George W. L. Bickley
George Washington Lafayette Bickley (c. 1819 – August 1867) was the founder of the Knights of the Golden Circle, a Civil War era secret society used to promote the interests of the Southern United States by preparing the way for annexation of a "golden circle" of territories in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean which would be included into the United States as southern or slave states. Bickley was arrested by the United States government and it was during this time he wrote a letter to Abraham Lincoln expressing his distastes with Lincoln's handling of the government.
Bickley was born in southwest Virginia in 1819. At a young age, he ran away from home to live an adventurous life around the country. In 1850, he resurfaced in Jeffersonville (now Tazewell), Virginia as a practicing physician. In Jeffersonville, he founded a local historical society and began writing the manuscript for the History of the Settlement and Indian War of Tazewell County, Virginia. In 1851, he moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, after being offered to serve as "Professor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Medical Botany" at the Eclectic Medical Institute, an institution teaching a form of alternative medicine known as eclectic medicine. Bickley had secured the offer by claiming to have been a graduate in the Class of 1842 of the University of London. Bickley stated that he had studied medicine under the renowned English physician John Elliotson, who supposedly had signed his diploma. The University of London failed to find Bickley's name in their records for the list of university graduates. Furthermore, Elliotson had resigned from the university in 1838, which would falsify Bickley's claim. In 1853, Bickley published Adalaska; Or, The Strange and Mysterious Family of the Cave of Genreva, a fictional work based on the premise of the Young America movement and Manifest Destiny, and the Principles of Scientific Botany.
The Knights of the Golden Circle
Hounded by creditors, Bickley left Cincinnati in the late 1850s and traveled through the East and South promoting an expedition to seize Mexico and establish a new territory for slavery. He found his greatest support in Texas and managed within a short time to organize thirty-two chapters there. In the spring of 1860 the group made the first of two attempts to invade Mexico from Texas. A small band reached the Rio Grande, but Bickley failed to show up with a large force he claimed he was assembling in New Orleans, and the campaign dissolved. In April some KGC members in New Orleans, disgusted by Bickley's inept leadership, met and expelled him, but Bickley called a convention in Raleigh, North Carolina, in May and succeeded in having himself reinstated. Bickley attempted to mount a second expedition to Mexico later in the year, but with Abraham Lincoln's election he and most of his supporters turned their attentions to the secessionist movement.
The outbreak of the Civil War prompted a shift in the group's aims to that of supporting the Confederates and engaging in Copperhead activity. In late 1863 the Knights of the Golden Circle were reorganized (sans Bickley) as the Order of American Knights and again, early in 1864, as the Order of the Sons of Liberty, with Clement Vallandigham, the most prominent of the Copperheads, as its supreme commander but with growing Union victories in 1864 it soon dissolved. Bickley served for a time as a Confederate surgeon and was arrested for spying in Indiana in July 1863. He was never tried but remained under arrest until October 1865; broken and dispirited, he died in August 1867.
- Philip Alexander Bruce and William Glover Stanard, ed. (2000). The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Historical Society. p. 478.
- Some sources, such as Ollinger Crenshaw's The Knights of the Golden Circle: The Career of George Bickley, published in The American Historical Review in October 1941, erroneously list Bickley's full name as "George William Leigh Bickley".
- Crenshaw, p24.
- Daily Cincinnati Gazette, September 8, 1852.
- Bickley's claims over his educational background were published on pages 140-141 of the March 1853 issue (vol. 12) of the Eclectic Medical Journal.
- Leslie Stephen, ed. (1889). Dictionary of National Biography 17. London, England: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 264–266.
- Franklin, John H. (2002). The Militant South, 1800-1861. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-252-07069-0.
- Crenshaw, p25.
- Principles of Scientific Botany was also published in 1853 as Physiological and Scientific Botany.
- Bridges, C. A. (1941). "The Knights of the Golden Circle: A Filibustering Fantasy". Southwestern Historical Quarterly 44: 287–302.
- Crenshaw, Ollinger (October 1941). "The Knights of the Golden Circle: The Career of George Bickley". American Historical Review 47 (1): 23–50. doi:10.2307/1838769. JSTOR 1838769.
- Curry, Richard O. (1964). A House Divided. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press.
- Dunn, Roy S. (April 1967). "The KGC in Texas, 1860-1861". Southwestern Historical Quarterly 70: 543–573.
- Frazier, Donald S.; Shaw Frazier (1995). Blood and Treasure: Confederate Empire in the Southwest. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-639-7.
- Hicks, Jimmie (July 1961). "Some Letters Concerning the Knights of the Golden Circle in Texas, 1860-1861". Southwestern Historical Quarterly 65: 80–86.
- May, Robert E. (1973). The Southern Dream of a Caribbean Empire, 1854-1861. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press.
- Milton, George F. (1942). Abraham Lincoln and the Fifth Column. New York, New York: Vanguard Press. OCLC 816967.
- Mingus, Scott L. (2009). Flames Beyond Gettysburg: The Gordon Expedition. Columbus, Ohio: Ironclad Publishing.