Georgian scripts

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Georgian
Damts'erloba.svg
damts'erloba "script" in Mkhedruli
Type
Languages Georgian (originally) and other Kartvelian languages
Time period
c. 400 AD – present
Parent systems
modeled on Greek
  • Georgian
ISO 15924
  • Geor, 240 – Georgian (Mkhedruli)
  • Geok, 241 – Khutsuri (Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri)

The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli. Their letters are equivalent, sharing the same names and alphabetical order and all three are unicameral (make no distinction between upper and lower case). Although each continues to be used, Mkhedruli (see below) is taken as the standard for Georgian and its related Kartvelian languages.[1]

The scripts originally had 38 letters.[2] Georgian is currently written in a 33-letter alphabet, as five of the letters are obsolete in that language. The Mingrelian alphabet uses 36: the 33 of Georgian, one letter obsolete for that language, and two additional letters specific to Mingrelian and Svan. That same obsolete letter, plus a letter borrowed from Greek, are used in the 35-letter Laz alphabet. The fourth Kartvelian language, Svan, is not commonly written, but when it is it uses the letters of the Mingrelian alphabet, with an additional obsolete Georgian letter and sometimes supplemented by diacritics for its many vowels.[1][3]

Preview[edit]

The three Georgian scripts: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri, and Mkhedruli.

Origins[edit]

The oldest known Georgian inscription, in Bethlehem, 430 AD.
The second oldest Georgian inscription in Bolnisi Sioni, 494 AD.

The origins of the Georgian alphabet are to this date poorly known, and no full agreement exists among Georgian and foreign scholars as to its date of creation, who designed the script and the main influences on that process. The oldest uncontested example of Georgian writing is an inscription in the Asomtavruli script that has been dated to c430 AD, in a[which?] church in Bethlehem, Palestine. The oldest example of the script being used in Georgia is found in the church of Bolnisi Sioni, dated 494 AD.[4][5]

The scholarly consensus points to the Georgian alphabet being created in the 5th century AD, contemporaneously with Armenian Alphabet.[6][4] The first version of the alphabet attested is the Asomtavruli script; the other scripts were formed in the following centuries. Most scholars link the creation of the Georgian alphabet to the process of Christianisation of the Georgian-speaking lands, that is Lazica (or Colchis) in the west, Kartli (or Iberia) in the east.[5] The alphabet was therefore most probably created between the conversion of Iberia under Mirian III (326 or 337) and the Bethlehem inscription of 430. It was first used for translation of the Bible and other Christian literature into Georgian, by monks in Georgia and Palestine.[7]

A point of contention among scholars is the role played by Armenian clerics in that process. According to a number of scholars and contemporaneous Armenian sources, Mesrop Mashtots, who is generally acknowledged as the creator of the Armenian alphabet, to have also created the Georgian and Caucasian Albanian alphabets. This tradition originates in the works of Koryun, a fifth century historian and biographer of Mashtots,[8] and has been quoted in some Western sources,[9][10] but has been criticized by scholars, both Georgian[11] and Western,[7] who judge the passage in Koryun unreliable or even a later interpolation. Other scholars quote Koryun's claims without taking a stance on its validity.[12][13] Many agree, however, that Armenian clerics, if not Mashtots himself, must have played a role in the creation of the Georgian script.[6][7][14]

A competing Georgian tradition, first attested in medieval chronicles such as the Lives of the Kings of Kartli (ca. 800),[7] assigns a much earlier, pre-Christian origin to the Georgian alphabet, and names King Pharnavaz I (3rd century BC) as its inventor. This account is now considered legendary, and is rejected by scholarly consensus, as no archaeological confirmation has been found.[6][7][9] Georgian linguist Tamaz Gamkrelidze offers an alternate interpretation of the tradition, in the pre-Christian use of foreign scripts (alloglotography in the Aramaic alphabet) to write down Georgian texts.[15]

Another controversy regards the main influences at play in the Georgian alphabet, as scholars have debated whether it was inspired more by the Greek alphabet, or by Semitic alphabets such as Aramaic.[15] Recent historiography focuses on greater similarities with the Greek alphabet than in the other Caucasian writing systems, most notably the order and numeric value of letters.[7][16] Some scholars have also suggested as a possible inspiration for particular letters certain pre-Christian Georgian cultural symbols or clan markers.[4]

Asomtavruli[edit]

Manuscript in Asomtavruli, 10th century.

Asomtavruli (Georgian: ასომთავრული) is the oldest Georgian script. The name Asomtavruli means "capital letters", from aso (ასო) "letter" and mtavari (მთავარი) "principal/head". It is also known as Mrgvlovani (Georgian: მრგვლოვანი) "rounded", from mrgvali (მრგვალი) "round", so named because of its round letter shapes. Despite its name, this "capital" script is unicameral, just like the modern Georgian script, Mkhedruli.[17]

The oldest Asomtavruli inscriptions found so far date from the 5th century,[18] in Bethlehem[19] and the Bolnisi Sioni Cathedral.[20]

From the 9th century, Nuskhuri script starting becoming dominant, and the role of Asomtavruli was reduced. However, epigraphic monuments of the 10th to 18th centuries continued to be written in Asomtavruli script. Asomtavruli in this later period became more decorative. In the majority of 9th-century Georgian manuscripts which were written in Nuskhuri script, Asomtavruli was used for titles and the first letters of chapters.[21] Although, some manuscripts written completely in Asomtavruli can be found until the 11th century.[22]

Form of Asomtavruli letters[edit]

In early Asomtavruli, the letters are of equal height. Georgian historian and philologist Pavle Ingorokva believes that the direction of Asomtavruli, like that of Greek, was initially boustrophedon, though the direction of the earliest surviving texts is from left to the right.[23]

In most Asomtavruli letters, straight lines are horizontal or vertical and meet at right angles. The only letter with acute angles is ( jani). There have been various attempts to explain this exception. Georgian linguist and art historian Helen Machavariani believes jani derives from a monogram of Christ, composed of the ( ini) and ( kani).[24] According to Georgian scholar Ramaz Pataridze, the cross-like shape of letter jani indicates the end of the alphabet, and has the same function as the similarly shaped Phoenician letter taw (Phoenician taw.svg), Greek chi (Χ), and Latin X,[25] though these letters do not have that function in Phoenician, Greek, or Latin.

Coin of Queen Tamar 1200 AD.png ლაშა-გიორგის მონეტა 1210 წ..png
Coins of Queen Tamar of Georgia and King George IV of Georgia minted using Asomtavruli script, 1200–1210 AD.

From the 7th century, the forms of some letters began to change. The equal height of the letters was abandoned, with letters acquiring ascenders and descenders.[26][27]

Asomtavruli letters

ani

bani

gani

doni

eni

vini

zeni

he

tani

ini

k'ani

lasi

mani

nari

hie

oni

p'ari

zhani

rae

sani

t'ari

vie
ႭჃ

uni

pari

kani

ghani

q'ari

shini

chini

tsani

dzili

ts'ili

ch'ari

khani

qari

jani

hae

hoe
Note: Some fonts show "capitalized" (tall) variants of Mkhedruli letters rather than Asomtavruli.

Asomtavruli illumination[edit]

In Nuskhuri manuscripts, Asomtavruli are used for titles and illuminated capitals. The latter were used at the beginnings of paragraphs which started new sections of text. In the early stages of the development of Nuskhuri texts, Asomtavruli letters were not elaborate and were distinguished principally by size and sometimes by being written in cinnabar ink. Later, from the 10th century, the letters were illuminated. The style of Asomtavruli capitals can be used to identify the era of a text. For example, in the Georgian manuscripts of the Byzantine era, when the styles of the Byzantine Empire influenced Kingdom of Georgia, capitals were illuminated with images of birds and other animals.[28]

Asomtavruli letter მ.png Asomtavruli letter ნ (n).png Asomtavruli letter თ (t).png
Decorative Asomtavruli capital letters, (m), (n) and (t), 12–13th century.

From the 11th-century "limb-flowery", "limb-arrowy" and "limb-spoty" decorative forms of Asomtavruli are developed. The first two are found in 11th- and 12th-century monuments, whereas the third one is used until the 18th century.[29][30]

Importance was attached also to the colour of the ink itself.[31]

Asomtavruli letter (doni) is often written with decoration effects of fish and birds.[32]

The "Curly" decorative form of Asomtavruli is also used where the letters are wattled or intermingled on each other, or the smaller letters are written inside other letters. It was mostly used for the headlines of the manuscripts or the books, although there are compete inscriptions which were written in the Asomtavruli "Curly" form only.[33]

Mokvis saxareba - Mates saxareba.png
The title of Gospel of Matthew in Asomtavruli "Curly" decorative form.

Nuskhuri[edit]

Nuskhuri manuscript, 13–14th century.

Nuskhuri (Georgian: ნუსხური) is the second Georgian script. The name nuskhuri comes from nuskha (ნუსხა), meaning "inventory" or "schedule". Nuskhuri was soon augmented with Asomtavruli illuminated capitals in religious manuscripts. The combination is called Khutsuri (Georgian: ხუცური, "clerical", from khutsesi (ხუცესი) "cleric"), and it was principally used in hagiography.[34]

Nuskhuri first appeared in the 9th century as a graphic variant of Asomtavruli.[35] The oldest inscription is found in the Ateni Sioni Church and dates to 835 AD.[36] The oldest surviving Nuskhuri manuscripts date to 864 AD.[37] Nuskhuri becomes dominant over Asomtavruli from the 10th century.[34]

Form of Nuskhuri letters[edit]

Nuskhuri letters vary in height, with ascenders and descenders, and are slanted to the right. Letters have an angular shape, with a noticeable tendency to simplify the shapes they had in Asomtavruli. This enabled faster writing of manuscripts.[38]

Asomtavruli u.svgNuskhuri o.svgNuskhuri vie.svgNuskhuri u.svg
Asomtavruli letters (oni) and (vie). A ligature of these letters produced a new letter in Nuskhuri, uni.
Nuskhuri letters

ani

bani

gani

doni

eni

vini

zeni

he

tani

ini

k'ani

lasi

mani

nari

hie

oni

p'ari

zhani

rae

sani

t'ari

vie
ⴍⴣ ⴓ
uni

pari

kani

ghani

q'ari

shini

chini

tsani

dzili

ts'ili

ch'ari

khani

qari

jani

hae

hoe
Note: Without proper font support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Nuskhuri letters.

Use of Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri today[edit]

Asomtavruli is used intensively in iconography, murals, and exterior design, especially in stone engravings.[39] Georgian linguist Akaki Shanidze made an attempt in the 1950s to introduce Asomtavruli into the Mkhedruli script as capital letters to begin sentences, as in the Latin script, but it didn't catch on.[40][41] Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri are officially used by the Georgian Orthodox Church alongside Mkhedruli. Patriarch Ilia II of Georgia called on people to use all three Georgian scripts.[42]

Mkhedruli[edit]

Royal charter of Queen Tamar of Georgia in Mkhedruli, 12th century.
Royal charter of King Vakhtang VI of Kartli in Mkhedruli, 1712 AD.

Mkhedruli (Georgian: მხედრული) is the third and current Georgian script. Mkhedruli, literally meaning "cavalry" or "military", derives from mkhedari (მხედარი) meaning "horseman", "knight", "warrior"[43] and "cavalier".[44]

Like the two other scripts, Mkhedruli is purely unicameral. Mkhedruli first appears in the 10th century. The oldest Mkhedruli inscription is found in Ateni Sioni Church dating back to 982 AD. The second oldest Mkhedruli-written text is found in the 11th-century royal charters of King Bagrat IV of Georgia. Mkhedruli was mostly used then in the Kingdom of Georgia for the royal charters, historical documents, manuscripts and inscriptions.[45] Mkhedruli was used for non-religious purposes only and represented the "civil", "royal" and "secular" script.[46][47]

Mkhedruli became more and more dominant over the two other scripts, though Khutsuri (Nuskhuri with Asomtavruli) was used until the 19th century. Since the 19th century, with the establishment and development of the printed Georgian fonts, Mkhedruli became universal writing Georgian outside the Church.[48]

Form of Mkhedruli letters[edit]

Mkhedruli inscriptions of the 10th and 11th centuries are characterized in rounding of angular shapes of Nuskhuri letters and making the complete outlines in all of its letters. Mkhedruli letters are written in the four-linear system, similar to Nuskhuri. Mkhedruli becomes more round and free in writing. It breaks the strict frame of the previous two alphabets, Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri. Mkhedruli letters begin to get coupled and more free calligraphy develops.[49]

Excerpt of royal charter of King Bagrat IV of Georgia.svg

Example of one of the oldest Mkhedruli-written texts found in the royal charter of King Bagrat IV of Georgia, 11th century.

"Gurgen : King : of Kings : great-grandfather : of mine : Bagrat Curopalates"
თამარ მეფის მონეტა 1187 წ..png
Coin of Queen Tamar of Georgia in Mkhedruli, 1187 AD.

Modern Georgian alphabet[edit]

The modern Georgian alphabet consists of 33 letters:


ani

bani

gani

doni

eni

vini

zeni

tani

ini

k'ani

lasi

mani

nari

oni

p'ari

zhani

rae

sani

t'ari

uni

pari

kani

ghani

q'ari

shini

chini

tsani

dzili

ts'ili

ch'ari

khani

jani

hae

In modern pronunciation, the final i has been dropped from the names, so they have become an, ban, gan, don, etc. (See below.)

Letters removed from the Georgian alphabet[edit]

The Society for the Spreading of Literacy among Georgians, founded by Prince Ilia Chavchavadze in 1879, discarded five letters from the Georgian alphabet that had become redundant:[50]


he

hie

vie

qari

hoe
  • (he), sometimes called "ei"[51] or "e-merve" ("eighth e"),[52] was equivalent to ეჲ ey, as in ქრისტჱ ~ ქრისტეჲ krist'ey 'Christ'.
  • (hie), also called iota,[52] appeared instead of ი (ini) after a vowel, but came to have the same pronunciation as ი (ini) and was replaced by it. Thus ქრისტჱ ~ ქრისტეჲ krist'ey "Christ" is now written ქრისტეი krist'ei.
  • (vie)[52] came to be pronounced the same as ვი vi and was replaced by that sequence, as in სხჳსი > სხვისი skhvisi "others'".
  • (qari, hari)[52] came to be pronounced the same as ხ (khani), and was replaced by it. e.g. ჴლმწიფე became ხელმწიფე "sovereign".
  • (hoe)[52] was used for the interjection hoi! and is now spelled ჰოი.

All but ჵ (hoe) continue to be used in the Svan alphabet; ჲ (hie) is used in the Mingrelian and Laz alphabets as well, for the y-sound /j/. Several others were used for Abkhaz and Ossetian in the short time they were written in Mkhedruli script.

Letters added to other alphabets[edit]

Mkhedruli has been adapted to languages besides Georgian. Some of these alphabets retained letters obsolete in Georgian, while others required additional letters:


fi

shva

elifi

turned gani

aini
  • (fi "phi") is used in Laz and formerly in Ossetian and Abkhazian.[1] It derives from the Greek letter Φ (phi).
  • (shva "schwa"), also called yn, is used for the schwa sound in Svan and Mingrelian, and formerly in Ossetian and Abkhazian.[1]
  • (elifi "alif") is used in for the glottal stop in Svan and Mingrelian.[1] It's a reversed (q'ari).
  • (turned gani) was once used for [ɢ] in evangelical literature in Dagestanian languages.[1]
  • (aini "ain") is occasionally used for [ʕ] in Bats.[1] It derives from the Arabic letter (‘ain).

Handwriting[edit]

The following table shows the stroke order and direction of each letter:[53][54][55]

Mkhedruli.svg

, , and (zeni, oni, khani) are almost always written without the small tick at the end, while the handwritten form of (jani) often uses a vertical line, ჯ (other form).png (sometimes with a taller ascender, or with a diagonal cross bar); even when it's written at a diagonal, the cross-bar is generally shorter than in print.

  • Only four letters are x-height, with neither ascenders nor descenders: ა, თ, ი, ო.
  • Thirteen have ascenders, like b or d in English: ბ, ზ, მ, ნ, პ, რ, ს, შ, ჩ, ძ, წ, ხ, ჰ
  • An equal number have descenders, like p or q in English: გ, დ, ე, ვ, კ, ლ, ჟ, ტ, უ, ფ, ღ, ყ, ც
  • Three letters have both ascenders and descenders, like þ in Old English: ქ, ჭ, and (in handwriting) ჯ. წ has both ascender and descender in print, and sometimes in handwriting.

Variation[edit]

There is individual and stylistic variation in many of the letters. For example, the top circle of (zeni) and the top stroke of (rae) may go in the other direction than shown in the chart (that is, counter-clockwise starting at 3 o'clock, and upwards – see the external-link section for videos of people writing). Other common variants:

(gani) may be written like (vini) with a closed loop at the bottom.

(doni) is frequently written with a simple loop at top, Doni (other form).svg.

, , and (k'ani, tsani, dzili) are generally written with straight, vertical lines at the top, so that for example (tsani) resembles a U with a dimple in the right side.

(lasi) is frequently written with a single arc, Lasi (other form).svg. Even when all three are written, they're generally not all the same size, as they are in print, but rather riding on one wide arc like two dimples in it.

Rarely, (oni) is written as a right angle, Oni (other form).svg.

(rae) is frequently written with one arc, Rae (other form).svg, like a Latin h.

(t'ari) often has a small circle with a tail hanging into the bowl, rather than two small circles as in print, or as an O with a straight vertical line intersecting the top. It may also be rotated a bit clockwise, with the small circles further to the right and not as close to the top.

(ts'ili) is generally written with a round bowl at the bottom, Ts'ili (other form).svg.

(ch'ari) may be written without the hook at the top, and often with a completely straight vertical line.

(he) may be written without the loop, like a conflation of ს and ჰ.

Similar letters[edit]

Several letters are similar and may be confused at first, especially in handwriting.

  • For (vini) and (k'ani), the critical difference is whether the top is a full arc or a (more-or-less) vertical line.
  • For (vini) and (gani), it is whether the bottom is an open curve or closed (a loop). The same is true of (uni) and (shini); in handwriting, the tops may look the same. Similarly (sani) and (khani).
  • For (k'ani) and (p'ari), the crucial difference is whether the letter is written below or above x-height, and whether it's written top-down or bottom-up.
  • (dzili) is written with a vertical top.

Ligatures, abbreviations and calligraphy[edit]

Asomtavruli is often highly stylized and writers readily formed ligatures, intertwined letters, and placed letters within letters.[56]

Gani-Nari Asomtavruli.svg
A ligature of the Asomtavruli initials of King Vakhtang I of Iberia, გ (g) and ნ (n)


Ani-Doni Asomtavruli.svg
A ligature of the Asomtavruli letters და (da) "and"

Nuskhuri, like Asomtavruli is also often highly stylized. Writers readily formed ligatures and abbreviations for nomina sacra, including diacritics called karagma, which resemble titla. Because writing materials such as vellum were scarce and therefore precious, abbreviating was a practical measure widespread in manuscripts and hagiography by the 11th century.[57]

Romeli Nuskhuri.svg
A Nuskhuri abbreviation of რომელი (romeli) "which"


Iesou Krist'e Nuskhuri.svg
A Nuskhuri abbreviation of იესუ ქრისტე (iesu kriste) "Jesus Christ"

Mkhedruli, in the 11th to 17th centuries also came to employ digraphs to the point that they were obligatory, requiring adhesion to a complex system.[58]

Ani Mkhedruli.svg
A Mkhedruli ligature of და (da) "and"
Garsevan Chavchavadze signature.svg Archil of Imereti signature.svg
Mkhedruli calligraphy of Prince Garsevan Chavchavadze and King Archil of Imereti

Type faces[edit]

Georgian scripts come in only a single type face, though word processors can apply automatic ("fake")[59] oblique and bold formatting to Georgian text. Traditionally, Asomtavruli was used for chapter or section titles, where Latin script might use bold or italic type.

Punctuation[edit]

In Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri punctuation, various combinations of dots were used as word dividers and to separate phrases, clauses, and paragraphs. In the monuments and manuscripts of 5th to 10th centuries, these were written as dashes, like −, = and =−. In the 10th century, clusters of one (·), two (:), three () and six (჻჻) dots indicate increasing breaks in the text. (See for example the title of the Gospel of Matthew above.) Starting in the 11th century, the apostrophe and comma came into use. From the 12th century, the semicolon appears as well.[Are these the apostrophe, comma, and semicolon of the Greek script?] In the 18th century, Patriarch Anton I reformed the system, with single and double dots used to mark complete, incomplete, and final sentences.[This sounds like two marks for three functions][60] For the most part, Georgian today uses the same punctuation as is used with the Latin script.[61]

Alexander II signature.svg
Signature of King Alexander II of Kakheti, with the divider
ჴლმწიფე ჻ ალექსანდრე
"The sovereign Alexander"

Summary[edit]

The Georgian letter is on the Wikipedia logo.
The "Alphabetic Tower" at night in the Georgian resort city of Batumi.

This table lists the three scripts in parallel columns, including the letters that are now obsolete in all alphabets (shown with a blue background), obsolete in Georgian but still used in other alphabets (green background), or additional letters in languages other than Georgian (pink background). The "national" transliteration is the system used by the Georgian government, whereas "Laz" is the Latin Laz alphabet used in Turkey. The table also shows the traditional numeric values of the letters.[62]

Letters Unicode
(mkhedruli)
Name IPA Transcriptions Numeric
value
asomtavruli nuskhuri mkhedruli National ISO 9984 BGN Laz
U+10D0 an /ɑ/, Svan /a, æ/ A a A a A a A a 1
U+10D1 ban /b/ B b B b B b B b 2
U+10D2 gan /ɡ/ G g G g G g G g 3
U+10D3 don /d/ D d D d D d D d 4
U+10D4 en /ɛ/ E e E e E e E e 5
U+10D5 vin /v/ V v V v V v V v 6
U+10D6 zen /z/ Z z Z z Z z Z z 7
U+10F1 he //, Svan /eː/ Ē ē Ey ey 8
U+10D7 tan /t⁽ʰ⁾/ T t T' t' T' t' T t 9
U+10D8 in /i/ I i I i I i I i 10
U+10D9 k'an // K' k' K k K k Ǩ ǩ 20
U+10DA las /l/ L l L l L l L l 30
U+10DB man /m/ M m M m M m M m 40
U+10DC nar /n/ N n N n N n N n 50
U+10F2 hie /je/, Mingrelian, Laz, & Svan /j/ Y y J j Y y 60
U+10DD on /ɔ/, Svan /ɔ, œ/ O o O o O o O o 70
U+10DE p'ar // P' p' P p P p Ṗ ṗ 80
U+10DF zhan /ʒ/ Zh zh Ž ž Zh zh J j 90
U+10E0 rae /r/ R r R r R r R r 100
U+10E1 san /s/ S s S s S s S s 200
U+10E2 t'ar // T' t' T t T t Ť ť 300
U+10F3 vie /uɪ/, Svan /w/ W w 400[63]
U+10E3 un /u/, Svan /u, y/ U u U u U u U u 400[63]
U+10F7 yn, schva Mingrelian & Svan /ə/
U+10E4 par /p⁽ʰ⁾/ P p P' p' P' p' P p 500
U+10E5 kan /k⁽ʰ⁾/ K k K' k' K' k' K k 600
U+10E6 ghan /ɣ/ Gh gh Ḡ ḡ Gh gh Ğ ğ 700
U+10E7 q'ar // Q' q' Q q Q q Q q 800
U+10F8 elif Mingrelian & Svan /ʔ/
U+10E8 shin /ʃ/ Sh sh Š š Sh sh Ş ş 900
U+10E9 chin /tʃ⁽ʰ⁾/ Ch ch Č' č' Ch' ch' Ç ç 1000
U+10EA tsan /ts⁽ʰ⁾/ Ts ts C' c' Ts' ts' Ts ts 2000
U+10EB dzil /dz/ Dz dz J j Dz dz Ž ž 3000
U+10EC ts'il /tsʼ/ Ts' ts' C c Ts ts Ts’ ts’ 4000
U+10ED ch'ar /tʃʼ/ Ch' ch' Č č Ch ch Ç̌ ç̌ 5000
U+10EE khan /x/ Kh kh X x Kh kh X x 6000
U+10F4 qar, har /q⁽ʰ⁾/, Svan /q⁽ʰ⁾/ H̠ ẖ q' 7000
U+10EF jan // J j J̌ ǰ J j C c 8000
U+10F0 hae /h/ H h H h H h H h 9000
U+10F5 hoe // Ō ō 10000
U+10F6 fi Laz /f/ F f F f

Use for other non-Kartvelian languages[edit]

Ossetian text written in Mkhedruli script, from a book on Ossetian folklore published in South Ossetia in 1940. The non-Georgian letters ჶ f and ჷ ə can be seen.
Image Avar Kreuz.jpg Old Avarian Cross Daghestan Khunzeti.jpg
Old Avar crosses with Avar inscriptions in Asomtavruli script.

Computing[edit]

The Georgian letter (ghani) is often used as a love or heart symbol online.

Unicode[edit]

The first Georgian script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0. In creation of the Georgian Unicode big role was played by the German linguist of the Caucasian Studies Jost Gippert and American-Irish linguist and script encoder Michael Everson who created the Georgian Unicode for the Macintosh systems.[72] Significant contributions were also made by Anton Dumbadze and Irakli Garibashvili.[73] (not the current Prime Minister of Georgia Irakli Garibashvili)

Blocks[edit]

The Unicode block for Georgian is U+10A0–U+10FF. Mkhedruli (modern Georgian) occupies the U+10D0–U+10FF range and Asomtavruli occupies the U+10A0–U+10CF range. The Unicode block for Georgian Supplement is U+2D00–U+2D2F and it encodes Nuskhuri.[1]

Georgian[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+10Ax
U+10Bx
U+10Cx
U+10Dx
U+10Ex
U+10Fx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 7.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
Georgian Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+2D0x
U+2D1x
U+2D2x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 7.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Keyboard layouts[edit]

Below is the standard Georgian-language keyboard layout, the traditional layout of manual typewriters.

 
 1
!
 2
?
 3
 4
§
 5
%
 6
:
 7
.
 8
;
 9
,
 0
/
 -
_
 +
=
 
 Backspace
 Tab key )
(
 Caps lock Enter key 
 Shift key
 ↑
 Shift key
 ↑
 Control key Win key  Alt key Space bar  AltGr key Win key Menu key  Control key  
 

Gallery[edit]

Gallery of Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli scripts.

Gallery of Asomtavruli[edit]

Gallery of Nuskhuri[edit]

Gallery of Mkhedruli[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Unicode Standard, V. 6.3. U10A0, p. 3
  2. ^ Machavariani, p. 329
  3. ^ Standard Languages and Multilingualism in European History, Matthias Hüning, Ulrike Vogl, Olivier Moliner, John Benjamins Publishing, 2012, p.299
  4. ^ a b c Harald Haarmann (2012). "Ethnic Conflict and standardisation in the Caucasus". In Matthias Hüning, Ulrike Vogl, Olivier Moliner. Standard Languages and Multilingualism in European History. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 978-90-272-0055-6. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  5. ^ a b B. G. Hewitt (1995). Georgian: A Structural Reference Grammar. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 978-90-272-3802-3. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c Stephen H. Rapp Jr (2010). "Georgian Christianity". In Ken Parry. The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4443-3361-9. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Seibt, Werner. "The Creation of the Caucasian Alphabets as Phenomenon of Cultural History". 
  8. ^ Koryun's Life of Mashtots
  9. ^ a b Donald Rayfield The Literature of Georgia: A History (Caucasus World). RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1163-5. P. 19. "The Georgian alphabet seems unlikely to have a pre-Christian origin, for the major archaeological monument of the 1st century 4IX the bilingual Armazi gravestone commemorating Serafua, daughter of the Georgian viceroy of Mtskheta, is inscribed in Greek and Aramaic only. It has been believed, and not only in Armenia, that all the Caucasian alphabets — Armenian, Georgian and Caucaso-Albanian — were invented in the 4th century by the Armenian scholar Mesrop Mashtots.<...> The Georgian chronicles The Life of Kartli - assert that a Georgian script was invented two centuries before Christ, an assertion unsupported by archaeology. There is a possibility that the Georgians, like many minor nations of the area, wrote in a foreign language — Persian, Aramaic, or Greek — and translated back as they read."
  10. ^ Glen Warren Bowersock, Peter Robert Lamont Brown, Oleg Grabar. Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-674-51173-5. P. 289. James R. Russell. Alphabets. "Mastoc' was a charismatic visionary who accomplished his task at a time when Armenia stood in danger of losing both its national identity, through partition, and its newly acquired Christian faith, through Sassanian pressure and reversion to paganism. By preaching in Armenian, he was able to undermine and co-opt the discourse founded in native tradition, and to create a counterweight against both Byzantine and Syriac cultural hegemony in the church. Mastoc' also created the Georgian and Caucasian-Albanian alphabets, based on the Armenian model."
  11. ^ Georgian: ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, გვ. 205-208, 240-245
  12. ^ Robert W. Thomson. Rewriting Caucasian history: the medieval Armenian adaptation of the Georgian Chronicles : the original Georgian texts and the Armenian adaptation. Clarendon Press, Oxford. p. xxii-xxiii. ISBN 0198263732. 
  13. ^ Stephen H. Rapp. Studies in medieval Georgian historiography: early texts and Eurasian contexts. Peeters Publishers, 2003. ISBN 90-429-1318-5. P. 450. "There is also the claim advanced by Koriwn in his saintly biography of Mashtoc' (Mesrop) that the Georgian script had been invented at the direction of Mashtoc'. Yet it is within the realm of possibility that this tradition, repeated by many later Armenian historians, may not have been part of the original fifth-century text at all but added after 607. Significantly, all of the extant MSS containing The Life of Mashtoc* were copied centuries after the split. Consequently, scribal manipulation reflecting post-schism (especially anti-Georgian) attitudes potentially contaminates all MSS copied after that time. It is therefore conceivable, though not yet proven, that valuable information about Georgia transmitted by pre-schism Armenian texts was excised by later, post-schism individuals."
  14. ^ Greppin, John A.C.: Some comments on the origin of the Georgian alphabet. — Bazmavep 139, 1981, 449-456
  15. ^ a b Nino Kemertelidze (1999). "The Origin of Kartuli (Georgian) Writing (Alphabet)". In David Cram, Andrew R. Linn, Elke Nowak. History of Linguistics 1996: Volume 1: Traditions in Linguistics Worldwide. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 228–. ISBN 978-90-272-8382-5. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  16. ^ Mzekala Shanidze (2000). "Greek influence in Georgian linguistics". In Sylvain Auroux et al. History of the Language Sciences / Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften / Histoire des sciences du langage. 1. Teilband. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 444–. ISBN 978-3-11-019400-5. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  17. ^ Peter T. Daniels, The World's Writing Systems, p. 367
  18. ^ Machavariani, p. 177
  19. ^ ქსე, ტ. 7, თბ., 1984, გვ. 651-652
  20. ^ შანიძე ა., ქართული საბჭოთა ენციკლოპედია, ტ. 2, გვ. 454-455, თბ., 1977 წელი
  21. ^ კ. დანელია, ზ. სარჯველაძე, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1997, გვ. 218-219
  22. ^ ე. მაჭავარიანი, მწიგნობრობაჲ ქართული, თბილისი, 1989
  23. ^ პ. ინგოროყვა, „შოთა რუსთაველი“, „მნათობი“, 1966, № 3, გვ. 116
  24. ^ Machavariani, pp. 121-122
  25. ^ რ. პატარიძე, ქართული ასომთავრული, თბილისი, 1980, გვ. 151, 260-261
  26. ^ ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული დამწერლობათა-მცოდნეობა ანუ პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1949, 185-187
  27. ^ ე. მაჭავარიანი, ქართული ანბანი, თბილისი, 1977, გვ. 5-6
  28. ^ ელენე მაჭავარიანი, ენციკლოპედია „ქართული ენა“, თბილისი, 2008, გვ. 403-404
  29. ^ ვ. სილოგავა, ენციკლოპედია „ქართული ენა“, თბილისი, 2008, გვ. 269-271
  30. ^ ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული დამწერლობათა-მცოდნეობა ანუ პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1949, 124-126
  31. ^ Machavariani, p. 120
  32. ^ Machavariani, p. 129
  33. ^ ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული დამწერლობათა-მცოდნეობა ანუ პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1949, 127-128
  34. ^ a b კ. დანელია, ზ. სარჯველაძე, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1997, გვ. 219
  35. ^ B. George Hewitt, 1995, Georgian: A Structural Reference Grammar, p. 4
  36. ^ გ. აბრამიშვილი, ატენის სიონის უცნობი წარწერები, "მაცნე" (ისტ. და არქეოლოგ. სერია), 1976, №2, გვ. 170
  37. ^ კ. დანელია, ზ. სარჯველაძე, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1997, გვ. 218
  38. ^ ე. მაჭავარიანი, ქართული ანბანი, თბილისი, 1977
  39. ^ About Georgian calligraphy Lasha Kintsurashvili
  40. ^ Gillam, Richard Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard p.252
  41. ^ Julie D. Allen Unicode standard, version 5.0 p.249
  42. ^ (Georgian) ილია მეორე ერს ქართული ენის დაცვისკენ კიდევ ერთხელ მოუწოდებს საქინფორმ.გე
  43. ^ Writing Systems of the World, Akira Nakanishi, p. 22
  44. ^ Georgica: A Journal of Georgian and Caucasian Studies, Issues 4-5, William Edward David Allen, A. Gugushvili, S. Austin and Sons, Limited, 1937, p. 324
  45. ^ ატენის სიონის უცნობი წარწერები, აბრამიშვილი, გვ. 170-1
  46. ^ The Languages of the World, Kenneth Katzner, p. 118
  47. ^ Chambers's encyclopaedia: a dictionary of universal knowledge, Volume 5, Chambers, David Patrick, William Geddie, W. & R. Chambers, Limited, 1901, page 165
  48. ^ T. Putkaradze, History of Georgian language, Development of the Georgian writing system, paragraph II, 2.1.5. 2006
  49. ^ მაჭავარიანი, თბილისი, 1977
  50. ^ The World's Writing Systems, Peter T. Daniels, The Georgian Alphabet, p. 367
  51. ^ Akaki Shanidze, The Basics of the Georgian language grammar, Tbilisi, 1973/1980, p. 18
  52. ^ a b c d e Otar Jishkariani, Praise of the Alphabet, 1986, Tbilisi, p. 1
  53. ^ Howard Isaac Aronson, Georgian: A Reading Grammar, Slavica Publishers, 1990, p. 21-25
  54. ^ Stefano Paolini, Nikoloz Cholokashvili, Dittionario giorgiano e italiano, Palazzo di Propaganda Fide, Rome, 1629
  55. ^ Tamaz Mchedlidze, The Restored Georgian Alphabet, Fulda, Germany, 2013, p. 110
  56. ^ Ingorokva, Pavle ქართული დამწერლობის ძეგლები ანტიკური ხანისა (The monuments of ancient Georgian script)
  57. ^ Shanidze, Akaki (2003), ქართული ენა [The Georgian Language] (in Georgian), Tbilisi, ISBN 1-4020-1440-6 
  58. ^ შანიძე, 2003
  59. ^ Fake vs True Italics
  60. ^ ქართული საბჭოთა ენციკლოპედია, ტ. 8, გვ. 231, თბ., 1984 წელი.
  61. ^ Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard, Richard Gillam, p. 252
  62. ^ Aronson (1990), pp. 30–31.
  63. ^ a b ჳ and უ have the same numeric value (400)
  64. ^ The Politics of Ethnic Separatism in Russia and Georgia, Julie A. George, p. 104
  65. ^ The Abkhazians: A Handbook, George Hewitt, p. 171
  66. ^ Язык, история и культура вайнахов, И. Ю Алироев p.85, Чех-Инг. изд.-полигр. об-ние "Книга", 1990
  67. ^ Чеченский язык, И. Ю. Алироев, p.24, Академия, 1999
  68. ^ Грузинско-дагестанские языковые контакты, Маджид Шарипович Халилов p.29, Наука, 2004
  69. ^ История аварцев, М. Г Магомедов p.150, Дагестанский гос. университет, 2005
  70. ^ Enwall, Joakim (2010), "Turkish texts in Georgian script: Sociolinguistic and ethno-linguistic aspects", in Boeschoten, Hendrik; Rentzsch, Julian (eds.), Turcology in Mainz, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-06113-8, pp. 144–145
  71. ^ Enwall, Joakim (2010), "Turkish texts in Georgian script: Sociolinguistic and ethno-linguistic aspects", in Boeschoten, Hendrik; Rentzsch, Julian (eds.), Turcology in Mainz, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-06113-8, pp. 137–138
  72. ^ უნიკოდში ქართულის ასახვის ისტორია (History of the Georgian Unicode) Georgian Unicode fonts by BPG-InfoTech
  73. ^ Font Contributors Acknowledgements Unicode

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aronson, Howard I. (1990), Georgian: a reading grammar (second ed.), Columbus, OH: Slavica 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Javakhishvili, I. Georgian palaeography Tbilisi, 1949
  • Barnaveli, T. Inscriptions of Ateni Sioni Tbilisi, 1977
  • Pataridze, R. Georgian Asomtavruli Tbilisi, 1980
  • Machavariani, E. Georgian manuscripts Tbilisi, 2011
  • Gamkrelidze, T. Writing system and the old Georgian script Tbilisi, 1989
  • Kilanawa, B. Georgian script in the writing systems Tbilisi, 1990

External links[edit]