Georges River

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Coordinates: 34°0′35.994″S 151°7′47.6394″E / 34.00999833°S 151.129899833°E / -34.00999833; 151.129899833
Georges River
Tucoerah River[1]
An intermediate tide dominated drowned valley estuary[2]
PortHacking-Sydney-Ria.jpg
Georges River, looking towards its mouth at Botany Bay, and out to the Tasman Sea.
Name origin: In honour of King George III[3]
Country Australia
State New South Wales
Region Greater Metropolitan Sydney
Municipality Sutherland Shire
Tributaries
 - left Bunbury Curran Creek, Cabramatta Creek, Prospect Creek, Salt Pan Creek, Boggywell Creek
 - right Brennan's Creek, O'Hares Creek, Punchbowl Creek, Williams Creek (New South Wales), Deadmans Creek, Mill Creek (New South Wales), Woronora River
Source Upland swamps, O'Hares Creek
 - location east of Appin, Macarthur region
 - elevation 350 m (1,148 ft)
 - coordinates 34°15′00″S 150°49′48″E / 34.25000°S 150.83000°E / -34.25000; 150.83000
Mouth Botany Bay
 - location Taren Point
 - coordinates 34°0′35.994″S 151°7′47.6394″E / 34.00999833°S 151.129899833°E / -34.00999833; 151.129899833
Length 96 km (60 mi)
Depth 10.5 m (34 ft)
Volume 271,393.5 m3 (9,584,171 cu ft)
Basin 930.9 km2 (359 sq mi)
Area 26.6 km2 (10 sq mi)
Website: NSW Environment and Heritage webpage
[4][5]

Georges River, formerly known as Tucoerah River,[1] is an intermediate tide dominated drowned valley estuary,[2] located to the south and west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

The source of the Georges River is upland swamps of the O'Hares Creek catchment, approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) to the south-west of Sydney central business district between the town of Appin and the Illawarra Escarpment. The river and travels for approximately 96 kilometres (60 mi) in a north and then easterly direction to its mouth at Botany Bay, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the Tasman Sea. The Georges River is the main tributary of Botany Bay; with the Cooks River being a secondary tributary.

The total catchment area of the river is approximately 930.9 square kilometres (359.4 sq mi) and the area surrounding the river is managed by a large number of local government authorities and NSW Government agencies.

The land adjacent to the Georges River was occupied for many thousands of years by the Tharawal and Eora Aboriginal peoples. They used the river as an important source of food and a place for trade.

Geography[edit]

The Geroges River at Freres Crossing Campbelltown.
Freres Crossing, near Campbelltown.

Course[edit]

From its source east of Appin within heath habitat of Wollondilly Shire & Wollongong Local government area, the Georges River flows north through rugged sandstone gorges to the east of Campbelltown, roughly parallel to the Main South railway line, with its eastern bank forming a boundary of Holsworthy Army Base. At Glenfield it reaches the urban environment and then travels to Liverpool where the river turns east and flows past the suburbs of East Hills, Lugarno, and Blakehurst, before emptying into Botany Bay at Taren Point in the southern suburbs of Sydney, where it joins with the estuarine catchment.

Major tributaries include O'Hares Creek, Bunbury Curran Creek, Cabramatta Creek, Prospect Creek, Salt Pan Creek and the Woronora River. The Georges River is popular for recreational activities such as water skiing and swimming. The banks of the river along the lower reaches are marked by large inlets and indentations overlooked by steep sandstone ridges and scarps, many being home to expensive residential properties.

The Georges River features some artificial lakes in the suburb of Chipping Norton, near Liverpool. These lakes, known as the Chipping Norton Lakes, are the result of sand mining and quarrying operations in the twentieth century. The Lakes are now a popular watersports and recreational facility for the residents of the south-western suburbs of Sydney.

Liverpool Weir now forms the uppermost tidal limit and presence of salt water on the Georges River.

Georges River National Park adjoins the upper reaches of the Georges River. This bushland is some of the most pristine in western Sydney.[citation needed] From Appin to Glenfield, a large corridor has been protected as part of the Georges River Regional Open Space Corridor. Council reserves allow for access to natural sections of the river at Simmo's Beach,[6] Ingleburn Reserve, Keith Longhurst Reserve,[7] and Frere's Crossing.[8]

History[edit]

Aboriginal history[edit]

Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Georges River was formerly known as Tucoerah River by the traditional custodians of the area.

European history[edit]

The Georges River was named in honour of King George III, by Governor Arthur Phillip.[3]

The river was first explored by Bass and Flinders in 1795 on their first voyage on the Tom Thumb after their arrival in New South Wales. The exploration led to the establishment of Bankstown .

A dam was constructed by David Lennox using convict labour at Liverpool in 1836, as a water supply to Liverpool.[9]

In February 2007, Liverpool and Campbelltown City Council were awarded a $2 million grant from the NSW Environmental Trust under their Urban Sustainability Initiative.[10] The grant was to allow the councils, in conjunction with Wollondilly Shire Council and the Georges River Combined Councils Committee, to develop a Comprehensive Strategic Plan focused on the rehabilitation of the catchment area.[11]

Crossings[edit]

Georges River from East Hills.

Bridges over the Georges River include from east to west:

  • Captain Cook Bridge (connecting Sans Souci to Taren Point), for cars, pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Tom Uglys Bridge (connecting Blakehurst to Sylvania), for cars, pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Como old rail bridge, now for pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Como rail bridge on the Illawarra Line, connecting Oatley to Como, for trains.
  • Alfords Point Bridge (connecting Padstow Heights to Alfords Point), for cars, pedestrians and cyclists.
  • East Hills rail bridge at East Hills, for trains.
  • Voyager Point footbridge, for pedestrians and cyclists.
  • M5 South Western Motorway Georges River East Bridge
  • Newbridge Rd (connecting Moorebank to Milperra), for cars, pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Governor Macquarie Drive bridge (connecting Warwick Farm to Chipping Norton), for cars, pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Liverpool footbridge (now demolished which utilised the footing of the decommissioned railway bridge to Holsworthy).[12]
  • Newbridge Rd (connecting Liverpool to Moorebank), for cars, pedestrians and cyclists.
  • M5 South Western Motorway Georges River West Bridge
  • East Hills line rail bridge (connecting Holsworthy to Glendfield), for trains.
  • Cambridge Ave Causeway (connecting Holsworthy to Glendfield), for cars.
  • King Falls Bridge [13]

Fish[edit]

Georges River from Illawong.

The Georges River is a popular area for recreational fishing. Species present in the river include bass, bream, whiting, yellowtail, jewfish and flathead. The river is also host to a number of commercial oyster farms. The upper ends of the Georges River are abundant with Bass during the summer months and during the winter months these bass migrate down to the lower ends of the river towards the salt water to breed. Waste water inflows to the river are carefully managed to maintain the estuarine habitat. Fishing is not recommended in some areas of the river due to pollution.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Georges River". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Roy, P. S; Williams, R. J; Jones, A. R; Yassini, I; et al. (2001). "Structure and Function of South-east Australian Estuaries". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 53: 351–384. doi:10.1006/ecss.2001.0796. 
  3. ^ a b Pollon, Frances, ed. (1990). The Book of Sydney Suburbs. Australia: Angus & Robertson. p. 107. ISBN 0-207-14495-8. 
  4. ^ "Georges River". Estuaries of NSW. Office of Environment and Heritage. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  5. ^ "Georges River information page". Campbelltown City Council. 
  6. ^ "Simmo's Beach Reserve". Macarthur Branch: Activities. National Parks Association of NSW. 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  7. ^ "Bushwalkers Basin". Macarthur Branch: Activities. National Parks Association of NSW. 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  8. ^ "Freres Crossing". Macarthur Branch: Activities. National Parks Association of NSW. 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  9. ^ "Liverpool Weir". Heritage Branch, New South Wales waling Department of Planning. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  10. ^ http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/grants/2006USMSummary.htm
  11. ^ http://www.campbelltown.nsw.gov.au/getfile.asp?fileId=13828&cacheDefeat=0.4095564579588126
  12. ^ "Georges River Bridge". Roads and Traffic Authority, New South Wales. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  13. ^ "Kings Falls Bridge over Georges River". Roads and Traffic Authority, New South Wales. 

External links[edit]