George Washington Inaugural Bible
The George Washington Inaugural Bible is the book that was sworn upon by George Washington when he took office as the first President of the United States. The Bible itself has subsequently been used in the inauguration ceremonies of several other U.S. presidents.
St. John's Lodge No. 1, Ancient York Masons, is the owner of what is now known as the George Washington Inaugural Bible. On April 30, 1789 it was upon this Bible that George Washington took his oath of office as the first President of the United States.[dead link]
George Washington's inauguration
The inaugural ceremony took place in the open gallery of the old City Hall (afterwards called Federal Hall) on Wall Street, New York City, in the presence of a vast multitude. Washington was dressed in a suit of dark brown cloth and white silk stockings, all of American manufacture. His hair was powdered and dressed in the fashion of the day, clubbed and ribboned.
The oath of office was first administered by Robert R. Livingston. The open Bible on which the President laid his hand was held on a rich crimson velvet cushion by Samuel Otis, Secretary of the Senate. With them were John Adams, who had been chosen Vice President; George Clinton, first Governor of New York; Philip Schuyler, John Jay, Maj. Gen. Henry Knox, Jacob Morton (Master of St. John's Lodge who had retrieved the Lodge Bible when they discovered none had been provided), and other distinguished guests.
Without reliable contemporary accounts, the most common account (as demonstrated by the HBO miniseries John Adams) of the event is after taking his Oath, he kissed the Bible reverently, closed his eyes and in an attitude of devotion said: "So help me God," though this claim is disputed. Livingston then exclaimed, "It is done!" and turning to the people he shouted, "Long live George Washington, President of the United States!", a shout that was echoed and re-echoed by the multitude present.
However, there is currently debate as to whether or not he added the phrase "So help me God" to his oath. The only contemporaneous account of Washington's oath is from French consul Comte de Moustier who reported the constitutional oath with no mention of "So help me God". The earliest known source indicating Washington did add "So help me God" is attributed to Washington Irving, aged six at the time of the inauguration, and first appears 60 years after the event.
At the conclusion, Washington and the others went in procession to St. Paul's Chapel, and there they invoked the blessing of God upon the new government.
Other inaugurations and appearances
The Bible has since been used for the inaugurations of Warren G. Harding, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Jimmy Carter, and George H. W. Bush (whose 1989 inauguration was in the bicentennial year of Washington's). The Bible was also intended to be used for the inauguration of George W. Bush, but inclement weather didn't allow it. However, the Bible was present in the Capitol Building in the care of three freemasons of St. John's Lodge, in case the weather got worse. Because of its fragility the Bible is no longer opened during meetings of St. John's Lodge.
In addition to its duties, the Bible has been used in the funeral processions of Presidents Washington and Abraham Lincoln. The Bible has also been used at the center-stone laying of the U.S. Capitol, the addition of the Washington Monument, the centennials of the cornerstone laying of the White House, U.S. Capitol, and the Statue of Liberty, the 1964 World's Fair as well as the launching of the aircraft carrier George Washington.
- Ceresi, Frank and McMains, Carol National Treasures - The George Washington Inaugural Bible
- St. John's Lodge No. 1 George Washington Inaugural Bible information
- dispatch of June 5, 1789
- Griswold, Rufus W (1855). The Republican court, or, American society in the days of Washington. New York: D. Appleton and Company. pp. 141–142.
- St. John's Lodge website
- Discussion with Worshipful Master of St. John's Lodge 18 February 2009
- St. John's Lodge website