Georges de Rham
|Georges de Rham|
10 September 1903|
|Died||9 October 1990
|Institutions||University of Lausanne
University of Geneva
|Alma mater||University of Paris
University of Lausanne
|Doctoral advisor||Henri Lebesgue|
|Doctoral students||Pierre Jeanquartier
|Known for||de Rham's theorem
de Rham cohomology
de Rham curve
He studied at the University of Lausanne and then in Paris for a doctorate, becoming a lecturer in Lausanne in 1931; where he held positions until retirement in 1971; he held positions in Geneva in parallel.
In 1931 he proved de Rham's theorem, identifying the de Rham cohomology groups as topological invariants. This proof can be considered as sought-after, since the result was implicit in the points of view of Henri Poincaré and Élie Cartan. The first proof of the general Stokes' theorem, for example, is attributed to Poincaré, in 1899. At the time there was no cohomology theory, one could reasonably say: for manifolds the homology theory was known to be self-dual with the switch of dimension to codimension (that is, from Hk to Hn-k, where n is the dimension). That is true, anyway, for orientable manifolds, an orientation being in differential form terms an n-form that is never zero (and two being equivalent if related by a positive scalar field). The duality can be reformulated, to great advantage, in terms of the Hodge dual—intuitively, 'divide into' an orientation form—as it was in the years succeeding the theorem. Separating out the homological and differential form sides allowed the coexistence of 'integrand' and 'domains of integration', as cochains and chains, with clarity. De Rham himself developed a theory of homological currents, that showed how this fitted with the generalised function concept.
De Rham also worked on the torsion invariants of smooth manifolds.
- Bott, Raoul. "Georges de Rham 1901–1990," Notices of the American Mathematical Society 38 2 (Feb. 1991), 114–115.
- Eckmann, Beno. "Georges de Rham 1903–1990," Elemente der Mathematik 47 3 (1992), 118–122.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Georges de Rham", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Georges de Rham at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Barile, Margherita. "Georges de Rham." Biographical sketch at The First Century of the International Commission on Mathematical Education.