Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès
Baron Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès (5 February 1812 – 2 November 1895) was a French military officer and politician. Despite his later career as a senator under the Second French Empire, d'Anthès's name is most famous because he killed Alexander Pushkin, Russia's greatest poet as well as his own wife's brother-in-law, in a duel.
Born in Colmar to a Alsatian royalist family, first boy among six children, he was destined for a military career. He was therefore sent to Saint-Cyr, the premier French military academy, and, in 1830, as cavalry officer, he supported Charles X's party during the July Revolution. After the exile of the latter, d'Anthès refused to serve under the July Monarchy, resigned from the army and withdrew to his father's home in Alsace.
As he was authorized by the French government to serve abroad without losing his nationality, he set off for Prussia, then for Russia. In St. Petersburg, he succeeded in entering the Knights Guards of the Empress as cornet. Two years later, in 1836, he became lieutenant.
His family ties and good looks gave him access to St. Petersburg high society. It was there that he met the Dutch plenipotentiary to the court, Baron Heeckeren. After a lengthy correspondence and a journey to Alsace, the latter proposed to d'Anthès's father to adopt the son as his heir. After the agreement of the King of the Netherlands, Georges-Charles d'Anthès took the name of Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès.
From booklet by Prince A. Trubetskoy: "...some pranks was usual to him [d'Anthès], however all the pranks were quite inoffensive and usual to the youths but one, of which we learnt much later. I don't know what to say: whether he took Heeckeren or Heeckeren took him... Judging by all, ... in the intercourse with Heeckeren he was a passive partner".
D'Anthès met Pushkin and his wife, Natalia ("Natasha"), a beautiful and flirtatious young woman who had many admirers. D'Anthès courted her in such a way that Pushkin threatened him. D'Anthès then married Natalia's own sister, Yekaterina Goncharova, on 10 January 1837. It has been suggested that d'Anthès's engagement and marriage to Natalia's sister was devised to contradict society gossip that he was in pursuit of Natalia. In any event, this was not enough to soothe the conflict between the two new brothers-in-law, especially since an anonymous letter nominated Pushkin Deputy Grand Master and Historiograph of the Order of Cuckolds. Pushkin's jealousy made him write an insulting letter to d'Anthès's adoptive father. Pushkin having refused to withdraw these abuses, a duel became inevitable.
On the evening of 27 January 1837, d'Anthès fired first, mortally wounding Pushkin in the stomach. Pushkin, who had fought several duels, managed to rise and shoot at d'Anthès, but only wounded him lightly in the right arm. As he lay on his deathbed suffering from a gunshot wound, Pushkin sent a message to d'Anthès pardoning him of any wrongdoing. Pushkin died two days later, after which d'Anthès was imprisoned at Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg. Dueling was illegal in Russia, and d'Anthès was called to court, but he was pardoned by the Emperor, considering the severity of Pushkin's provocations. Stripped of his rank, he was escorted back to the frontier. In Berlin, he was joined by his wife, and the couple returned to France, in his father's region. There he began a successful political career: at first president of the local assembly, then member of the National Constituent Assembly from 1848 to 1852, and, at last, irremovable senator from 1852 to 1870.
- Serena Vitale
- ФЭБ: Metman. Georges Charles d'Anthes. — 1916 (текст)