
Charles Louis Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow
Paternal great-grandmother:
Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Mother:
Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Maternal grandfather:
Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Maternal great-grandfather:
Charles Louis Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow
Maternal great-grandmother:
Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maternal grandmother:
Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt
Maternal great-grandfather:
Prince Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt
Maternal great-grandmother:
Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Falkenburg-Dagsburg

Issue[edit]

Name Birth Death Notes
Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale 21 September 1845 14 November 1923 Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick; born at Hanover, died at Gmunden, married Princess Thyra of Denmark; had issue
Princess Frederica of Hanover 9 January 1848 16 October 1926 born at Hanover, died at Biarritz; married Alfons, Baron von Pawel-Rammingen; had no surviving issue
Princess Marie of Hanover 3 December 1849 4 June 1904 Marie Ernestine Josephine Adolphine Henrietta Theresa Elizabeth Alexandrina; born at Hanover, died unmarried at Gmunden

References[edit]

  1. ^ The London Gazette: no. 17497. p. 1296. 24 July 1819. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
  2. ^ William Christian Sellé, letter to The Times dated July 3rd
  3. ^ Letter to the Times dated July 5th by William Christian Sellé
  4. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family

External links[edit]

George V of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 27 May 1819 Died: 12 June 1878
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ernest Augustus I
King of Hanover
18 November 1851 – 20 September 1866
Office abolished
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Ernest Augustus I
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
18 November 1851 – 12 June 1878
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus II
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
King of Hanover
20 September 1866 – 12 June 1878
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus II