SR 180 traverses some of the most difficult terrain in Georgia, traveling the gaps of the highest mountains in the state. The route has two sections known as Bald Mountain Road and Wolfpen Gap Road, which are joined by the concurrency with US 19/US 129/SR 11. Most of the highway is in the Chattahoochee National Forest.
Wolfpen Gap Road (the 11.8-mile-long (19.0 km) western section of the highway) is known to be the curviest road in the state. Sites along this section include various hiking trails and scenery as well as Vogel State Park, access to Sosebee Cove, an intersection with the Coosa Back Country Trail, and Lake Winfield Scott (Georgia's highest lake). The highpoint of the highway is 3,260 feet (990 m) at Wolfpen Gap.
SR 180 is not part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy, defense, and mobility.
State Route 180 Spur (SR 180 Spur) is a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) spur route that connects the SR 180 mainline with a parking lot at the visitors center for Brasstown Bald, the highest point in Georgia. It starts on the Towns–Unioncounty line, then travels completely within Towns County.