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Current Georgia is probably the oldest wine region in the world. The fertile valleys of the South Caucasus, which Georgia straddles, are believed by many archaeologists to be the source of the world's first cultivated grapevines and neolithic wine production, over 8,000 years ago. Due to the many millennia of wine in Georgian history, an its key economical role, the traditions of its viticulture are entwined and inseparable with the country's national identity.
Among the best-known regions of Georgia where wine is produced are Kakheti (further divided onto micro-regions of Telavi and Kvareli), Kartli, Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and Abkhazia.
The roots of Georgian viticulture have been traced back by archeology to at least 6000-8000 BC, when peoples of South Caucasus discovered that wild grape juice turned into wine when it was left buried through the winter in a shallow pit. This knowledge was nourished by experience, and from 4000 BC inhabitants of the current Georgia were cultivating grapes and burying clay vessels, kvevris, in which to store their wine ready for serving at ground temperature. When filled with the fermented juice of the harvest, the kvevris are topped with a wooden lid and then covered and sealed with earth. Some may remain entombed for up to 50 years.
Wine vessels of every shape, size and design have been the crucial part of pottery in Georgia for millennia. Ancient artifacts attest to the high skill of local craftsmen. Among vessels, the most ubiquitous and unique to Georgian wine-making culture are probably the Qvevris (or kvevris), very large earthenware vessels with an inside coat of beeswax. Not only qvevris were used to ferment grape juice and to store up wine, but also chapi and satskhao; others yet were used for drinking, such as khelada, doki, sura, chinchila, deda-khelada, dzhami and marani.
The continuous importance of winemaking and drinking in Georgian culture is also visible in various antique works of art. Many of the unearthed silver, gold and bronze artifacts of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC bear chased imprints of the vine, grape clusters and leaves. The State Museum of Georgia has on display a cup of high-carat gold set with gems, an ornamented silver pitcher and some other artifacts dated to the 2nd millennium BC. From classical Antiquity, Georgian museums display a cameo depicting Bacchus, and numerous sarcophagi with wine pitchers and ornamented wine cups found in ancient tombs.
From the 4th century AD, wine has gained further importance in Georgian culture due to Christianisation of the country. According to tradition, Saint Nino, who preached Christianity in Kartli, bore a cross made from vine wood. For centuries, Georgians drank, and in some areas still drink, their wine from horns (called kantsi in Georgian) and skins from their herd animals. The horns were cleaned, boiled and polished, creating a unique and durable drinking vessel.
During Soviet times wines produced in Georgia were very popular. In comparison with other wines from Moldavia and Crimea that were available on the Soviet market Georgian wines had been more preferable for Soviets. In 1950 vineyards in Georgia occupied 143,000 acres, but in 1985 already 316,000 acres due to increasing demand. In 1985 wine production was 881,000 tons. During Mikhail Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign, many old Georgian vineyards were cut off.
Georgian wine has been a contentious issue in recent relationships with Russia. While political tensions with Russia have contributed to the 2006 Russian embargo of Georgian wine, wine produced within Georgia is also known for being counterfeit, which Russia states is the primary reasoning for the wine embargo. Counterfeiting problems stem from mislabelling by Georgian Producers and falsified “Georgian Wine” labels on wines produced outside of Georgia and imported into Russia under the auspices of being Georgian produced. Winemakers in Georgia have also been known to import grapes and produce “falsified” Georgian Wine, leading then defense minister Irakli Okruashvili to note in 2006 that “[He thought] several wineries that are still producing fake wine in Gori should be closed”. However, these wines are currently being sold in the United States and the European Union without any major difficulties noted in authenticity. Also, the shipment of counterfeit wine has been primarily channeled through Russian managed customs checkpoints in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, where little inspection and regulation occurs.
Viticulture in Georgia today
Georgia ranks 2nd (in terms of volume) in grape production in the former Soviet Union behind Moldova, and Georgian wines have always been the most highly prized and sought after in the Soviet space. Presently, the wine is produced by thousands of small farmers (using primarily traditional techniques of wine-making), as well as modern wineries, such as Teliani Valley, Telavis Marani, Tbilvino, Kindzmarauli Marani, Badagoni and Mukhrani.
According to Minister of Agriculture of Georgia grapes harvest in 2009 was 130000 tons and wine production has increased from 13.8 millions wine bottles in 2009 to 15.8 millions wine bottles in 2010 with bottle size 0.75 l (11.85 thousands tons in 2010). In 2009 Georgia exported 10.968 millions bottles of wine in 45 countries. In 2010 Georgia exported wines in: Ukraine - about 7.5 millions bottles, Kazakhstan - about 2.0 millions bottles, Belarus - about 1.2 millions bottles, Poland - about 870 thousands bottles and Latvia - 590 thousands bottles.
Georgia territorial and climate conditions are optimal for wine-making. Extremes of weather are unusual: summers tend to be short-sleeve sunny, and winters mild and frost-free. Natural springs abound, and the Caucasian Mountain streams drain mineral-rich water into the valleys. Georgia's moderate climate and moist air, influenced by the Black Sea, provide the best conditions for vine cultivating. The soil in vineyards is so intensively cultivated that the grape vines grow up the trunks of fruit trees eventually hanging down along the fruit when they ripen. This method of cultivation is called maglari.
Georgian Grape Varieties
Traditional Georgian grape varieties are little known in the West. Now that the wines of Eastern and Central Europe are coming to international awareness, grapes from this region are becoming better known. Although there are nearly 400 to choose from, only 38 varieties are officially grown for commercial viticulture in Georgia:
- Rkatsiteli (white) is a variety that is so widely grown in Eastern and Central Europe that it ranks third in the world in hectares grown. It is the most important grape varietiy used to make Georgian white wines. It is high in acidity and is capable of producing wines with fine character.
- Saperavi (red) produces substantial deep red wines that are suitable for extended aging, up to fifty years. Saperavi has the potential to produce high alcohol levels and is used extensively for blending with other lesser varieties. It is the most important grape variety used to make Georgian red wines.
- Mtsvani (or Mtsvane) (white) is also important in Georgian wines, and is often blended with Rkatsiteli to which it adds a fruity, aromatic balance. In the Georgian language Mtsvane means green.
Mtsvivani Rachuli Rachuli Mtsvivani is a local white grapevine variety mostly cultivated in Racha and used for making quality table wine. Among native viticulturists, this grapevine variety is also known by the name Mtsvivana. No other synonyms have been found in agricultural literature sources. Rachuli Mtsvivani is a local grapevine variety arisen from the family of local domesticated grapevine varieties; with its morphological and agricultural features it stands close to the grapevine variety of Western Georgia and, together with them, belongs to the eco-geographical group prol pontica sub prol. georgica Negr. (12). It should be noted that there are several grapevine varieties known by the name Mtsvivani in the viticulture regions of Georgia, whith significantly differ from each other in their botanical and agricultural characteristics. For example, Kakhuri Mtsvivan is a hermaphroditic vine, consisting of middle-sized, dense bunches and round white grains, whereas Rachuli Mtsvivani has female flowers, middle-sized, thin and rounded or sometimes slightly oval white grains. Imeruli Mtsvivani is a red grapevine variety the grains of which in the ripening period become dry and fall. Therefore, these four grapevine varieties, linked by name are considerably different grapevine varieties for which reason they need to be independently named, particularly– “Mtsvivani Rachuli”, “Mtsvivani Kakhuri”, “Mtsvivani Guruli” and “Mtsvivani Imeruli”. The name Mtsvivani must have been taken not because of a real meaning to the word (it means ‘easily falling’ in Georgian)- which expresses the weakness of the attachment of grains to the pedicel resulting in their easy fall -but because this grapevine variety is tended to extensive flower-fall, especially in rainy weather and in the case of inappropriate pollination, after which, the vine generates thin bunches. The main reason for this phenomenon is having the female flower and bad pollination. By artificial pollination, the development of quite dense and full bunches can be achieved. Mtsvivani is an early ripening grapevine variety, therefore it is cultivated in relatively high and cooler districts, namely, in the district of Oni. Rachuli Mtsvivani is less a cultivated grapevine variety, which can be found only in the viticulture districts of Racha-Lechkhumi, mostly in Oni (district), particularly in the villages Ghari and Shoubani. According to 1940 descriptive data of vineyards, about 16.15 hectares is dedicated to it, out of which 2.15 hectares is situated in Tsageri, 12.20 hectares – in Oni, while 1.8 hectares are cultivated throughout other regions of Georgia.
Based on the more precise description of vineyards of 1947, the land scope dedicated to Mtsvivani totals 15.01 hectares: the largest area from this being taken in Oni district – 9.25 hectares in total, 5.67 hectares in Tsageri district, while the remaining 0.09 hectares – in other regions of Georgia.
This grapevine variety was described in the village of Ghari, where the vineyard is cultivated on a slope consisting of sub-clay soil, formed by Georgian rule, grafted on Rupestri Dulo. The further exploration of this grapevine variety continued in the village of Kurdghelauri, in a vineyard situated on the eastern slope of the Tsiv-Gombori Mountain at 562.3m above sea level, formed by Georgian rule, at two-neki and two opposite hangers, on a 3m2 (2 x 1.5m) feeding area, with the height of vines at 50cm. The young shoot. The crown and first closed leaves of the young (10 - 15cm long) sprouts are coated with quite thick web-like down and are colored grayish-white with wide pinkish circles around the crown and leaves. The leaves of the second row (third and fourth) are covered with thin web on the topside and are yellowish wine-colored, while on the underside are coated with quite thick thick-felt like down that gives it a grayish-white coloring except on the lower leaves which are lightly coated on the topsides and are green. The shoot near to the crown is downy and grayish-white while on the underside is uncoated and grayish green. The one year sprout. The mature one year sprout is dark red in the autumn, with dark brown axils. The lines between the axils are slightly depicted. The axils are distanced by 5 - 10cm (with the average distance being 7 - 8cm) from each other. The leaf. Well-developed leaves of the middle row (9 - 12) are moderate in size, about 16 x 17cm, round and wide-oval, as so the width is larger than the length. The leaf is five rarely three-lobed. Its middle incision is an obtuse-angle. The surface of the leaf is often smooth, rarely covered with small blisters, and is dark green. Leaves are symmetrical in shape or funnel-like. The incisions are quite deep, often closed and having an egg-like eye, rarely, wide elliptical or narrow-eyed incisions can be found. The open incisions are cut-angular with parallel sides or rounded basis, that can also be lyre-like. The lower incisions are usually slightly depicted, superficial, with cut with sharp angular basis. The incision of the petiole is always open, arch-like with rounded or sharp basis, rarely, lyre-like – with flat or rounded basis. The underside of the leaf is coated with quite thick, web-like down growing over a thick bristle-like layer that can be removed easily by touch. The major veins end with sharp narrow triangular teeth. The lateral teeth are narrow triangular sometimes standing upward or being bent down like the teeth of a saw. The length of the petiole is equal of the major vein or slightly shorter; and is lightly covered with bristle-like green down with reddish lines. The flower. The flower is physiologically female and consists of 5 or 6 stamens that are shorter (0.8) than the pistil or rarely equal, placed horizontally or slightly bent. The pistil is cone-shaped, with a well-depicted column and nose. The bunch. The bunch is middle-sized, from 12 to 17cm long and 6 - 12cm wide, with an average size of 13 x 7cm, mostly cone-shaped or cone-cylindrical. It often has an arm about half of its length. Bunches are quite dense, not characterized with small grains but the excessive fall of flowers can occur in the case of bad pollination. The pedicel of the bunch is grass-like, to the pedicel becoming woody and yellowish. The pedicel is 3 - 7cm long (the average – 4 - 4.5cm). The pedicel of the grain is green, from 3 to 6mm long; is smooth or slightly rough, narrow cone-shaped and the grains are firmly attached to them. The grain. The grain is middle-sized, about 1.38 - 1.68cm long and 1.28 - 1.58cm wide, with the average size being 1.45 x 1.36 cm. Grains are rounded in shape, rarely concave, wider in the middle with rounded ends and are amber-colored, yellow, covered with wax-like spots. The skin is thin, transparent, easily separating from flesh that is firm and solid, with a tender, pleasant sweet taste. The seed. There are 2-3, rarely 1 or 4 seeds in a grain (with the average being 2.6). The seed is oval, narrowed to the beak; is brown, while to the beak becoming yellow. The seed is 5 - 6mm long and 3.5 - 4mm wide. The basis is placed in the upper area of the body, is roundish, and concave in the middle. The channel from near the top is deep and wide, separating the top of the seed into two. The seed is bumpy. The channels on the inside are deep and parallel running to the beak. The beak is yellowish, cylindrical, narrowed to the tip; and is about 1.2 - 1.4mm long and 1.1 - 1.2mm wide, sometimes being wrinkled.
The vegetation period and course of phases. The observations of the course of vegetative phases were conducted in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, in the village of Kurdghelauri. This vineyard is cultivated on the north-eastern slope of the Tsiv-Gombori Mountain, formed on stake-wire and pruned by Georgian guidlelines at two-neki and two opposite fruiting buds, on a (2 x 1.5m) 3m2 feeding area. In Ghari village (Oni district) the ripening of Mtsvivani begins from 20 August, while full ripening at the end of September or beginning of October, while in Kakheti it reaches ripening much earlier and better. Its vegetation period lasts from 126 to 176 days, with the average being 146. In 1956, this grapevine variety ripened early- on 2 September, with the vegetation period lasting 133 days. Based on the given data, Mtsvivani belongs to the second or rarely third period of ripening. The one year sprouts of Mtsvivani can ripen and become well matured and ready for winter frosts in all districts of Georgia (Racha, Imereti, and Kakheti) in nearly all meteorological conditions. The strength of growth. The strength of growing varies significantly depending on soils and climate variations. Based on the observations conducted in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, the strength of growth of Mstvivani is considered as average in comparison with other local grapevine varieties, so estimated in the villages of upper Racha: in Ghari, Shoubani, Maidani and others. The productivity. The productivity of Mtsvivani is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions of the year, the condition of the vines and the soil types. If the weather is suitable during the blossom period, the productivity is higher than average. The local population considers this as quite a productive grapevine variety. Based on research conducted in 1936 by Al. Mirotadze, the average productivity in upper Racha was 1.35kg per vine, sometime 2kg, meaning 60, sometimes 98 centners per hectare. In Kakheti, its productivity was relatively lower, varying from 36 to 82.3 centners per hectare. For example, in 1949, 2.467kg of grape was obtained from a vine, while in the following year – 1.069kg. Mtsvivani is characterized with good productivity, by having the productivity coefficient from 1 to 2 in upper Rach, with the average being 1.3. Here, the average weight of a bunch is 112g. In Telavi, the coefficient of productivity equaled 1.64 – in 1949, while the weight of a bunch – 110g. Based on this data, the increase of its productivity up to 70-80 centners per hectare can be anticipated. The relationship/adaptability to rootstocks. Mtsvivani is characterized with good adaptability to rootstocks of grapevine varieties, especially to Rupestri Dulo, followed by Riparia X Rupestri hybrids and lastly to Berlandieri X Riparia hybrids. In clay soils and soils consisting of less lime, it is more successful when grafted on Riparia Rupestri 3309 and 101/14, in dry stony soils it is better grafted on Rupestri Dulo, while on lime consisting soils – on Berlandieri X Riparia 5bb or 420 a. Resistance to fungal diseases and pests. The observations conducted in upper Racha and Kakheti indicated that Mtsvivani is more resistant to powdery mildew but quite vulnerable to dowry mildew and is characterized with low resistance to phylloxera. According to local viticulturists, phylloxera destroys Mtsvivani vines rapidly. Negative impact caused by other pests and diseases have not been revealed. Response to the environment. Mtsvivani is well adapted to the environment of Racha, and is quite enduring of severe winters. According to local viticulturists, Mtsvivani becomes damaged by frosts less and more rarely than other grapevine varieties. Mtsvivani develops successfully on nearly all types of soils in upper Racha and provides distinctly high quality production from vineyards cultivated on lime soils. During specifically rainy autumns, Mtsvivani can experience grain rot.
With the visual appearance of bunches and chemical structure of juice, Mtsvivani decidedly belongs to the wine producing grapevine varieties. In industry it is used mostly for making table wine, also by some degree it is used as a table grape. Its bunch is thin and the grains, juicy.
Chemical structure of juice. As much in Racha as in Kakheti, Mtsvivani accumulates quite a good amount of sugar and at the same time holds a good level of acidity. The proportion of sugar and acidity is truly suitable for quality table wine (by conducting the harvest at the appropriate time) and for champagne. It is noticeable also that, even in relatively highland areas (situated at 840-1000m above sea level), in Racha, full ripening can arive successfully and provide quality wine material. To characterize the capacity of sugar accumulation and acidity, below are presented the findings of the chemical analysis of grape juice taken from upper Racha.
By the illustrated consistency of sugar and acidity, Mtsvivani satisfies all requirements that are stated for table wine and has a proportion exactly desirable for making quality table wines. The slightly high concentration of acidity in Oni district, and during some years in Kakheti too, is a positive influence on the wine, making it more cheerful and fresher- useful for champagne. The investigation conducted by the agricultural branch of the Academy of Science of Georgia resulted in positive findings: the wine of Mtsvivani made in upper Racha revealed completely satisfactory for making champagne.
The processing of grape and wine quality. The grape of Mtsvivani is mostly used for making table white wines, rarely, table grape. The wine of Mtsvivani is cheerful, quite full, aromatic and pleasant in taste. In upper Racha, the wine of Mtsvivanis is the highest quality. Local residents Vl. Fofkhadze and S. Tomadze describe Mtsvivani as characterized with thin bunches, moderate productivity, but high outcome of juice to make wine that is not inferior to Tsulukidze Tetra in quality. The wine of Mtsvivani is clear during the winter, but in spring becomes yellow. It is stealthy, and makes one drunk quickly, like champagne (Iv. Javakhishvili, 7). In order to make table wine, Mtsvivani should be picked in the first half of October, when grains contain 18 - 19.5% sugar and 8 - 10% acidity. The harvest and processing of the grape in upper Racha, occurs in the following way: the picked grape is taken to the wine-shed and put into a winepress. The grape is pressed, then the juice is poured into clean pitchers, without pomace, to be fermented (on some farms a small amount of pomace is added). The wine processed without pomace is called “Chkefi,” and is more tender, lighter and clear; after the wine is made, the pitchers are filled and left to be filtrated, then the wine is taken and the sediment left. By the management of the agricultural branch of the Academy of Science of Georgia, in 1939, the wine of Mtsvivani was prepared by the old method, and the resulting wine was high quality and valuable. In the same year, material for champagne wine was prepared by a special method that was tasted on 18 August 1943 at a prestigious session of the Degustation Commission, where it was awarded 7.2 points and characterized as “a very unique tasting and interesting wine.”
According to the members of the Degustation Commission, high quality champagne can made in Georgia from certain grapevine varieties, cultivated in appropriate districts, namely: from Tetri Kapistoni, Tsitska, Chinuri, Rachuli Mtsvivani and Dzelshavi. One representative of the Degustation Commission, Prof. S. Cholokashvili (6), who appreciates the wine of Mtsvivani quite highly, considers it as the best wine among the wines of upper Racha and characterizes it as “cheerful, sparkling and aromatic.” To characterize the chemical structure of the wine, below are presented the results of the chemical analysis of Mtsvivani wine, according to P. Jafaridze. The wine of the 1952 yield from Ghari village (Oni district) consisted of 10.9% - alcohol, 9.5% - general acidity, while the wine of the 1953 yield consisted of 10.3 % - alcohol, 7.2% - general acidity; volatile acidity – 0.68 and 1.0; tanning acidity – 8.65 and 5.92; the wine acidity – 1.97 and 1.76; extract – 17.3; glycerin 8.91; sugar – 3.93 and 3.89; tannin – 0.37 and 0.12 respectively.
Mtsvivani in upper Racha is used for making quality white table wine. It also provides good material for champagne. The positive characteristics of this grapevine variety include relatively high productivity, quality of production- useful as much for table as for champagne wine; and another positive characteristics such as early ripening, which is especially important for the environment of upper Racha.
Of negative characteristics can be indicated its functionally female flower, for which it requires additional pollination; the grapes’ tendency to rot during rainy autumns; and also its low resistance to downy mildew. Consequently, because of mentioned negative characteristics, this grapevine variety is not included in the standard assortment of grapevine varieties. However, because of its positive characteristics, as it is well-adapted to the environment of upper Racha, is early ripening and provides high quality wine, it should be recommended for cultivation in upper Racha with a quality grapevine variety for mutual pollination. In addition, selective work should be conducted by the employment of advanced agro-biological methods in order to turn the female flower hermaphroditic or to create a new and better early-ripening grapevine variety.
Mtsvivani as it is early ripening, relatively high productive and quality grapevine variety which can be recommended for cultivation in the southern, eastern and high mountainous districts of the Soviet Union, for extensive exploration and selection.
1. Demetradze V., Materials for Dividing Western Georgian Viticulture-Enology Industry into Regions and Specialization. Kutaisi, 1936. 2. Ketskhoveli N., Zone of Cultural Plants in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1957. 3. Mirotadze A., Types of Racha-Lechkhumi. Tbilisi, 1939. 4. modebaZe k. meRvineobis wigni. Tbilisi, 1948. 5. Tabidze D., Development of Viticulture in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1950 6. Cholokhashvili S., Viticulture, Book II, Ampelography. Tbilisi, 1939 7. Javakhishvili Iv., Economic History of Georgia, T.II. 1934. 8. Jorjadze L., Viticulture, Wine-making and Improvement. Tbilisi, 1876.
- Alexandrouli (Alexandreuli,Alexsandrouli, red)
- Tsolikauri (white)
- Kapistoni (white)
- Tetri Kamuri (white)Tetri (white) Kamuri
Tetri Kamuri is the aboriginal white grapevine variety of Guria used as high quality table grape and also for making quality white table wines for local use. In literature sources as well as among the population of Guria and Imereti this grapevine variety is known by the names: “Tetri Kamura”, “Kamura”, and “Kamura Grape”. Written accounts about its origin and evolutions are not available, only brief characterization is found in literature sources from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century, as for example in published work by prof. Piulia (10), in ampehographic work by agr. V. Staroselski (9); Il. Bakhtadze in the list of grapevine varieties of the former Shorapani district mentions Tetri (white) and Shavi (black) Kamuri (6). Prof. S. Cholokashvili has given the description of Tetri Kamuri in his work and classified as the representative of table grape varieties of Guria (4). Agr. Er. Nakashidze (7) has also pointed the distribution areal of it and included in the list of white grapevine varieties of Guria. Basen on these authors acad. Iv. Javakhishvili considered Titri Kamuri being the aboriginal wine of Guria and Imereti (5). We explored Tetri Kamuri in the upper Guria and the below Imereti. This grapevine variety is different from Tetri Kamuri described by V. Staroslavski, with its some botanical and agricultural characteristics. For example, according to Staroselski, the downside of a leaf is coated slightly, the mature sprout have to be polyhedral and covered with few bumps, the moustache is 30cm long, grain – thin-skinned, covered with black points. He classifies it as usable for making light, sprinkling, sweet wines. Tetri Kamuri that we learnt in Guria and the below Imereti is not characterized with these traits. We think, that V. Staniselski has described one of the variations of Kamuri or other grapevine variety by the name Kamuri. It is known how important is the exploration of botanical and agro-biological characteristics to reveal and learn the origin of any grapevine variety and to decide whether it is aboriginal or not. For this reason, Kamuri was studied by us, after this has been revealed that with its characteristics ( the strength of growing, the duration of vegetation period, late ripening , type of flower, structure of bunch and grain) is belongs to the grapevine family of Kolkheti. Its old exemplars can meet only in the upper Guria wherein the high vineyards of Kamuri were cultivated extensively in the past, for this we strongly believe that Tetri Kamuri is the aboriginal grapevine variety of Guria. Before the intrusion of fungal diseases and phylloxera high vineyards of Tetri Kamuri were massively distributed in Guria, especially in its eastern mountainous districts. As strongly growing variety people used to cultivate Kamuri around the wine-shed to maintain cool and shade as well as for beauty. They used it as for grape that was also preserved for winter; in some villages of Guria (Sajevakho, Burnati, Fartskhma) was also used for making a wine. This wine is characterized with normal level of alcohol, relatively low acidity and quite full flesh. Presently, the distribution areal of Tetri Kamuri is very limited that is caused by a negative impact of fungal diseases and phylloxera. Only several representatives can meet in the upper Guria – in Dablatsikhe, Sakvavistke, Fartskhma, Burnati, Kokhnari and Sachamiaseri. Its alleys are also presented in Samtredia district (the below Imereti), mostly in Toleb-Sajevakho and adjacent villages. Based on 1953 descriptive data of vineyards low vineyards of Kamuri cultivated in the districts of Zestafoni and Orjonikidze have dedicated 0. 3 hectares, high vineyards of it are cultivated in Chokhatauri (at 5.45 hectares land-scope) and in Samtredia (11.91 hectares). Thus, in total Kamuri has dedicated 16.66 hectares in the western Georgia. A couple of vines of Tetri Kamuri are presented also in collectional vineyards of the institute of viticulture and oenology, in Telavi, Dighomi and Mukhrani.
Tetri Kamuri was described in the village Burnati (Chokhatauri district); here the vines are presented with their own roots, formed as high vineyards. For the comparison it was also described in the village Dablakhevi (the same district), where the vines are presented with their own roots and formed as allies around wine-sheds. The young shoot - for the time of the break of buds is whitish and slightly reddish; the cone of growth is bright-reddish and thickly covered with pubescence. Newly opened first leaf is bright green on the topside and covered with white-greenish thick-felt like coating; the margins of a leaf are slightly reddish-pinkish. The coating on the downside is thick-felt like; the down is white and hairy. The petiole of the leaf is covered with whitish hairy coating that sometimes takes reddish tone. The following second and third leaves are bright green on the topside with yellowish-pinkish tone. The coating of the second leaf is less-expressed on the topside, while the third leaf is covered with gray down. The young shoot is round and bright green, slightly covered with hairy down, most intensively – to the tip. The one year sprout – is quite thick and brownish or dark reddish with dark brownish lines. the axils are darker in coloring distanced from each other by 7-15cm. The leaf. The developed leaf is the middle-sized or larger; is round and greenish, from 17.8 to 22.3 long and 17.7-21.5cm wide. The incision of the petiole is similar to an arrow having the rounded basis; the margin consists of four or three veins; can meet the lyre-shaped or rarely narrow elliptical incisions. The upper incision of a leaf is slightly incised or creates quite acute angle, the below incision more superficial. There are three major margins on a leaf; the margin of a tip creates right or rarely an obtuse angle to the blade. The teeth of margins’ tips are triangular and having rounded tip or is convex; can also meet rounded triangular or saw’s teeth like teeth. The downside of the leaf is covered with thick-felt like coating. The topside is wrinkled like a net; can meet also smooth-surfaced leaves; the blade is flat or like a channel. The major veins are quite strongly coated and bright greed. The proportion of the petiole to the major vein equals 0.9-1.0; the petiole is bare and bright green, slightly reddish. The flower. The flower is hermaphroditic, consisting of well-developed pistil and stamens; stamens are quite deviated from the pistil and are longer than it. There are 5, rarely 4 or 6 stamens in a flower. The number of flowers in a flower-bract varies from 250-630. The bunch. The petiole of a bunch is 5-8cm long. The bunch is 13-21cm long and 9-12cm wide. There are 70-80 grains on a bunch. General shape of a bunch is cone-cylindrical, sometime it is quite branched. The bunch is shallow, with slightly wooded petiole near to the sprout, sometimes is grass-like with the whole length and bright green. The grain. the petiole of a grain including the pedicel is 6-8cm long. the petiole is bright green with rust-colored tone. the pedicel is often smooth or slightly wrinkled, is wide cone-shaped or rarely narrow cone-shaped. The grain is firmly attached to the pedicel. The grain is greenish, to the face of the sun – yellowish-amber-colored. The grain is middle-sized or larger, about 17mm long and 14.2mm wide, this is longish-oval in shape, widen – in the middle part, has rounded end and is symmetrical; it thick-skinned and solid, fleshy, has very pleasant sweet taste; on a skin has wax. The seed. There are 1-4, often 2 seeds in a grain. The length of a seed is 7-7.5mm, while the width – 3-3.5mm; the seed is bright brown, to the inside and around the beak is yellow. The basis is placed in the middle of the back. The seed is longish-oval and smooth on the back. The beak is yellowish, about 1.5-2cm long.
Observations over the biological phases of Tetri Kamuri were conducted in the villages Burnati and Dablatsikhe (Chokhatauri district).
In the village Dubrnati vines are formed as high vineyards on the land that is inclined down to the south consisting of red podsolic soils. In the village Dablatsikhe, vines are formed as the alleys, on plain area that is situated on the right bank of the river Sufsa. the grape varies from 197 to 201 days, while the entire vegetation period equals 240 days. varies from 197 The awakening of the vine begins from the first days of April, the break of buds and development of sprouts begin from 8-10 April; the blooming – lasts from 2-4 June to 18 June. The veraison of the grape arrives in 24-26 August, while the ripening – in 2-25 October. The fall of leaves begins from the second half of November and ends in the first days of December. In the subtropical climate conditions of Guria, where the vegetation period lasts longer and is fixed a considerable sum of active temperatures, the vegetative parts of the vine successfully get to the maturity and become ripened. The strength of growing. Tetri Kamuri has shown good characteristics of growing and development in relatively equal conditions and is tended to climbing. High vines of it even without caring can generate 2-2.5m long sprouts and sometimes longer; while if cultivated and cared properly the length of sprouts can be 4 m and longer. Therefore, Tetri Kamuri can be classified as strongly growing grapevine variety. the productivity. Observation indicates that the productivity of high vineyards of Tetri Kamuri depends on the weather and climate conditions; in helpful weather can provide 30-40kg grape per vine. It is said that in the past this grapevine variety provided 70-80kg grape and much, but this was before the spread of phylloxera and fungal diseases. There are two bunches generated on a bunch. Old parts of the vine do not evolve productive sprouts. Resistance to fungal diseases and pests. Warm and surplus of sediments in Guria are fostering conditions for the spread of fungal diseases that cause great damage of Tetri Kamuri. Fungal diseases are especially hazardous in damp and less shiny lands where the vineyards of Tetri Kamuri can be completely destroyed. To overcome this problem should be considered spraying with Bordeaux mixture and phosphorus as the necessary agro-activity. Observations over the resistance to phylloxera have not conducted, however the picture of its distribution and vine’s development imply that this is very vulnerable to phylloxera influence, as for example in Guria, where in the past this grapevine variety was widely distributed and cultivated as alleys even for decorative reasons, today this is presented only as a couple of vines which are degraded and destroyed gradually, from year to year. For this, the planting of Tetri Kamuri on its own roots should be avoided. Response to the environment and specificity of agro-techniques. Based on observations of many years, Tetri Kamuri is not demanding/sensitive to ecological conditions, if we do not take the high vulnerability to fungal diseases into account; this grapevine variety can successfully develop as in lowland as hilly, mountainous places and on different types of expositions. This high adaptability refers also to soils varieties, as Tetri Kamuri can develop as on weak, podsolic (in the villages Fartskhma, Burnati, Kokhnari, Sachamiaseri), as on clay and alluvial soils (in Chokhatauri district), however its production is specifically precious and quality if cultivated on the southern or south-eastern sliding slopes and shiny weak-podsolic soils. In such places the impact of fungal diseases is lessened and grape bunches and grains are very beautiful and valuable.
Since Guria is not characterized with winter and spring frosts, the ripened masse/part of the vine develops normally without any difficulties. Tetri Kamuri as strongly growing grapevine variety used to be formed as high vineyards for centuries of its generating and selecting. However the harvest of high vineyards was decreased because of difficulties in caring; to facilitate the caring/cultivation of vines and get high productivity should be used relatively low forms with large loading, for example Georgian alley (called “Olikhnari”) with 1 m height of vines and by creating 4-5 forming rings on old arms, also a form – consisting of many hangers – by leaving 3-4 forming ring.
With its agricultural use Tetri Kamuri is dedicated to high quality table grape, however it can also be used for making the wine. The weight of big bunches is 230g, of small – 2125g; 100 grains weight about 250-255g; there are 247 seeds in 100 grains weighting 17g; out of which 5% are one-seeded, 49% - two-seeded, 40% - three-seeded, 6% - four-seeded. The weight of 100 grains’ skins is 25 g. For the full ripening time grape consists of 19-20% sugar and 8% general acidity. The grape left on a vine can last until the end of December, while after picking – until the early spring.
General Evaluation and Distribution by District
With high quality production, valuable in taste, good transport-ability of the grape, beauty of bunches and grains, Tetri Kamuri belongs to quality table (eating) grape grapevine variety. Its production can successfully used also for making original type wines. In addition, this grapevine variety is distinguished with strong growing and high productivity. To maintain higher productivity should be recommended forming the fines as al alleys of generally as high vineyards, for example by use of two-sided cordon by giving four forming ring or the form consisting of many hangers by leaving 3-4 fruiting-buds.
As this grapevine variety is characterized with vulnerability to both the powdery and dowry mildews, requires administering with Bordeaux mixture 5-6 times and phosphorus – 3-times.
The distribution of Tetri Kamiri should be recommended widely in the following micro-districts of Guria: a) In Kokhnar-Sachamiaseri zone: in Burnati, Kokhnari, Nakaduli, Qvemokheti, Chometi, Gantiadi, Mamulari and Kalagoni; b) In Dablatsikhe-Zomleti and Ianoul-Berejouli zones: in Dablatsikhe, Sakvavitke, Burnati, Fartskha, Akhalsofeli, Ganakhleba, Gogoleisubani, Sameba, Vani, Zomleti, Ianouli, Qvemo Onchiketi, Qvemo Erketi and Chaisubani. c) In Nigoit-Shukhuti and Chibat-Chochkhati zones: in Chkonagora, Cholobargi, Nigoiti, Zemo Shukhuti, Shromisubani, Moedani, Khoreti, Tsiteli Ubani, Guliani, Qviani, Qvemo Shukhuti, Lashisghele, Lanchkhuti, Gvimbalauri, Jurukveti, Ninoshvili, Akhalsofeli and Ormeti. d) In Aket-Mamati zone: in Chanchati, Qvemo Aketi, Zemo Aketi, Atsani, Mamati and Gaguri. This grapevine variety is also prospective to be cultivated in the districts of the upper Imereti and Adjara. To control the negative influence of phylloxera, vines should be grafted on phylloxera-resistant rootstocks.
1. kecxveli n. kulturul mcenareTa zonebi saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 1957. 2. ramiSvili m. guriis, samegrelos da aWaris vazis jiSebi. Tbilisi, 1948. 3. tabiZe d. kaxeTis vazis jiSebi. Tbilisi. 1954. 4. ColoyaSvili s. mevenaxeobis saxelmZRvanelo, wigni II, ampelografia. Tbilisi, 1938. 5. javaxiSvili iv. saqarTvelos ekonomiuri istoria, wigni II, Tbilisi, 1934.
Kapistoni Tetri Tetri kapistoni is local winery vine variety. Distributed in Zemo Imereti, provides quality Champaign and Table wine materials. The synonym for Kapistoni among winemakers is not known. In the literature (I. Bakhtadze, 5) variety is known as “Kapistona”, mostly in Shorapani Mazra. In the foreign Ampelography works (Piula, Goete, Viala da Vermoreli) Tetri kabistoni is known and described as “Kapistoni Blan” (tetri) and “Zekroula Kapistoni”. The last is brought as the variation of Tetri Kapistoni. It must be mentioned that in Racha-Lechkhumi “Tetri Kapisto ni” is completely different variety, as Rachvelian Tetri Kapistonipresents female sex flower. Kapistoni is local Imeretian vine variety. It is originated from from cultural vine varieties of Kolkha. By morphological and agricultural features it is mostly close to Imeretian types and differ with the early blossoming. With its Morphological description Tetri Kapistoni belongs to prol. pontica Negr. group. There are no information about the origin and location about the vine. According to academician Iv. Javakhishvili (4) research, Tetri Kapistoni is one of the oldest variety in Georgia. And even in more older literature (in the second half of the 19th century) Tetri Kapistoni was well know vine around. For example, Tetri Kapistoni was named and described by I. Bakhtadze (5), V. Staroslevski (15) and prof. K. Modebadze (2.3) as the vine which was distributed in Shorapani (former Mazri) mountain villages. According to 1947 vineyards statistics Tetri kapistoni was distributed in Orjonikidze, partly Zestafoni and Chkhare districts. Tetri kapistoni as per root is met in almost every village in Zemo Imereti. Based on materials variety was cultivated over then 48 hectares. At present Tetri kapistoni is cultivated in: Kharagauli, Fartskhnali, Islari, Tetrskaro small plots. In Orjonikidze district villages Tetri kapistoni is cultivated in small plots, and in other districts is presented as mixture variety. In small amount Tetri kapistoni is cultivated in the Institute of Viticulture and Enology of Telavi and Sakare stations and in collective vineyards. Tetri kapistoni can be met in small numbers in France.
Botanical description Paneshi is explored and described in the village of Bazaleti at Sakare testing station.
The young sprout. The young shoot (15 - 20 cm) is round and strongly covered in whitish-grayish hair-like down. This covering increases to the top of a spout and is sometimes red color. The growth cone is flat and completely covered by web-like whitish down while on the surface, pink spots are noticeable. The first and second leaves are covered by whitish down on both sides, especially the underside of the leaf which is strongly covered. On the third and fourth leaves, the covering is less depicted, particularly on the top surface, and it gradually disappears with the following leaves. The 5th and 6th leaves on the 3rd row are bright green-yellow. The one year sprout. The developed sprout has a middle thickness, oval shape and becomes bright brown or dark purple by the time of full maturity. It has dark, quite flat lines. The average length of axil is 9 - 12 cm. Teeth: Leaves petioles are bare, are covered with slightly noticeable web-like flakes here and there. They are light pink- with longitudinal green stripes. The length of the leaf’s petiole is equal to the middle vein or slightly shorter. On the upper side, the leaf has small blisters, while from the underneath, it is covered by thin web-like hairy down. The lower part of the incision is often upright, slightly or sometimes strongly cut. Rarely, it is lyre-like, having nearly parallel edges and a sharp basis.
The leaf. The mature leaf is roundish and middle sized, about 18 - 20cm long and 16.0 - 19 cm wide, with a bright greenish-yellow coloring. The average length-width ranges 19-18cm. The incision of the leaf’s petiole is open and similar to an arch, with square-shaped basis; rarely, lyre-like. On the basis one plain tooth is sometimes developed; rarely, the incision of the petiole is closed and similar to an egg in shape. The upper incision is quite deep and changeable, sometimes closed and either elliptical or egg-shaped, with sharpened basis. The lower incision is well developed as upper incision and often slightly deep. As a rule, the leaf is three-lobed, rarely five. The edge of the tip creates an obtuse angle to the blade, rarely – right. The flower. The flower is hermaphroditic with normally developed pistil and stamens. The stamens are generally longer than the pistil, sometimes equal. In a flower there are 5-6 stamens, though seven can also be found. The pistil is rounded-cone-like, rarely covered with warts with a curled receptacle. The bunch. The length of the petiole of the bunch from its pedicel equals 2.5 - 3.5cm. It is quite thick and rough (like wood) until the axil, while the remaining part is similar to grass and is bright green.The bunches are small: 14 - 17 long and 8 - 10 cm wide and are often cylindrical or cylindrical-cone shaped. The bunch is mostly cylindrical; sometimes cone-cylindrical and with a wing that often comes to half the bunch’s length. The average size is 15 - 10cm, The length of the pedicel on average is 2.5 – 3.5 cm while the length of a bunch’s pedicel is 6-7 mm and is a light green color. The grain receptacle is wide cone-like and is rugged.
The grain. Seeds are average sized, their length varying from 1.7 to 1.9cm; the width from 1.6 to 1.79cm. The size of an average grain is 1.75 x 1.68 cm, the shape- rounded or slightly oval. Large grains are often oval and average, or thin and rounded. The middle part of the grain is wider and its end is rounded. Grains are greenish-yellow and on the sun-lit side it has dark burn spots. Its skin is thin but dense. The flesh is averagely dense, and is pleasant with a slightly depicted typical taste. Grains are covered with thin wax-like flakes and are strongly attached to the receptacle.
The seed. The number of seeds in a grain varies from 1 to 4. There are, on average, 2 seeds in a grain. Seeds vary in shape: most often they are narrow, rounded-oblong in shape, rarely rounded with short tips. Their length, with tip, is 6-8 mm; the width is 3.0 – 3.5 mm. The body of seeds is straw-colored and has a rounded-oval shape. The kalaza is located in the upper part of body has an oval shape, being concave in the middle. The incision from the kalaza to upper part and tip is well depicted, being narrow but deep. The abdominal side of the seed is slightly wavy or flat. Clefts of the abdomen are not deep and run towards the tip in parallel lines. The beak is cylinder shape, with 1.5 – 1.8mm lenth. The basis of the cleft is yellow; the tip is narrow cone-like and rugged.
Observation of the course of the vegetation period and its phases was held on Zestafoni collective plot of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Sakare testing station, which is built on valley of 149.7 m high from sea level. Institute of Viticulture and Enology of collective vineyard of Kurdgelauri village collated on 562.3m above sea level. And Ukraine the Institute of Viticulture and Enology of Odessa. Phonological observations were held by guideline, which included using two side trail regulation.
In Imereti the budding begins from the first part of april, and reaches full ripeness by the end of September. Vegetation can last about 169 days and the sum of active temperature for this period equals 3360, In Ukraine (Odessa) vegetation period lasts 166 days and the sum of active temperature equals 3280 degree. Among Imeretian vine varieties, Tetri Kapistoni ripens 12-15 day earlier. From this point the Upper Imereti – Sachkhere, Chiatura, and Orjonikidze is very interesting, as the only vines are TsiTska and Tsolokouri which does not manages full ripeness during the year. In Kakhetian conditions Tetri Kabistoni ripens together with Rkatsiteli or earlier. It is characterized with good productivity. According French ampelographist Paula Tetri Kapistoni ripens very well in Central parts of France. The sugar during warm weather reaches 23 (Bometi). Tetri Kapistoni’s one year sprout is good productive and durable against frost.
The productivity. Tetri Kapistoni, like other Georgian vine varieties, With proper cultivation and in suitable ecological conditions, is very productive. The first sign of harvest comes in the second or more frequently the third year, white full harvest takes place from the fourth or fifth years. According T Kvaratskhelia (12) Tetri Kapistoni is medium harvest vine. It ranges from 1.5 to 2.0kg per vine root. meaning 60-80 centners per hectare
Durability against phylloxera and fungal diseases. Tetri Kapistoni displays quite good resistance to fungal diseases and particularly to powdery mildew; even though in some districts around Tbilisi where Tetri Kapistoni is cultivated on its own root, but with apply of phosphorus. Progessor T. Kvaratskelia states: “Kapistoni easily harmed by Mildew”(12). Yet this does not cause a negative impact as the disease in nearly unnoticeable. Tetri Kapistoni is more sensitive to downy mildew, especially in lowland and high-moisture areas, such as Imereti and Kakheti is average. The complete damage of the vine by heat or frost is not recorded. Tetri Kapistoni adapts to all type of soil and able to grow independently. The best productivity is give by Kapistoni in Bazaleti village, Gharislhevi,Tetritskaro, Islari, Partskhnali. It has well adapted to Riparia X rupestris 3306, 3309 and Rupestris diuloze, and in clay soil riparia X berlnadieri 420a da 5 bb.
Technical Characteristics Tetri Kapistoni is unquestionably wine type variety. The production of Chinuri can also be used for table grape; after all, it has taken the leading place among the white vines varieties. Below statistics showsthe consistency of sugar, acidity and chemical analysis of the vine. Tetri Kapistoni is used mostly for the preparation of Table wine. More often, in case if the vine is cultivated on separate plot the pure wine is made from it. As grape is also used as food. Lately Tetri Kapistoni was used as material for Champaign.
Tetri Kapistoni in local peasant farm – Imeretian wine is made. Grape is pressed via the pressing machine. The left over juice is kept in special dishes and in dekalitre juice 0.8-1.0 kg pure Chacha is added. Stavroseltckii
After this, Tetri Kapistoni is dislocated from the place and pressed only for Champaign wine. To what kind of wine is going to be prepared, Tetri Kapistoni is harvested in different times depending on sugar-acidity level. For Champaign wine must has 18-19% sugar, and 10-12% during acidity. The wine should be harvested when the sugar is on 20-22% and 8-10% during acidity. The sugar in the grape juice rips on 15 Sept. in Middle Imereti, (Zestafoni district) and in Zemo Imereti begins from 20-25 sept. (Orjonikidze district). The time when the vine has completed sugar-acidity process is used only for Champaign wines. Prof. K.Modebadze (2, 3) praises the wine and explains that brought the popularity. V. Staroslav describes wine as clear with pleasant features.
- Tetra (white)
- Mujuretuli (red)
- Ojaleshi (red) is cultivated on the mountain slopes overhanging the banks of the Tskhenis-Tskali river, particularly in the Orbeli village and Samegrelo district (Western Georgia).
- Usakhelauri (red) is cultivated mostly in the Zubi-Okureshi district in Western Georgia.
- Izabella (red)
- Tavkveri (red)
- Asuretuli (red)
- Cabernet Sauvignon (red)
- Aladasturi (red)
- Tsitska (white)
- Gorula (white)
- Kabistoni (red)
Black Kabistoni The Black Kabistoni is a vine variety grown in Racha, mainly as an admixture in the vineyards of Aleksandrouli. Separate, exclusive, plantations are very rare. From it, naturally semi-dry and table red wines are made. Among local vine-growers in some villages of Racha, Black Kabistoni is also known by the names Kabistoni, Old Black Kabistoni, and White Kabistoni. Gagmouri Kabistoni and Tsitsiliani Kabistoni are independent varieties from Black Kabistoni. In the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology , Kabistoni- taken from Racha in 1933 -appeared consistent with two different types- one with slightly web-like down, similar to Pinot Prani with short bunches; and the second, with thick web-like down and bunches of an average size- true Black Kabistoni. Black Kabistoni is a vine variety of the third period of ripening. With its morphological and biological features, it is not different from local vine types and, with them, belongs to the ecological-geographical group of prol. Pontica Negrul. There are no written materials regarding the origin or age. According to a linguistic analysis of its name, acad. Iv. Javakhishvili considers Kabistoni as a village name, about which he wrote the following: “According to the notes of Professor Chikobava, Kaistona was a village located in Arkabe, according to the words of Lazian who was exiled in the village Pshaltelugli of Bkhazia. „კაბისტონელი “ ჭანურად „ვაპისტონარი “ იქნება და სწორედ ამის ბოლო მოკვეცილ ფორმას წარმოადგენს ყურძნის ჯიშის სახელი კაბისტონიც, მაშასადამე ის ჭანური ჯიში ყოფილა. After this, Javakhishvili gives a short characterization of Kabistoni by Popkhadze and Tmoadze, according to whom “Black Kabistoni is characterized by a rounded comb or bimbilo- which means ‘grain’ in Rachan. This type is useful as both a grape and for wine-making, but it is not widely cultivated.” According to these notes, Kabistoni was quite a well-known type in the viticulture regions of Western Georgia, which confirms its reasonable age. It is most commonly cultivated in Racha-Lechkhumi, with a small number of roots in evidence in upper Imereti, Kartli and South Ossetia. Its total cultivation area in Georgia does not exceed 71 hectares, from which 70.30 hectares are located in Racha-Lechkhumi. According to data from the observation of 1947, its cultivation area is distributed among various regions of Georgia, as is shown in Table 1. (See Table 1). As mentioned, Kabistoni is spread in Oni districts as an admixture; rarely are exclusive vineyards found. Kabistoni can be found in the Ambrolauri district sharing the vineyards of Aleksandoruli, with Mujurutuli as an admixture. Small numbers of Black Kabistoni vines are cultivated in upper Imereti, mainly in the districts of Sachkhere and Chaitura. In upper Imereti, Kabistoni must be taken from Racha. In the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, in the testing stations of Sakare, and on base points of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, Black Kabistoni has dozens of roots. Botanical Description This type was first described botanically during an expedition-study of 1933 in the village of Ghari, on a collective farm. It was studied in more detail in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, in the village of Kurdgelauri, which is located four kilometers from Telavi. Its vineyard is cultivated on the north-east slopes of the Tsiv-Gombori mountain range, five kilometers above sea level. Cultivated on stake-wire, it is pruned following the bilateral wallpaper guidelines, two- საკავებლის and two-neki დატოვებით. The feeding area is 3.0 sq m. The vineyard was cultivated in 1934, and the vines grafted on Rupestris Dulo. The young sprout. The crown of the young sprout is 15 - 20cm in length and the first two leaves have quite thick whitish web-like down, while the underside of leaves are more intensively downy. The crown and leaves have a light pinkish hue. The down of second tier leaves reduces on the top side and, because of this, the leaves become greenish-yellow, while from underside it retains its web-like down which is silver-white in color. The one-year shoot. One-year shoots are brownish-yellow in autumn. The length of inter-axil spaces varies from 4 to 9cm and the average length is 6 - 7cm. The axils are darker in color than the spaces between them, which are narrow with noticeable grayish stripes. The leaf. Leaves of the middle tier are of average size with a length that, on average, varies from 16 to 19cm and a width of 16 to 19.5cm. The leaves are rounded or resemble a wide oval. The blade of the leaf is a dark green color and is often three-lobed, rarely five-lobed. The angle of the central lobe is often blunt. The surface of the leaf is smooth or slightly wrinkled; its blade is curled. Upper incisions are of an average depth while their shape significantly varies. Most often, the incisions are closed, wide elliptic or rounded eye-like. The basis of the incisions are flat or rounded, and very rarely one-toothed. Open, barely noticeable or narrow-throated lyre-like incisions can also be found. Lower incisions occasionally do not develop. The shape of incisions is often open, parallel-sided, lyre-like or intruded angle-like. Rarely do we see cleft-like incisions. Petiole incisions are more often closed, with a narrow ellipse-eyed or egg-like shape. Rarely, incisions of the petiole are დეზიანი, more often we see also open lyre-like shapes with many basis. The main lobes of leaves end with convex-sided triangular teeth, and lateral lobes with one-sided convex triangular teeth. The underside of leaves has a coating of quite thick web-like down, under which is located straight standing bristle-like down. Both together make thick down. The length of the petiole is equal to or slightly shorter than the central lobe of the leaf and is a light green color with a weakly downy flake-like web. The flower. Flowers have a normal constitution and are hermaphroditic. There are 5-6 stamens in a flower. The ratio of stamen thread to the height of pistil varies from 1.25 to 1.75cm, though more often this ratio is 1.50. The pistil has a narrow, cone-like shape, with a well-depicted throat and its nose is often separated into two. The bunch. Bunches are of an average size; their length varying from 10 to 18 cm and width from 5 to 8 cm. The average bunch length-width is 16 x 6 cm. They are narrow cone-like or cone-cylindrical, and are often winged, with the length of the wings reaching half the length of the main bunch. There are 140 - 160 grains in a large bunch and, in a small, 60-80. Bunches are usually dense; rarely thin. Small grains are not characteristic for this type. The pedicel of a bunch is woody to the base and is shoot-colored. The length of the pedicel varies from 4.5 - 5.5 cm; most often being 4.0 - 4.5 cm. The pedicel of a grain is green; its length 5 - 6 mm. The receptacle of the pedicel is wide or, rarely, of a narrow cone-like shape. The pedicel of the grain and the receptacle are rough. The grains are quite well connected to the receptacles do not easily separate from it. The grain. The grain is of an average size. The length of grains varies from 1.4 to 1.7 cm and width from 1.3 to 1.6 cm. The length–width of average grain is 1.5 x 1.4 cm. Grains are rounded, or, less often, slightly oval. They are wider in the middle and have rounded ends, and are of a dark reddish color, though during full ripeness almost black. Grains in bunches are unequally colored- with dark red grains beside black and pink ones. The skin is covered with quite thick wax-like flakes which give it a violet color. The skin is thin but quite dense, and the flesh is juicy and slightly thick. Grape seeds do not easily separate from the flesh. The juice is clear, pleasant and sweet. The typical aroma is light. In Kakheti, its grain is easily ჩამიჩდება. The seed. There are 2 or 3 grape seeds in a grain, less often one or four. The rounded-oval seed is brown on the abdomen- at the cleft base- and has a greenish-yellow tip. The length of seeds is 6 - 7mm; with a width of 4 - 5mm; and beak 1.0 - 1.5mm. The kalaza is located in the center of the body, and is oval- shaped with a flat surface that is slightly concave. Clefts are directed towards the upper side of grape seeds from the kalaza being sharply- and to the beak, lightly -evident. Abdomen clefts are quite deep and run parallel. The incision is low and is well shown along the whole length of the seed. The beak is cylindrical. Agro-Biological Description
Vegetation period and course of phases. Observations of the vegetation period and course of phases took place in the testing stations of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, and in the collective vineyards of Zestafoni and Telavi. In Kakheti, there are a large number of vine types of the Racha-Lechkhumi ripening phase along with other Kakheti vine varieties, while in the vine varieties of Imereti, ripeness is achieved 10 - 15 days later and, some years, it even fails to ripen at all. Racha-Lechkumi, with its humid conditions, is closer to the Kakheti environment than that of central Imereti.
In the humid conditions of Kakheti, according to observations, Black Kabistoni ripens in the second half of September. In order to characterize the course of the vegetation phases of Black Kabistoni, Table 2 shows the results of analysis, which took place in the Institute of Viticulture and Enology and testing station of Sakare. (See Table 2). As Table 2 indicates, Kabistoni, in the humid conditions of Imereti and Kakheti, ripens in the middle of September. The length of the vegetation season varies from 133 to 156 days and, on average, lasts for 146 - 150 days. The sum of active temperature during this period is 2950. According to these materials, Black Kabistoni belongs to the group of vines ripening in the third period and can be freely recommended for wide testing in Racha-Lechkhumi and in cooler humid regions. The one-year shoot of Kabistoni freely manages to ripen by full grape-ripening and, when well wooded and matured, well meets the winter frosts. The productivity. Black Kabistoni begins productivity early. One year-shoots give the first sign of harvest in the second year from planting, and full harvest from the third or fourth years. Black Kabistoni in Racha is characterized by above-average productivity. Its coefficient of productivity is 2.0, which means that it bears two bunches per shoot. The productivity of the root is 2 - 2.5 kg and, from one hectare, it reaches 80 - 100 centners. Its productivity in the Oni district on 2.0 - 2.25m of feeding area- in the case of formation by Georgian guidelines, can reach 1.5kg per one root and up to 2.0 - 2.5kg. From one hectare, its productivity is, on average, 60 - 80 centners, and in fertile soils- 80 - 100 centners with the weight of the average bunch being 120 g and large bunches being 200 - 250g. Black Kabistoni, in the conditions of Kakheti, is characterized with good productivity. For example, in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, according to the observation of 1949, its productivity was equal to 1830 g and the productivity of some roots reached 3 - 4 kg. The coefficient of fruiting was 1.52 and the average weight of a bunch was 123g. According to the observation which took place in 1950, the productivity of some roots varied from 1.5 to 5.2 kg. The average productivity of a root was 3.1 kg and the coefficient of productivity was 1.64. The average weight of a bunch was 152 g. In conditions of Telavi, the variety is characterized by good productivity and quality of production. Durability against pests and fungal diseases. According to observations which took place in Racha-Lechkhumi and Kakheti, the durability of Kabistoni against ash and mildew is estimated as average. According to an observation which took place in Imereti, in the district of Zestafoni, the durability of Kabistoni against mildew is weak. Significant damage from other diseases has not been noted. It is characterized by good durability against winter frosts. Agro-Technical Characteristics Mechanical structure of bunch. The external appearance of the bunch, ratio of its consisting parts and chemical structure of juice suggests the advantage of its use as a wine variety. Below is shown the data of the bunch mechanical and juice chemical analysis. Grape analysis was made by research-employ Demetradze. (See Table 3). As the given data indicates, in laboratorial conditions, the juice of Black Kabistoni is characterized by quite a high outlet (77.4%). In productive conditions, the outlet of the husks of grapes is more and is equal to 24 - 26%, while the sweet outlet is 74 - 76%. Chemical structure of juice. Black Kabistoni accumulates quite a large amount of sugar. It is often cultivated with Aleksandrouli and Mujuretuli to make the local, natural, semi-dry wine- Khvanchkhara. Black Kabistoni retains a good ability of sugar accumulation in the conditions of Kakheti. Sugar content of Black Kabistoni in the Ambrolauri district reaches 20 - 22%. Such high sugar content is characteristic also in Kakheti. In order to characterize the ability of sugar-acidity consistency, below are shown the results of the analysis of grape juice. (See Table 4). Processing of grape and wine quality. Black Kabistoni is often cultivated in vineyards with Aleksandrouli and Mujurutuli as an admixture- with Mujurutuli it is used to make a naturally semi-sweet wine. Rarely do we see Black Kabistoni in an exclusive vineyard, but mainly on personal plots of collective farm members. In this case, it is pressed out separately for making a local table-type red wine. Black Kabistoni is averagely qualitative and in some years it gives a qualitative, energetic and harmonious wine. Wine samples made from Kabistoni are characterized by good taste features: the wine is most often a beautiful red color or dark pink, with a well-depicted typical aroma and harmonic taste. Some wine-makers gain better results by making Aleksandrouli on pressed husks. In this case, not only the wine color but its taste features are improved. Due to this, many people prefer to add Kabistoni to Aleksandrouli in order to make Khvanchkara. On farms of the local population, the processing of the Kabistoni grape takes place in a winepress by using grape-pressing machines. The juice and grape husks stay in the winepress to ferment. During fermentation, the sweet with grape husks must be stirred two or three times. By the end of a strong fermentation, 7 - 10 days after pressing out, the wine must be poured into clean pitchers. Remaining grape husks are squeezed and poured into separate pitchers, which are stored for making chacha. Sample wines, made from Black Kabistoni in the testing station of Sakare, were tasted and characterized by members of the Degustation Commission in the following way: “a beautiful red coloring, with a descriptive aroma; quite energetic, slightly rough-tasting wine.” In order to characterize the chemical structure of wine samples, the results of analyses which took place in the above-mentioned testing station are shown below. (See Table 5). As Table 5 indicates, the wine samples of Kabistoni are characterized by a rich chemical structure; with a high consistency of alcohol and a high number of extracts. Black Kabistoni is used for making table red wine and, with Aleksandrouli, for making Khvanchkara. According to analyses of the grape juice and wine type, it must be considered as prospective for the making of brandy materials and grape juice. It is less useful as a table grape of local consumption by its external appearance and taste features.
General Evaluation and Distribution by District
Black Kabistoni is a local less-spread vine variety. Vineyard areas are located between the Ambrolauri and Oni districts. Most commonly it is seen in the vineyards of Aleksandrouli as an admixture or on personal plots, but rarely in exclusive vineyards. The harvest of this type is pressed out with Mujurutuli and Aleksandrouli for the making of Khvanchkara, though rarely- from some plots - table red wines are made. Wine made from Kabistoni is characterized by a good color, energy and harmonious taste. Some years, quite a qualitative wine is produced. The positive features of this type include: relatively high productivity, early ripening, a good quality of production and usefulness for making various wine types. The negative features are its relatively weak durability against mildew; uneven ripeness of grains; and non-intensive color of wine. Black Kabistoni is not included in the regional standard assortment vine type. It is a prospective for being freely used with Aleksandrouli and Mujuretuli for making Khvanchkara in the Ambrolauri district, and for making table red wines in the Oni and Tsageri districts. It is also desirable for use in the production of grape juice and qualitative brandy materials in Racha-Lechkhumi, upper Imereti and Kakheti. Black Kabistoni, as a relatively early type, can be recommended for testing in the southern regions of the Soviet Union mainly for the making of table red wines. Bibliography
1. Demetradze V., Materials for the Division of The Institute of Viticulture and Enology According to Region, Kutaisi, 1936; 2. Mirotadze A., Vine Types of Racha-Lechkhumi. Tbilisi, 1939; 3. Modebadze K., Book of Wine-making. Tbilisi, 1948; 4. Ramishvili M,. Vine Types of Guria-Samegrelo and Adjara. Tbilisi, 1948; 5. Tabidze D., Development of Viticulture in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1950; 6. Javakhishvili Iv., Economic History of Georgia. T. II, Tbilisi, 1934; 7. Jorjadze L., Viticulture, Wine-making, and Improvement. Tbilisi, 1876; 8. Cholokhashvili S. Viticulture, Book II, Amphelography. Tbilisi, 1939.
Gorula Gorula is a white grape indigenous vine variety from Kartli. From an agricultural point of view, it belongs to the group of high qualitative table grapes. Confirmation of this is in its external beauty of bunch; size, shape and color of grain; largeness; fleshiness; very good taste; and also its good storage ability, transportability, strength of vine and abundant productivity. With its mentioned features this variety justifiably takes an honorable place among the indigenous vine varieties spread throughout Georgia.
Kanduralovi, V. Geevsi and G. Shareri mentioned in their works the name ‘’Goruli.’’ Professor Cholokhashvili used, in his works, the name Gldanura and Gorula as synonyms. Dr. N. Chakhnaashvili used Gorula as a main name and Gldanura as a synonym in his monograph which was published in the Union Ampelography.
In Gori district, there are two varieties of Gorula: Gorula Mtsvane (Wine) and Gorula (Table). In order to differentiate these two varieties, the population of the district calls the first Mtsvane Vine, and the second: Gorula. In Tbilisi and its suburbs, it is known as Table Gorula and, in the viticulture zone of Gldani village, it is known as Gldanura. There are no written materials referring to Gorula’s exact origin but the name and botanical-biological features of the vine indicate that it has a typical Georgian origin and, with its features, belongs to the endemic vine group of Kartli. Confirmation of this is in its morphological-biological features especially the strength of vine growth. It also demonstrates quite good ability to climb (it is mainly formed as canopies in regions of Kartli). Also of note are: the late ripeness of the grape, which is characteristic to indigenous vine varieties spread in Kartli; location of green masse, shape of leaves, variety of flower, shape of pistil, number of stamens in a flower (5 or more); the grain consistency and the shape and color of the grain. It is strongly believed that this variety originates as a result of natural selection which experienced evolution over many centuries and, later, as a result of human intervention in its plantation, it developed better generations with signs characteristic to table grape whereby it was spread in the territory of Kartli as an independent variety. Gorula is an indigenous variety and confirmation of this is found in its names through linguistic analysis. Academician Iv. Javakhishvili, in his work: Economic History of Georgia, says that one of the main features which confirm that it is indeed an indigenous variety, is its name which indicates its origin and, because of this consideration, he allocates Gorula to the vine group of Kartli. Before the spread of fungal diseases and phylloxera, Gorula was spread mainly in the territory of Kartli, especially in the districts of Kareli, Gori, Kaspi, Mtskheta, Dushei, Znauri and Tbilisi. The vines were formatted on lowlands based on stakes and as low canopies. The canopies were mainly laid out on personal plots for decoration and for shading yards, it was also so in the gardens of Tbilisi and its suburb zones (Ortachala, Didube, Veris Bagebi, Dighomi, Avchala, and Gldani). Presently, in the viticulture zone of Gldani, 100 year old canopies of Gorula vine can be seen whose growth-development and harvest, despite its age, is quite satisfying. After the spread of fungal diseases and phylloxera, its plantation was significantly reduced. From old plantations, Gorula mainly remains in gardens of Tbilisi and its suburbs (Dighomi and Avchala) and on lowlands as an admixture in districts of Gori, Kaspi and Mstkheta. According to the description of vineyards of 1953, the cultivation area of Goruli was defined as Kartli and the territory of South Ossetia. In the mentioned areas, the total area dedicated to Gorula in 1953 reached 96.09 hectares, which was distributed as follows: in Gori district- 80.12 hectares , in Tbilisi- 14.05 ha, in Marneuli- 1.78 ha , in Dusheti- 0.3 ha, and in Leningori – 0,11 ha. As unit roots on lowlands, Gorula is cultivated in the testing base of Telavi experimental station and in Vazisubani (Uriatubani), on the educational farm of Mukhrani ( Mtskheta district) and on the collective plot of the educational farm of Dighomi (suburb of Tbilisi). The prospective plan for Gorula is to supply the population of Tbilisi with table grape- cultivation in Tbilisi and Gori districts is foreseen, on lowlands as grafts and on roots which are durable against phylloxera. Botanical description Gorula was described in the testing base of the Institute of Viticulture of Gori, in Khidistavi village, and, for comparison, on the collective plot of the educational farm of Dighomi. The young sprout. The growth cone is light green, with a light yellowish hue and is abundantly covered with white hair-like down. The margins of unexpanded leaves are dark red. Newly expanded first and next leaves on the top sides are light green with a yellowish hue and from the sides up are dark red. First strong and second leaves are quiet covered with hair-like down. Next third and fourth leaves on the top sides are slightly downy. On the top side, across the whole blade of the third light green leaf, a reddish-violet color is noticeable. The fourth leaf is characterized by the same color. On the underside it is characterized by slight down, while on the following fifth and sixth leaves, the top side down becomes insignificant and takes on a greenish-yellow color with a slight reddish hue. On the underside, insignificant down is noticeable around the veins, which disappears on older leaves. Young sprout are dark green. On one side it is sometimes of a violet hue. It is insignificantly covered with whitish-gray hair-like down which slightly increases towards the top of sprout. The one-year shoot. The one-year shoot is averagely large (8 - 10mm) and, during full ripeness, it has dark brown narrow stripes. The axils are a darker color and the length of inter-axil spaces is 8 - 13cm. The leaf. Mature leaves are of average size and are rounded or slightly oval. A leaf’s average length is 15.0 - 18.5cm and width -14.6 – 18.3. It is mainly five-lobed. The incision of the leaf’s petiole is open and often lyre-like or arch-like. Sometimes it develops one simple tooth on the basis. Rarely, the incisions of the petiole are closed with an elliptic hole and with closed or quite deep ნაკვთები. Upper incisions are open and deeply cut, lyre-like in shape, with parallel sides and acute basis. Sometimes, they are quite cut and are characterized by narrow holes and acute basis. closed incisions with wide elliptic holes can also be found. The lower incision is more often open, or lyre-like, with parallel sides and acute basis. Sometimes the incision creates an intruded angle. The leaf is strongly five-lobed. The tip of the lobe, with leaf blade, creates a blunt angle, rarely straight. Teeth of lobe tips are right-angled with acute or rounded tips. Triangular-convex sided and acute-based can also be found. Lateral teeth are more often right-triangular with acute or rounded tips; sometimes resembling saw teeth with one convex side and an acute tip. The leaf surface is more often web-like wrinkled; sometimes like a thin blister. In natural conditions, the leaf is funnel-like and is light green with a yellowish hue. On the top side, it is bare and, on the underside, it is lightly covered along the veins where the down is grayish and hair-like. The ratio of leaf petioles to middle main vein is 0.7 – 0.9. It is bare and dark red. The main veins, especially those which are closer to the petiole incision, are dark red. Veins on the top side of the leaf are characterized by more intensive coloring. The flower. The flower is hermaphroditic with normally developed stamens and pistil. Stamens are longer than the pistil and, by the time of flower expansion, they are normally bent. The pistil has an oblong pear-like shape. There are 5 stamens in flower; rarely 4 or 6. The number of flowers in an inflorescence is 270 - 650. The bunch. The length of bunch pedicel 4 – 6.5cm. During full grape-ripeness it becomes woody up to the middle part of the axils and takes on the color characteristic to the shoot. The other side of the petiole is grass-like and a light greenish color with a slight yellowish hue. On the sun side it is a well depicted dark red. The shape of a bunch is cylindrical, sometimes cylindrical-cone-like. By constitution, it is dense, sometimes very dense; rarely, thin bunches can be found but such bunches are a-typical for this variety. The length of a bunch is 11.5 - 19 cm and width 7 – 10.5cm. The grain. The length of grain pedicel with receptacle is 5.5 – 7.5mm. The pedicel is green. The receptacle is wide cone-like and wrinkled. The grain is strongly attached to the receptacle. The grain is light green and, during full ripeness, takes on a very beautiful yellowish color. The skin abundantly develops dark brownish, thin spots. It is average or more than average and slightly oval in shape. Its average length is 15.6 – 20.5mm and width 14 – 19.1mm. In the middle of the body, it is wider and has a rounded end which is symmetrical. Some grains are characterized by asymmetry, but this must not be considered as a typical feature. It has slightly rough and thick skin. It is fleshy and less juicy, with a pleasant sweet taste. There are flakes on the skin of the grain. The seed. There are 1-3 seeds in a grain. Rarely do we see 4, more rarely there is one seed. The average length of a seed is 5.5 - 7mm and width 3.5 – 5.2mm. The seed is light brown with a pinkish hue. On the abdomen side, the clefts are well depicted and are a yellowish-straw color. The kalaza is slightly concave and more often oval. It is located slightly up from the middle part of the rear. The basis of the beak is light yellowish and the tip is a dark rust-like brown color, its length reaching 1.7 - 2mm. Agro-Biological Description In the zone of Xedistavi village of the Gori district, the length of the vegetation period of Gorula, from bud break to full grape-ripeness lasts 166 - 170 days. In the zone of Dighomi village (Tbilisi suburb), this length does not exceed 171 days. Below is shown the data of a phonological observation of 3 years which was held in the above-mentioned regions. (See Table 1). The data shown in Table 1 clarifies the difference between the beginning of bio phases in the zones of Khidistavi and Dighomi villages and it is normal, as these villages, with their climate peculiarities, are very different from each other. For example: in the zone of Khidistavi village, because spring starts relatively late, bud break begins from 18 - 22 April and in Dighomi from 15 - 17 April. Such a difference is also found in the phase of beginning of flowering. In Khidistavi, it begins from 6 - 10 June and in Dighomi from 2 - 4 June. The ripening of the grape in Dighomi starts almost one week earlier and there is no large difference in mass grape-ripening. The time from bud break to full grape-ripeness is equal in both zones (168 days). Only in some cases does the length of the vegetation period in Dighomi increase by one week in comparison with Khidistavi, which is caused by the length of the warm period in autumn. Vine growth and ripeness of shoot. With growth-development of green masse, Gorula belongs to the vine group which is stronger than average and, in suitable conditions, reaches strong growth-development. In the case of heavy-loading, on canopy or formation by cordon, despite the abundance of buds, it develops quite strong shoots, whose length by the end of the vegetation period is 2 – 2.5 m. During the mass ripening of the shoot, absolute ripeness is reached and it takes on the typical color. The productivity. Gorula gives first signs of harvest in its third year from planting and begins full productivity from the fourth or fifth years. Below is data concerning the productivity of Gorula (see Table 2).
When formed by bilateral Georgian guidelines, this variety is characterized by larger than average productivity. On one shoot often develops one bunch, sometimes two- but they are uneven. The coefficient of productivity is 0.75 – 1.1. The average weight of a bunch is 206 - 215g and the yield from one vine (in the case of loading with 2 - 24 buds) reaches 2.5 - 3kg. Productive sprouts on a vine reach 74.5 - 84%. In the case of vines formed as canopies, Gorula’s growth-development, harvest and size of bunch increases. Often, in the zones of Dighomi and Gldani (suburb of Tbilisi), one vine formed as a canopy gives (with a loading of 50 buds) 10 - 12kg of grape and some bunches reach up to 500g. The same situation can be found in Tbilisi: in Vake, where Gorula is cultivated, at times on canopies its loading is 150 and its harvest reaches 35 - 40kg. This variety is less characterized by flower-fall and the amount of thin seeds in a bunch is 4 - 5%. Durability of variety against fungal diseases and phylloxera. In Eastern Georgia, Gorula quite well endures fungal diseases, even when it fails to be injected with sulphur and blue vitriol against ash and mildew. Despite this, the vine’s green masses and harvest succumb to illness less. Observation confirms that, in the humid conditions of Georgia, where Gorula is cultivated on collective plots, it is more sensitive towards ash, and better endures phylloxera. Despite this, its injection in any condition must be considered as an obligatory step, and the amount of injection administered according to the different conditions. As was mentioned above, old plantations of Gorula in the districts of Eastern Georgia (Tbilisi, Mtskheta, Kaspi, and Gori) are mainly represented on their own roots and cultivated as canopies, at an age of 60 - 100 years. Despite the age, the vines are characterized by normal growth-development and productivity. The mentioned condition allows us to reach the conclusion that this variety is not very sensitive towards phylloxera. Otherwise, like other indigenous varieties, its early destruction would be reasonably expected. However, this issue needs further study. The relationship with environment and natural conditions. In regions of Eastern Georgia (Mtskheta, Tbilisi, Kaspi, and Gori), Table Gorula does not show susceptibility to ecological conditions. Observation confirms that it freely develops in low gorges and also in high places and on plots of different expositions. But, according to the qualitative data on production, it gives better results when cultivated at height – on land sloping to south, and in deep strong soils. In such conditions, Gorula is characterized by normal growth-development, quite an abundant harvest and wonderful taste of production. Rough skin can be considered a small defect of Gorula, which can be increased in case of exposure to wind. Gorula, like Gorula Mtsvane, is durable against winter frosts. As a result of strong frosts it becomes massively damaged, but in the case of green masses enrichment with plastic materials, its durability against frosts can be iproved. It expresses better durability against frosts if it is cultivated on high places and in less humid conditions. In the same ecological conditions, Table Gorula, in the zones of Khidistavi and Tsedisi (Gori region) in 1948-49, demonstrated better durability against frosts than Chinuri, Kartlis Tita and Saperavi. Specific features of the variety. From specific features of Gorula, the pruning-formation deserves attention. Observation over many years clarifies that the Georgian unilateral form- which means the loading of the vine with 8 - 12 buds- is unacceptable for this variety, because, as a result of such severe pruning, the growth-development of the variety is hindered and the harvest reduced. As was mentioned above, the form of heavy loading- the so called ‘canopy-like’ -must be considered prospective for this variety as the total power of the vine strengthens and significantly increases the yield by the remaining quality of production. Evidence to support this coclusion can be abundantly found in Tbilisi and in its suburb areas (Ortachala, Gldani, Vake, Didube, Dighomi, and Gldani). So, on personal plots, and as decoration along roads, formations of Gorula as canopies can be successfully used. In manufacturing, vineyards of Gorula in bilateral cordon must be used. The mentioned forms of pruning guarantee the normal growth-development of the vine.
saqarTvelos vazis aborigenuli asortimentidan gorula gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva yurZnis Senaxvis kargi unariT. sof. gldanis mcxovreblebi am jiSis yurZens rogorc warsulSi, ise amJamadac inaxaven specialur yuTebSi naxerxis fenebSi. am mizniT arCeven teqnikur simwifeSi Sesul saR da Txel mtevnebs. aclian mas moumwifebel, dazianebul da wvril marcvlebs; kums mtevnebs aTxeleben da amgvarad gamzadebul masalas mzeze aSroben. paralelurad amzadeben yurZnis Casawyob yuTebs da naxerxs. iReben rbili xis naxerxs, romelsac xangrZlivad aSroben. gacrili naxerxis fenebSi awyoben yurZens TiTo fenad. fenebSi naxerxis sisqe 2-3 sm udris. sabolood yuTebs naxerxiT avseben, magram tkepnian, ukeTeben saxuravs da inaxaven SedarebiT dabal temperaturul pirobebSi mTeli zamTris ganmavlobaSi. am wesiT Senaxuli yurZeni inarCunebs Tavis fers, sisaRes, gemos da xSirad gvian gazafxulze gamoaqvT xolme gasayidad. yurZeni Tavisi garegnobiT da gemoTi axlad dakrefils mogvagonebs.
For agro purposes, Gorula belongs to the group of high qualitative table grapes.
Confirmation if this is the external beauty of its bunch and grain, the color of its grain, the density of flesh and sweet-sour taste, transportability of the grape and good storage ability, as well as its normal growth-development and, in the case of good care-treatment -abundant productivity. In the feature of good storage, Gorula differs from other varieties of the Georgian indigenous assortment. From the Georgian indigenous assortment, Gorula is distinguished with good storage ability. The population of Gldani village store this grape in special boxes in sawdust. For this purpose, technically mature and thin grapes are selected. Un-matured, damaged and thin seeds are disposed of. Dense bunches are thinned and such prepared materials are dried in the sun. Parallel to this are made boxes with sawdust. The long-dried sawdust of soft trees is taken and sifted onto the grapes which are put in on one layer. The thickness of the sawdust per layer is 2 - 3cm. Finally, the boxes are filled with sawdust, but are rammed, and a lid is made and all is stored in conditions of low temperature during the winter. The grape stored in such ways retains its color, taste and- in spring -it is taken out for selling. Gorula grape, looks and tastes freshly picked. So, among the indigenous vine varieties with white grapes, Gorula is very prospective as a qualitative table grape. The average weight of a bunch is 210.5g and the amount of grains on bunch ranges from 68 to 72 (on average- 70). The structure of bunches is as follows: კლერტი shoot??? is 4.6 – 5.4%; skin 18.6 – 19.1%; and grain 3.0 – 3.2% . The average weight of 100 bunches is 289g and of 100 grains- 3,25g. In comparison with other local varieties, Table Gorula ripens earlier by some days. During the period of grape-ripening, the sugar does not exceed 18.15 – 19.3% and total acidity 5.6 – 6.1%. Observation clarifies that late harvesting of the grape causes an increase of sugar by 1.5 - 2%, but the acidity falls, which significantly reduces the quality of production (the grape becomes jammy and joyless for eating). So, for this variety, a sugar consistency of up to 18 - 19% must be considered normal and, accordingly the harvest can be freely conducted at the beginning of October. According to the data of G. Kutubidze, the resistance of Gorula grapes against pressing is average at 1240g, and resistance to harvesting- 270g. Using Gorula for the making of wine is irrational, as wine made only from Gorula is characterized by low harmony, low acidity, an unreasonable ratio between alcohol and acidity, and a low ability for storage. Its mixture with other local varieties, for making ordinary type wine, is possible. General Evaluation and Distribution by District Among Georgian indigenous white grapes vine varieties, Gorula deserves special attention as a table grape variety giving high qualitative production. It is especially prospective for Gori, Mtskheta, and Dusheti regions, and for Tbilisi and its suburbs. With quite a large harvest, it gives high qualitative production characterized by good storage ability and transportability. Confirmation of this is found on plots of Gorula cultivated on the education farm of Dighomi. The future development in viticulture in the Tbilisi zone must be based on the mass cultivation of Gorula with other varieties, but only as grafts on specially selected roots which are durable against phylloxera.
Bibliography 1. Ketskhoveli N., Zones of Cultural Plants in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1957 2. Kutubidze G., Prospective Table Vine Varieties for Tbilisi Suburb Zone. Tbilisi, 1958 3. Tabidze D., Georgian Vine Varieties. Tbilisi, 1950. 4. Cholokhashvili S., guide book of viticulture. Vol. II “Amphleography’’. Tbilisi, 1938. 5. Javakhishvili Iv., Economic History of Georgia, Vol. II, Tbilisi, 1934.
- Kachichi (white)
Kachichi Kachichi is an industrial vine type with red bunches giving qualitative table red wine. It is spread in minor areas of Abkhazia and Samegrelo. Among local wine-growers and in special literature Kachichi is known by the name Kachichiji (in districts of Samegrelo), Ajkachichi, Kajiji, and Kachichi. In foreign ampelography, Kchichi is known by the name Abkhazura and Kachichi. There are different views regarding its origins. Views shown in literature sources discussing the origin of Abkhazian vine types and especially Kachichi are less credible. For example, Timofeev justifiably considers West Transcaucasia as the homeland of vine, but thinks that Greeks and Genoas spread viticulture into the Sokhumi region. Timofeev writes of Kachichi the following: Kachichi first became famous in the village of Duripshi and was brought there by Abkhaz Kachichi. It is said that shoots of this vine were sent by General Raevski in Gudauta. Professor Kvaratskhelia according to some data, considers Kachichi to have been brought from Crimea, but evades final confirmation of such. K.Machavariani has more data of its origin. According to his note, the name of this type derived from the name of Abkhaz Kajiji, who first cultivated this type in Abraga village. Abkhaz Kachichi brought this type from the Head of the Department of Bombora, who got this type from General Raevsk. It is easy to become convinced by the views of these authors about the origin of Kachichi, mainly based on K. Machavariani’s notes, yet the verification of which is accurate is quite difficult, so making the clarification of origin impossible. More practical is the attempt to determine its origin according to its morphological and ecological features. According to these features, particularly because of its large, almost un-lobed leaves, which are downy on the underside; average bunches; rounded slightly convex grains; vine appearance; and its long vegetation season- it belongs to the local ecology-geographical group of prol. pontica Negr. Indeed, according to these main features, Kachichi is significantly different from the West European vine types of prol. oecidenatis, Negr. and central Asian vine types of prol. orientalis Negr. In appearance, the Kachichi vine is quite similar in morphological and ecological features to local types and its spread in districts of old Kolkheti (Samegrelo and Abkhazia) and its ability of adaptation with external conditions, confirms its origin from Kolkheti. No sufficient materials exist in order to determine the age of this variety. A vine by the name of Kachichi is known from the second half of the 19th century yet it unquestionable that it existed before that, perhaps going by other name and probably with a larger cultivation area. As is known, vineyards occupied quite large territories in Abkhazia before the spread of fungal diseases and phylloxera. According to the notes of M. Balasi, the total area of vineyards in Abkhazia reached 2538 hectaress. The total area of vineyards- and also area of Kachichi -was significantly reduced as a result of the spread of fungal diseases and phylloxera. According to Professor Kvaratskhelia, from 1930 to 1935, Kachichi- as a whole plantation -was still in existence in the Gudauta district and in other districts of Abkhazia, yet only as a dozen roots. Aside from Abkhazia, Kachichi was cultivated throughout the viticulture districts of Samegrelo. Its main plantations are located in Gudauta, Tskhakaia and Chkorotskhu. According to the observation of 1940, the total area of this variety does not exceed 26 hectares. Distribution of this variety, according to district, is shown in Table1. As Table 1 indicates, 85% of Kachichi’s distribution area is located in Samegrelo; the other 13% being in Abkhazia. Kachichi did occupy a large area but as it was spread in high places, it was not accounted in 1940. The more precise accounting of 1947 reported that Kachichi at that time occupied 5.04 hectares in Samegrelo; 1.71 in Abkhazia; and 1.12 in Guria. In total, Kachichi in Georgia occupied 7.93 hectares of vineyard which are spread on lowlands and 30 hectares of vineyards which are spread at height. Botanical description
Kachichi was described in the base point of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Akhalsopeli village on a collective farm named after Orjonikidze. The vine there is cultivated with a large feeding area and is separated with 2m between rows and between vines by 1.75m. The vines are pruned and formed following the guidelines for bilateral wallpaper- by leaving 20 - 24 buds on a shoot. The vine is 20 years old and is 45 - 55cm high. The vineyard is cultivated on a plain that slightly slopes to the south-east, 2 kilometers from the sea coast. The soil consists of clay, permeable to water. The young shoot The young sprout is 10-15 cm, the tips of which, with crown and first two leaves, are covered with thick web-like down of a grayish-white color and a weak reddish line around the leaves and crown. The leaves of the second circle (3-4) are bronzed and on the undersides are grayish-white as a result of the reduction in down. Side sprouts with 4 - 5 leaves are covered with thin web-like down which intensifies from top to crown. The sprout is reddish and has a violet hue along its total length. The one-year sprout. Ripened shoots are reddish-gray in color in autumn. Axils on the shoot are well depicted and are darker in color than the spaces between them, which are quite long at 12 - 15cm in length. Stripes along the inter-axil shoot are weakly depicted. The leaf. Well-developed, mature leaves are large in size (9-12) and a dark green color. The length of the leaf varies from 17 to 25 cm and width from 15 to 23 cm. The length-width of the middle leaf is 22 x 20 cm. The shape of the leaf blade is more often kidney-like, rarely rounded. The surface of the leaf is წვრილბურთულებიანი and the tips of lobes are slightly upraised. We often see three-lobed leaves, rarely five-lobed or un-lobed, almost whole leaves. Middle lobes is normally acute-angled. The main veins of the leaf are reddish in color at the place of their განტოტვა closer to base. Upper incisions are normally weakly developed, the depth being minor, rarely average. The shape of incisions varies accordingly to adanakvTis depth, from slightly noticeable to lyre-like shape. Most commonly, the incisions are cleft-like or like intruded angles. The shape of petiole incisions significantly varies. Most often open, acute-based lyre-like incisions are found; rarely oval-eyed, closed; and, more rarely, with rounded-based, arch-like incisions. The main veins of the leaf end with large, straight, triangular acute and blunt-tipped teeth. Lateral teeth are like saw-teeth, and rarely, bilaterally gamozneqilgverdebiani teeth can be found. The top sides of leaves are bare, while the undersides are downy with horizontally გართხმული web-like hairs and straight standing bristle-like down. The down on the undersides of leaves is averagely thick. Leaf petioles are yellowish-red and have a violet hue. The petiole is usually shorter than the main vein, and rarely equal to it. In autumn, the leaves of Kachichi are reddish in color. The flower. The flowers are hermaphroditic with normally developed pistil and stamens; there are 5 stamens in a flower, rarely, 6 stamens, all of which are straight-standing. The ratio of stamen thread length to the height of the pistil is 1.5, rarely 1.75 or more. The pistil is straight cone-like shaped and the column is short, almost sitting with the nose divided into two. The bunch. Bunches are typically of average size. The length of bunch varies from 14 to 23cm, and width from 10 to 13cm. The length-width of an average bunch is 18 x 10 cm. Bunches are cone-like and winged; rarely cone-cylindrical shaped. A bunch of Kachichi is usually thin, it is rarely averagely dense. Well-developed large bunches weigh 250 - 350g and average bunches 120 - 160 g. The length of leaf pedicels varies from 4 to 8 cm and the length of an average bunch’s pedicel varies from 5 - 6 cm. The pedicel is slightly woody close to the base and takes on the shoot color. It easily breaks as a result of mechanical touch. The length of grain pedicels varies from 0.4 to 1.0 cm, commonly being length 0.6 – 0.8 cm. The grain. The grain of Kachichi is average, its length varying from 1.4 to 1.6 and width from 1.5 to 1.7 cm. The length-width of an average seed is 1.5 x 1.6cm. The grain is often concave, rarely rounded. The skin, which is dark blue, almost black, is thin but quite dense. The flesh is also dense and quite juicy; the seed does not easily separate from the flesh. The juice is a light pink color. Grains have a sweet taste which is accompanied with pleasant acidity. The typical aroma is weakly depicted. The grain is covered with quite thick wax-like flakes. The seed. The number of seeds in a grain varies from 1 to 4. More often we see two, rarely three quite large seeds. One-third of seeds are undeveloped and floating in water. The average amount of normal seeds in a grain does not exceed 1.5. Seeds are of average size 1 - 8mm in length and 4 – 4.5 in width. The body of the seed is oval and grayish-brown; closer to beak being yellowish. The kalaza is rounded it well depicted and is located in the upper part of the seed. From kalaza to beak are directed narrow incisions, and from the kalaza to upper part of the beak, the cleft is deeper and divides the upper part of the seed into two. The abdominal side of the seed is ქედიანი, very rarely flat and narrow ნაწიბურიანი, but it is well depicted along the seed’s length. The clefts on the abdominal side are narrow, deep and are almost parallel running along both sides of the ნაწიბური until disappearing in the beak. The base of the cleft is yellowish-orange. The length of the beak is 1.5 - 2.0mm and is cone-like and yellow on the top side, on the underside being orange. Agro-Biological Description Course of vegetation phases. Observation of the phenol-phases was held in the base point of Abkhazia of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Akhalsopeli village. The collective vineyard is cultivated on relatively straight soil, which is two kilometers away from the sea coast. The development phase of Kachichi is connected to climate data of the meteorological station of Guduta, which is 4 - 5 kilometers from the vineyard. Below is shown the attitude of vegetation phases towards meteorological conditions of some years. It is clear from Table 2, that the length of the vegetation period varies from 176 to 203 days, and on average, is 189 days. The length of the vegetation season also varies according to the sum of active temperature- from 3576 ° to 3989 ° and, on average over 4 years, it was 3824°. During the vegetation periods of some years, a higher sum of active temperature was the result of a high daily temperature. For example, the monthly level of average temperature in September 1937 was higher by 3.1 degree- and in October by 1 degree- than in 1940 in the same months. At the same time, the sum of sediments in these months were 85mm lower than in 1940. On the other hand, the full ripeness of Kachichi over 176 days in 1939, when the sum of active temperature was 3576° and sum of sediments 934mm, is confirmation that Kachichi can be freely cultivated in regions with cooler climates, where the amount of sediment is relatively low and the sum of active temperature is around 3500°. Ripeness of one-year shoots. At the time of full grape-ripening, one-year shoots of Kachichi freely manage to ripen. In the subtropical conditions of Abkhazia, where the vegetation season is long and the sum of active temperature is high, the shoots of later-ripening types than Kachichi freely manage ripeness, as, from full vine-ripeness to mass leaf-fall- almost one month –the average daily temperature is higher than 10°. Strength of vine growth. The strength of vine growth significantly varies accordingly to soil features. In relatively equal conditions of development, Kachichi is characterized by strong growth. According to the observation of Kvaratskhelia, S. Timofeev and others, Kachichi- even in the case of high formation -is characterized by strong growth. So, at height and on lowlands, Kachichi grows strongly and can be freely allocated to varieties which are characterized by strong growth. The productivity. Kachichi, like other local vine varieties, gives harvest early. According to the observation which was held in Akhalsopeli village, Kachichi gives first sign of harvest in its second year from planting; and from third year it gives part of its harvest and from the fourth or fifth year, a full yield. The harvest of Kachichi is on average, equal to 60 - 80 centners per hectare. It is clear that according to some plots, its productivity significantly varies. Some authors, for example K. Machavariani and A Egorov, consider Kachichi as a productive type, while Professor Kvaratskhelia and S. Timofeev consider Kachichi as an average and less productive type. In comparison with other local types, Kachichi is more productive and can be considered as freely belonging to the group of varieties characterized by higher than average productivity. And if Kachichi is compared with the vine varieties of Imereti spread throughout Abkhazia, such as Tsolikoru, Tsiska and others, it will appear an averagely productive type. In conclusion, Kachichi can be considered as an averagely productive type. For a more complete characterization of Kachichi’s productivity, below are shown the results of observations which were held in the base point of The Institute of Viticulture and Enology Akhalsopeli village. According to the data in Table 3, the coefficient of loading varies from 0.5 to 1.5 and the average weight of a bunch from 120 to 160g. The weight of a well developed bunch is 250 - 300g. According to this data, the calculated harvest from such loading is 61.6 centners per hectare. It is clear that, on such feeding areas during the strong growth period of the variety, 16 bud formation with bilateral wallpaper is very light loading and, due to this, the harvest will be less. In normal conditions, on 3.5 sq m feeding area, 20 - 25 buds must be left for suitable loading in order to achieve a normal harvest, which, for Kachichi, must be 8 - 100 centners. Durability against fungal diseases. Kachichi is more susceptible to mildew than ash. The durability of Kachichi in comparison with other local varieties is good and, in comparison with the vine varieties of Imereti- particularly Tsolikouri -its resistance to mildew is relatively weak, and its resistance to ash is not less than that of Tsolikouri.
Agro-Technical characteristics. Kachichi was selected for high formation in order to give a high quality harvest. The wine made from this was also good quality. In the latest period of viticulture, after the spread of fungal diseases, Kachichi has been cultivated on lowlands and pruned following the one-sided wallpaper guidelines. During pruning by one-sided and bilateral wallpaper guidelines, Kachichi, as a strong type, is not suitable when loaded as a strong type and, due to this; its harvest is not abundant.
In order to increase the harvest, larger forms of loading must be used for Kachichi. The old Georgian form- Oliknari – is prospective for loading, which is characterized by an average height of body and many years’ worth of shoulders. Such a form must be widely examined in industry for better selection. In order to increase productivity, the method of breaking off young sprout’s tips before the start of flowering, or at the beginning of flowering, must be established. This measure will promote blossoming and the growth of denser bunches. By developing suitable agro rules for this variety, the productivity of Kachichi can be freely increased and the quality of wine can also be improved. Relationship with roots which are durable against phylloxera. Kachichi is characterized by good მონათესაობა, with roots which are durable against phylloxera. Of the examined roots, those expressing a better ability of growth-development and cicatrize with RipariaXRupestri 3309. In the viticulture regions of Georgia, as a result of the wide examination of roots durable against phylloxera, the following roots can be recommended for Kachichi: for relatively dry limy soils, RiperiaXBerlandier 5 bb and 420 a; and for other soils where the amount of lime does not exceed 20 - 25%, RiperiaXRupestri 3309 and 3306. On stronger limy soils, where calcium-carbonates reach 60%, it is better to use Berlandier 42 b, as it is the most durable root for soils consisting of a large amount of lime.
Mechanical structure of bunch. Kachichi is a wine variety. The external appearance of bunch, its mechanical structure and the chemical structure of juice indicate its usefulness for making wine. Indeed, qualitative table red wine is only made when it is less attractive and useful for eating. In order to impart information about the Kachichi grape mechanical structure, below are shown the results of the analysis. The materials for the analysis were taken from highly cultivated vineyards (Achandara village) and also from vineyards cultivated on lowlands (S. Akhalsopeli collective vineyard). The mechanical analysis was held in the base point of Abkhazia at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology by A. Iobadze and K. Tabidze. As is clear from the data shown in Table 4, the ratio of grape parts varies little. The outlet of juice- at 1.3% -except in cases of an impact of meteorological conditions can be caused by the influence of vine formation. In industrial conditions, the outlet of wine and husks of grape varies and depends on the location of its plot and also on meteorological factors. On the base point of Abkhazia (Akhalospeli village), according to the observation of 1936 – 1940, outlet of wine varied from 10 to 15 deciliters, and the husks of grape from 25 to 30kg from one centner of grape. So, in the coastal zone of Gudauta, the average outlet of wine and husks of grape from one centner must be considered as 72 deciliters of wine and 28kg husks of grape and pomace. The outlet of wine in high zones located in mountain foothills is lower. For example, in Gulripsha village, the outlet of wine averaged 70%. Chemical structure of juice. The chemical structure of juice significantly varies over many years. For example, according to the observation which was held on the base point of Abkhazia, this changeability during 5 years was 2.5% for sugar and 1.7% for acidity. To characterize this changeability, below are shown the results of the glukoacidometriuli analysis, taken during harvest. The decrease in sugar from 1939 to 1940 years is the result of abundant sediments in the relatively dry year and the sugar increases and reaches 21.6%. Use of grape and quality of wine. From the Kachichi grape, dry table wine is made. Additionally, wine from Kachichi was used to make soft grape juice for testing and was found to be of good quality. The soft juice of Kachichi is characterized by moderate sugar content and cheerful acidity; meaning that a consumer will not get bored quickly and will want to receive a large amount during the season. Kachichi is less useful for making dessert wines as it lacks external beauty, grain size and pleasant taste and so, as a result, it is less attractive. Kachichi is not used for making other types of wine, and does not have great prospect in this regard. So, it is most reasonable to use Kachichi for making dry table wines and indeed, wine made from Kachichi in coastal locations and on slightly sloping planes- particularly wine from vineyards of base points -is good quality. Wine made from Kachichi is a good color, and is characterized by softness and a well developed typical aroma. Wine made from Kachichi from vineyards of base points is no less than the well-known red types made in Abkhaz conditions such as Caberne and Saperavi. In Sokhumi, at a meeting of the Degustation Commission, which was invited for a wine-alcohol inspection, Kachichi wine got a higher estimation than Saperavi and Caberne, which can be explained by vineyard location. Most interesting is the controversy of wines made from these types in equal conditions. The characterization-estimation of the Degustation Commission regarding Abkhaz red wines, in comparison with Kachichi wine, is shown below. The Commission was invited to a wine-alcohol inspection for the testing of wine quality and characterization. According to this estimation, Kechichi wine, among Abkhazian red wines, deserves attention. By quality, it is closer to Saperavi wine, which- in the conditions of Abkhazia -is characterized by greater softness. In order to characterize the chemical nature of Kachichi wine, below are the results of analysis. Data shown in Table 7 confirms the richness of Kachichi wine’s chemical nature- its moderate consistency of alcohol, desirable acidity and moderate consistency of extracts. In ancient times, Kachichi wine was very popular, especially famous were its wines from zones located in mountain foothills (Gudauta region). For example, Machavariani characterizes it as a dark red wine. Professor Kavaratshelia considers it a soft, interesting wine with habitual aroma; and N. Timofeev estimates it as a soft, aromatic, dark red table wine. The above characterization is mainly about the young wines of Kachichi. As it ages, it develops its features and significantly improves. In 1923, in Moscow, at the Agricultural Exhibition, aged wine of Kachichi from the 1909 harvest of the Gulripsha village was examined. At the meeting of the expert commission, Kachichi wine was estimated by main wine-grower A. Egorov as muddy, with a non-intensive color; a soft, interesting wine, which is closer to Gae and Portuge wines of the coastal regions. It is clear that this estimation, based on one sample, is not an absolute description of the quality of Kachichi’s aged wine. Egorov considers Kachichi as an abundantly productive variety which does not give high qualitative wine. Perhaps the incorrect view of Egorov influenced the estimation of the quality of wine, as, in this view, it is impossible to make high qualitative wine from an abundantly productive variety.
General Evaluation and Distribution by District
Kachichi is local lesser-spread vine variety. It gives table red wine of good quality. It is spread in Abkhazia- in the districts of Sokhumi and Gudauta; and in Samegrelo- mainly in Chkhorotskhu and Khob regions. Among the red vine varieties spread throughout Abkhazia, it deserves attention for its productivity and good quality. Kachichi wine is characterized by a good color, moderate consistency of alcohol, habitual typical aroma and pleasant harmonic taste. Among the local red-grape varieties, if Amlakhu- which gives pink sparkling wine -is discluded, Kachichi takes first place. Presently, in its homeland, it is closer in quality of wine to Saperavi and Caberne. Its main defect is relatively low productivity; a defect which can be easily corrected in the case of suitable pruning-formation and good care-treatment of vineyards. This variety is not included in the standard assortment. Kachichi is a prospective variety- its cultivation in viticulture regions of Abkhazia very desirable. Firstly, it must be spread in the districts of Gudauta, Sokhumi and Gali (mainly in high zones located in mountain foothills) in order to make qualitative table red wines. Kachichi is also prospective in districts of Samegrelo and partly in Adjara-Guria, mainly for cultivation on mountain slopes and in high places. Bibliography
1. Kestkhoveli N., Zones of Cultural Plants in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1957 2. Modebadze K., Viticulture Regions of Georgia. Tbilisi, 1936 3. Tabodze D., Development of Viticulture in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1950 4. Cholokhashvili S,. Viticulture, Vol. II, Ampholography. Tbilisi, 1939 5. Javakhishvili Iv., Economic History of Georgia, Vol. II. Tbilisi, 1934.
- Tsolikouri (white)
- Khikhvi (white) is grown in Kardanakhi.
- Dzvelshava (red)
- Krakhuna (white)Krakhuna is a local white vine variety, made for high quality alcoholic table white wine and also for the preparation of dessert wine.
Krakhuna is most cultivated in Imereti. By its morphological and agricultural features it easily can belong to the prol. pintica, sub prol. georgica Negr.- ecological-geographical group, which comes from the Kolkheti valley. There is no extensive information about the time and place of its origin, only some descriptions from literature sources and folklore which assists in the painting of an approximate picture of the variety’s past.
Klarjula is described by famous specialist V. Staroselski, who thinks that the vine was brought from Kakheti, yet, orphologically, this cannot be true as the vine was never developed in Kakheti, thus it belongs to Western Georgia.
Klarjula is a table wine variety whose grape has excellent taste, transportability, long storage ability (keepable until spring), beautiful grains and bunch and also is higly productive. Klarjula is considered as one of the best vines in Georgia.
There are no written materials about the origin of Klarjula. As the name shows, Klarjuli could have been brought from the Guria-Adjara districts, where it had more convenient enviromental conditions for development. Academician Iv. Javakhishvili supports this idea (6). This vine is grown in different places and districts, where its name varies. For example: Goruli Mtsvane, Supra Goruli (from Gori), Javakhetura (from Javakheti), Tagidzura (fro Tagidze family), Argvetuli Sapere (from Aragveti), Obchuri Tsolikouri (from Obcha), Bazaleturi Tsolikouri (from Bazaleti), Rachuli Mtsvane (from Racha), Kakhuri Mtsvane (from Kakheti) and so on. Despite this, it cannot be confirmed that Klarjula originates from Klarjeti, as there is no information available from the Shavshet-Klarjeti vineyard district. It is not even known if the vine variety exists there. That is why the issue must be studied more deeply. G. Sharashidze (8) describes Klarjula. It is known that one of the major bases of this grapevine formation is its specific characteristics (the strength of growth, the ability to climb and tendency to develop either at length or width). This is the reason why the vine belongs to the table wine variety. Klarjula, which was distributed in Guria-Adjara, is white, when Tskhenisdzudzu is red. Klarjula is slightly round and oval, while Tskhenisdzudzu is longer. There are many biological differences between the above mentioned vines, so it must be considered that they are independent from each other.
Before the spread of fungal diseases and phylloxera, this variety was massively cultivated on high lands of Guria and upper Adjara. The product of Klarjula is mostly used as a consumption grape. Often, it was not harvested, and sometimes was but only in winter. It has also been indicated that wine was also made from Klarjula. It had a yellow color and pleasant taste and aroma. Because of the spread of fungal diseases and phylloxera, it became totally extinct. At present, it can be found in western Guria and upper Adjara villiges (Guria – Shemokmedi, Chanieti, Likhauri, Adjara – Kakeshi, Tskhrafona and Khutsubani). The vine's growth-development is very strong and it can provide a large harvest, though it requires good weather to do so. Small cultivated areas of Klarjula can be seen in Chokhatauri, Makharadze and Batumi districts. The reason why Klarjula became extinct is because Tsolikouri was widely spread and population did not have much knowledge of Klarjula. Only later, at the request of scientists, Klarjula was cultivated lightly in Guria-Adjara, hopeful of its future development.
The young sprout. During the period of breaking, the bud is whitish and slightly grayish in color. The first newly opened leaf is bright green on the surface, yellowish or having a dark reddish coloring, densely covered with white down. The underside is covered with felt-like white down. The following second and third young leaves are reddish-violet, the veins of which are bright green. The covering is quite noticeable from the second leaf, but less so on the third. The underside is covered by a felt-like surface. Young sprouts are lightly covered by grayish hair-like down. The covering is more prevalent on the top of the sprout. Sprouts are round-shaped; one side is green, while the other is violet. Young sprouts (13 - 15cm) are green, but on one side toward the tip is red-violet color and covered with grey hairy down, running along to the sprout.
The one young shoot. The inter-axil space is 6 - 12cm. The young growth shoot with its crown, and first two leaf-bracts is covered with a thick felt-like coating and brown down on both sides. The coating disappears by the third leaf on the topside and takes on a yellowish green coloring, slightly reddish, while the underside maintains the same white coating. The fourth and fifth leaves are greenish-yellow on the topside and to the underside are covered with quite a thick web-like coating. The leaf. A completely developed leaf is middle-sized or small and generally roundish or oval, about 16.8cm long and 14.3cm wide. The incision of a leaf’s petiole is mostly lyre-shaped; the margins of incisions consist of three veins, and arrow-like deep incisions can also be found. The upper incisions are open and slightly incised, rarely, deeply; while the lower incision is insignificantly incised. The leaf is three-lobed. The margin of a tip creates an obtuse angle to the blade, or rarely – right. The teeth of margin tips are triangular with sharp tips or convex sides, while saw-like teeth can also be found. The secondary teeth are similar to the major teeth. The underside of the leaf is less coated; the topside smooth; the blade flat, while funnel-like leaves can also be found. The major veins are lightly coated, bright green and red to the basis. The proportion of leaf’s petiole to the major vein is 0.7 – 0.9cm; is bare and bright green and often red wine-colored.
The flower. The flower is hermaphroditic, having a normally developed bunch and pistil. In one flower are five stamens, though there can also be four or six. The nose of pistils is almost round-shaped. The number of flowers in one inflorescence totals about 180 - 250. The bunch. The pedicel of bunches is 3.5 - 5.5 cm long. Bunches are smaller than average, 2 - 3cm in length, while the width equals 15 - 18cm. A large bunch is 20 - 22 cm long, while the small is – 10 - 13cm long, on one bunch there are about 75 grains. The general shape of a bunch is cylindrical-cone and often has wings; the length of wings equals half of the bunch. Bunches are of average density; sometimes thin. The grain receptacle is wide cone-like and is rugged.
The grain. The pedicel of the grain is 7 - 8mm long, is green, wrinkled and wide-cone shaped. The grain is tightly attached to the pedicel. Grains are nearly black, middle sized or larger, about 18.93 - 20mm long and 18.05mm wide. Large grains can be 21.8 mm long and 21.1mm wide. They are oval or longish in shape, widening in the middle, with rounded ends and are generally symmetrical. Grains are less juicy, but are fleshy with a pleasant sweet taste. They are thick-skinned and separate easily from the flesh. The grain is significantly covered with wax. The seed. There are 1-3 seeds in a grain. In a grain are about one to four seeds. Hence, the average number of seeds in one grain equals 6.5 - 7.5mm. The body of a seed is roundish, and narrowed toward the tip. Seeds are around 3.5 - 4mm long and 4.0mm wide, bright brown and yellowish near the tip. Their bases are roundish and slightly deep, and have bumpy abdomens with well-depicted yellow veins. The length of a tip is 2mm, and is of a brown, slightly orange, color whilst over the underside surface, its tip is spotted and deviated toward the abdomen.
Agro-Biological Description Phenolohical obseration took place in the village of Khutsubani (Kobuleti district) where the vines are almost 60 years old. Below are given the statistics of observation from Khutsubani village. Growth of the vine. Observation shows that the high vineyards of Klarjula in Guria and Adjara are characterized by quite strong growth. In the case of neglect in cultivation, but when the weather is suitable, high vineyards of Klarjula can strongly develop vegetation parts and, sometimes, the length of sprouts can reach 3m. Such strong growth was characteristic for Klarjula in the past, as proved by local viticulturists’ notes as well as by many other written sources. The growth of low vineyards of Klarjula is average in Guria, while in some cases is above average (on the Soviet farm of Kartli). Through proper cultivation of the vine, the length of particular sprouts can exceed 3 - 4m.
The productivity. As with other Georgian varieties, Klarjula gives its first sign of harvesting early, from the second year of planting, while from the third year it can reach nearly half of its full harvest capability 1 - 2 bunches. Durability against phylloxera and fungal diseases. Klarjula is more sensitive to downy mildew, especially in lowland and high-moisture areas, such as Imereti and Kakheti. A complete destruction of the vine by heat or frost has not been recorded. Klarjula adapts to all types of soil and is able to grow independently.
Response to environment. Observation shows that in lowlands of Guria and Adjara, in moist places, where the ground water is close to the surface and the air is also damp, Klarjula provides low quality production, because a lot of water is accumulated in grains, eliminating and worsening the grape’s taste and other values. In such places, the impact of fungal diseases is also more prevalent and stronger. To get higher productivity and better quality production, Klarjula requires cultivation on southern and south-eastern, sun-lit slopes. Such places are aided by the grape’s storage ability and transportability. In bad weather conditions, Klarjula experiences extensive flower-fall, of about 10%. The number of small grains on a bunch is from 7 to 10 %.
Klarjula belongs to the high quality table grape varieties. It develops high productive, beautiful bunches and pleasant-tasting, delicious grains. In sun-lit places, its production is quite satisfactory (Khutsubani village, Kobuleti district).
Four years observation indicates that the proportions of sugar (18.2 - 19.5) and acidity (8.2 - 9.1%) in the given samples should be considered as quite satisfactory for quality table grape. However, after selecting more suitable expositions and supportive locations, the production of Klarjula will improve in quality and in all values.
General Evaluation and Distribution by District
Klarjula is a representative of the early-ripening vine variety group, which is limited in cultivation. This variety can be successfully cultivated in the mountainous regions of Georgia, as it is early ripening, and can be used for making champagne material and for table wine of local importance. In order to achieve high quality champagne material, the harvest of Klarjula should be done in the first half of September in Guria and Adjara districts and at the end of August and the beginning of September in the districts of central and upper Guria. It received good references from the Degustation Commission and was considered as potentially the best wine material for champagne in the future. It has a pleasant taste, typical aroma, and softness. The vine is characterized by average growth, in more suitable ecological conditions, and with the application of high technological methods, it can provide higher than average development, which can be used in the preparation of champagne, Imereti table and European wine type, no volume of alcohol in the juice and table grapes. Klarjula does not display good resistance to fungal diseases and particularly to powdery mildew; that is why agro-technical involvement is necessary. It is not well known and distributed. Thus, it is not included on the famous wine list- a fact that must be taken into consideration, with the distribution in different parts of Georgia needing to take place soon. This will help scientists to choose the location when it can be easily cultivated. Klarjula is considered as a very prospective species for development of viticulture in Guria and Adjara and throughout Georgia: In Guria, the River Khevistskali valley - Burnata, Kokhnari, Nakaduli, Kvemokheti, Cometa, Gantiadi, Mamulari and Kalagoni villiges. In the zone of the river Supsa–Dablatsikhe, Sakvavistkis, Fartskhma, Akhalsofeli, Gogoleisubani, Sameba, Vani, Zomleti, Ianouli, Guturi, Vzaiani, Kaisubani, Intabueti; In the River Bakhvistskali zone–Askani, Vaniskhedi, Mtispiri, Bakhvi, Famfaleti and Nasakirali Micro districts; In the River Natanebi and Bjujistskli zones–Vakijvari, Bagdati, Tskhemliskhidi, Uchkhubi, Dvabzu, Natanebi,Gomi, Shemokmedi, Makvaneti, Likhauri and Chanieti micro-districts; In Adjara – Khucubani–Kvirike, Mukhaestate and Kakutlegva zones: Khutsubni, Sameba, Kvirike, Mukhaestate, Achis, Chakvistavisa and Legvas micro-districts; In Akhalsheni–Kapandibi and Acharistskal–Makhunceti zones: Akhalsheni, Kahaberi, Tkhilnari, kapandibis, Adjaarisklisa and Makhunceti micro-districts.
1. Ketskhoveli N., Zone of Cultural Plants in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1957. 2. Ramishvili M., Vine Types of Guria, Samegrelo and Adjara. Tbilisi, 1948. 3. Ramishvili M., Klarjuli. Works of Viticulture and Enology, Vol. X, 1958 4. Tabidze D., Development of Viticulture in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1954 5. Cholokhashvili S., Viticulture, Vol. II, Ampelography. Tbilisi, 1938. 6. Javakhishvili Iv., Economic History of Georgia, Vol. II. Tbilisi, 1934
Academician Iv. Javakhishvili describes the origin of Krakhuna in his works (8). According to his research Krakhuna is local dialect word for 'grain' in Imereti. It is said in Western Georgia that:a grain in the mouth explodes and makes noise, but in Kakheti it is not noisy. If the vine had originated from Eastern Georgia, then it would be named Knatuna or something else. Krakhuna is believed to have been a very popular wine during last century. It was spread mostly in Imereti (Sviri, Obcha), and was an honorable vine not only in Georgia, but all over the Soviet Union. Its durability against oidium is low and, if necessary actions are not taken- such as treatments with sulphur to protect the vine from oidium diseases, –the entire harvest can be lost. Its present location of distribution is central Imereti: in Sviri, Kvalichi, Obcha, Dimi, and Fersati, Mayakovski, Zestafoni, Kveda Sakare, and Argveti. Based on 1940 statistics, Krakhuna covered approximately 102 hectares.
This variety was described in the collective vineyard of Zestafoni and explored in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Telavi. In Obcha, the vine is formed by Georgian guideline, on stake; while in Telavi – by cordon.
The young shoot. The young growth shoot with its tips, crown, and second (sometimes even third) leaf-bracts are covered with a thick felt-like coating and grayish-white, slightly pink down. From the third leaf, the coating decreases on the topside and becomes greenish-yellow, with an orange hue. On the underside, leaves are covered with a thick felt-like grayish coating until the fourth and fifth leaves. The one year shoot. One year shoots are dark yellowish or bright brown, having the average width of 7 - 9mm. The length between axils is 8 - 12cm, which are lightly covered by grayish down.
The leaf. The size of a fully developed leaf is medium, having a 9 - 12 length and 17 - 18cm width. Leaves are oval shaped and nearly round, being slightly sectioned. The upper side area is similar to a blister or web, funnel-shaped, sometimes flat. The underside of the leaf is covered by felt-like grayish down. The tip is always bright and unchanging; by shape similar to an arrow, with mostly equal sides. It can also be deeply convex. The upper part of the tip is deep or has quite a deep angle. The tips of leaf surfaces are characterized by triangular teeth; which can also be round and deep on one side, with the secondary teeth being similarly shaped. The lower incision is as well developed as the upper incision and often slightly deep. As a rule, the leaf is three-lobed, rarely five. The edge of the tip creates an obtuse angle to the blade, rarely – right.
The flower. Flowers are hermaphroditic with normally developed pistil and stamens. Most commonly there are six standing stamens in a flower, rarely five or seven. The length of stamens thread to pistil is 1.25, rarely – 1.50. The knot is wrinkled, roundish and rarely cone-shaped. The column is short and ends with small two-part nose. The bunch. Bunches are medium sized, about 12 - 16cm long and 8 - 10cm wide; the average length of a bunch is 14cm, while the width – 8cm. Bunches are cylindrical-cone shaped, rarely wide-cone or cylindrical. Generally, bunches are dense. The pedicel of a bunch is like grass, and becomes more solid when approaching the sprout basis, taking on its coloring. The pedicel is 2 - 5cm long, the average being 2.5 - 3cm. At the time of full grape-ripening, the pedicel of the grain is dark red, rarely green, from 6 to 8mm with the average – 6mm. The receptacle of a pedicel has a narrow cone shape and a rugged surface. The grain is tightly connected to the pedicel. The grain. The grain is middle sized, from 1.7 to 1.8cm long and 1.5 - 1.6cm wide, commonly 2.0cm long and 2.0 - 2.1cm wide. Grains are rounded, or concave, and of different sizes. The grain is symmetrical, wider in the middle, with a rounded end. The ripened grain is black, covered with thick waxy spots that make it dark violet. The skin is thin, easily detachable from the flesh. The flesh is juicy and more solid around the seeds. The juice is uncolored and has a sweet pleasant taste.
The seed. The number of seeds in a grain varies from 1 to 4. Mainly being 2.6 seeds. There are, on average, two seeds in a grain. Seeds vary in shape: most often they are narrow, rounded-oblong in shape, rarely rounded with short tips. Their length, with tip, is 6.5 – 7.5mm; the width is 4.0 – 4.5mm. The body of seeds is straw-colored. The kalaza is located in the upper part of body, has an oval shape, being concave in the middle. The incision from the kalaza to upper part and tip is well depicted, being narrow but deep. The abdominal side of the seed is slightly wavy or flat. Clefts of the abdomen are not deep and run towards the tip in parallel lines. The beak is cylinder shape, with a 2.0 – 1.5mm length. The basis of the cleft is yellow; the tip is narrow cone-like and rugged.
Vegatation period and course of vegetation phases. Observations of the course of the vegetation period and its phases were conducted on Telavi and Sakare collective plots of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Sakare testing station, which is built in a valley 149.2m above sea level; and also on the Institute of Viticulture and Enology collective vineyard of Kurdgelauri village, Zestafoni, at 562.3m above sea level.
The latest ripening Krakhuna is cultivated in South Ukraine, followed by Georgia with the earliest ripening occuring in Imereti where the vegatation period is normal. Usually in Imereti, Krakhuna starts to ripe on 26 september, in Kakheti 12 October, In Ukraine 20 October. The sum of active temperature is: in Odessa 368.0, in Telavi 800 and in Zestafoni 1300. In comparatively long vegetation conditions in Imereti and partly in Kakheti, the sprouts of Krakhuna are able to ripen by the time of leaf-fall, and are ready to face the winter, resulting in little or no damage from winter frosts.
The productivity. As with the majority of Georgian grapevine varieties, Krakhuna produces its first harvest from the second year after planting. Half a yield is gained in the third year, while from the fourth year it gives full productivity. At Sakare testing station, the productivity ranged from 80 – 100 centners. The observation made in Kakheti shows that the annual average harvest does not exceed 1.6 -3 kg per root or 20 kg in total. According to Ukranian observation, Krakhuna's harvest ranges from 818g to 2260g per root, which means 1220 per root in a year.
Based on Sakare testing station and Institute of Viticulture and Enology the number of sprouts changes from 87 to 96% in Zestafoni, and from 86 to 100% in Telavi.
The coefficient of productivity in Imereti ranges from 1.3 to 1.5, in Kakheti 1.34 – 1.56%. The average weight of a grain in Imereti in Zestafoni is 118-160g, in Kakheti (Telavi) 120-200g, on average being 160g. The average weight (Odessa) is 140-150g, and for large bunches 350-450g. If environmental conditions are suitable, Krakhuna may provide harvest from 80 to 100 centners.
Durability against pests and fungal diseases.
In the Imereti -Kakheti warm and wet climate, it is very susceptible to disease. High-growing vines get infected most commonly, due to the difficulties of cultivation and aftercare. Lower area vines are pestizied on time and, if all rules are followed, the plant it is protected from diseases. Observation shows that its durability against pests and diseases is strong. Its durability against oidium, when cultivated, is low and if nessessary actions are not taken- such as treatments with sulphur to protect the vine from oidium diseases –the entire harvest can be destroyed. Data of the Testing Station in Telavi (Telavi zone) shows that Krakhuna is resistant to diseases, which can be explained by dry ecological conditions. In the Imeretian mountains, Krakhuna's durability against pests and diseases is strong, and that is why cultivation is not spread widely and why it provides a low yield. If well treated, Krakhuna engrafted on a rootstock is characterized by strong growth-development and regular productivity.
Response to the environment and specificity of agro-techniques. Based on observations over many years, Krakhuna is not sensitive to ecological conditions. If we do not take its high vulnerability to fungal diseases into account; this grapevine variety can successfully develop as well in lowland areas as in hilly, mountainous places and on different types of expositions. Its high adaptability refers also to soil varieties, as Krakhuna can develop as well on weak, podsolic, as on clay and alluvial soils. However its production is specifically valuable and qualitative if cultivated on southern or south-eastern facing slopes and sun-lit weak-podsolic soils. In such places, the impact of fungal diseases is lessened and grape bunches and grains are very beautiful and valuable.
Since Imereti is not characterized with winter and spring frosts, the ripened masse of the vine develops normally without any difficulties. Krakhuna, as a strongly growing grapevine variety, used to be formed as high vineyards for centuries of generating and selecting.
Relation with other varieties Krakhuna's durability against phylloxera has been less studied. From rootstock vine types, the best results for Krakhuna can be brought from hybrids of RipariaXRupestri-3306. Krakhuna engrafted on this rootstock is characterized by high growth-development. In Bakhvi, Krakhuna brought from hybrids of RipariaXRupestri-3306 has low productivity. The same picture can be seen in the Salkhino zone. From rootstock vine types, the best results for Krakhuna can be brought from hybrids of BerlandieriXRiparia.
Technical Characteristics By chemical consistency, Krakhuna belongs to wine group. It is also use as table grape (eating). Among table wines (Tsitska, Tsolikouri, Dondglabi, Otskhanuri Sepere) Krakhuna is a table (dessert) wine. Chemical structure of juice. During harvest among Imeretian vine Krakhuna consists of most sugar. It sugar volume reaches 28-30%. Mostly sugar consistence the vine has in Central Imereti – Orjonikidze, Zestafoni, Mayakovski, Chiatura and Sachkhere districts. Krakhuna ripe one period earlier, then Tsitska or Tsolikouri. During the same period of harvest in comparison with Tsitska and Tsolikauri the sugar amount is still 24-26%. It is possible to make strong or dessert wine, if the rain will not disturb its ripeness. Use of the grape and wine quality.
Krakhuna grapes are mostly used for Imeretian and European table wine. Based on some tests it is possible to prepare Maderi and Portwine type wines. Imeretian and European high quality wine can be produced in cntral Imereti, Zestafoni and Mayakovski districts. From this point Klaviti-Sviri district is the best. The vine cultivated on that areas provides quality wine. In Upper Imereti wine is mostly made as european type. In other parts of Western Georgia – Guria-Samegrelo, Achara-Abkhazeti and Racha-Lechkhumi Krakhuma is not distributed much. In comparison with Tsitska and Tsolikauri wine, Krakhuna is light colored enegetic but lack of softness, although European type Krakhuna is no less then the vines above.
The majority of the grape is used for eating and saving. It has sweet taste and please aroma. The majority of Krakhuna harvest is used for wine preporation.
Organoleptical and chemical discription of wine.
Krakhuna provides quality table wine. European way made wine is yellow, energetic and pleasant taste. Imeretian way made wine is darker, has specific aroma. After saving wine for some time it gets better. It turns into goldish color, increases typical bouquet and become haronic. Krakhuna wine is always praised by the Central Degustation Commission. It is evaluated by 8 points out of ten. In 1945 it got 7.6 points. The wines from Sviri and Argveti villiges also received good points in 1945 and 1946. It is possible to keep wine over 40-45 years, which helps it to become better wine. In Sakare testing station there is Krakhuna wine kept since 1903. Varietions and clones:
There are no discoveries of Krakhuna clones. The work must be continued to have the result. The poritive features: Heavy loading, Good resistance against frost, quality of wine and local usege as table wine.
General Evaluation and Distribution by District
After much experience and observation, Ojaleshi has indicated its character, namely, that it can reach its full ripening period in the middle of November in the mountainous districts of Zestafoni and Maykovski. European and Imeretian types of wine are made from Krakhuna, also table and dessert wines – Madera and Portwine. It is prospective wine for producing semi-sweet wines. Unfortunately it is not developed as well as other Imeretian wines.
The weakest point of the vine is -it is very weak against the influence of phylloxera. This explains the mass disappearance of high-vineyards of Krakhuna. Krakhuna of Imereti district belongs to the wine species by its nature. It must be cultivated and developed in other part and districts of Georgia. Kakhetian Krakhuna has good resistance against mildew and grain rot. It is prospective in South-East disrict of Soviet Union.
1. Demetradze V., Materials for Dividing Georgian Viticulture-Enology Industry into Regions and Specialization. Kutaisi, 1936. 2. Modebadze K. Viticulture districts of Georgia, Tbilisi, 1936. 3. Mirotadze A. For studying vine variety of West Georgia, Works of Sakare Testing station, Vol. II 1950 4. Ramishvili M. Vine varieties of Guria, Samegrelo and Adjara, Tbilisi 1948 5. Ketskhoveli N., Zone of Cultural Plants in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1957. 6. Tabidze D., Development of Viticulture in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1950. 7. Cholokhashvili S., Viticulture, Vol. II, Ampelography. Tbilisi, 1938. 8. Javakhishvili Iv., Economic History of Georgia, Vol.II. 1934. 9. Jorjadze L., Viticulture, Wine-making and Improvement. Tbilisi, 1876.
Georgian wine varieties
Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the name of the source region, district, or village, much like French regional wines such as Bordeaux or Burgundy. As with these French wines, Georgian wines are usually a blend of two or more grapes. Georgian wines are classified as sweet, semi-sweet, semi-dry, dry, fortified and sparkling. The semi-sweet varieties are the most popular.
- Pirosmani is a semi-sweet white wine made from a 40% Tsolikauri, 60% Tsitska blend. It has won 3 gold medals and one silver medal at international competitions.
- Tsinandali is a blend of Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grapes from the micro regions of Telavi and Kvareli in the Kakheti region.
- Tvishi is a natural semi-sweet white wine made from Tsolikauri in the Lechkhumi region. It has won one gold medal, two silver medals and one bronze medal in international competitions.
- Mtsvani is a dry white wine made from Mtsvani.
- Alaznis Veli is white semi-sweet wine made from the Rkatsiteii, Tetra, Tsolikauri and other industrial grape varieties cultivated in Western and Eastern Georgia. The wine of straw color has a characteristic aroma, a fine, fresh and a harmonious taste. It contains 9-11% alcohol and has 6-7% titrated acidity.
- Anakopia is a white semi-dry table wine made from the Tsolikauri grape variety grown in the Sukhumi and Gudauta districts in Abkhazia. The color range is from light to dark-straw. It has a specific aroma and a subtle fresh taste. The alcohol content in the ready wine is 9-11%, sugar content 1-2 g/100 ml, titrated acidity 5-8 g/l. The wine has been produced since 1978.
- Tbilisuri is pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Saperavi, Cabernet and Rkatsiteli grape varieties grown in East Georgia. The wine has a rich fruity taste. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/l.
- Khikhvi is a vintage white dessert wine made from the Khikhvi grape variety grown in Kardanakhi. It has pleasant amber color, a characteristic aroma and a delicate taste. Its strength is 15 vol.%, sugar content 18-20%, titrated acidity 4-8 g/1. The wine has been produced since 1924. At international competitions it received 4 gold medals.
- Saamo is a vintage dessert white sweet wine is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurjaani district in Kakheti. It takes the wine three years to mature. The golden-color wine has an original fine bouquet, a pleasant taste with a harmonious honey fragrance. When ready for use, the wine contains 17% alcohol, 13% sugar and has 4-6 g/1 titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 1980. At international exhibitions Saamo was awarded 4 gold and 1 silver medal.
- Gelati is a white dry ordinary wine made of the Tsolikauri, Tsitska and Krakhuna grape varieties cultivated in Western Georgia. The wine of straw color has a characteristic savor with a fruity flavor and fresh harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.0-12.5 vol.% and titrated acidity 5-8%.
- Kakheti is a white table wine made of the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in Kakheti. The amber-color wine has a fruity aroma with a vanillic flavor. It is characterized by an energetic, velvety and harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.5-13.0 vol.% and titrated acidity 4-6%. At international wine competitions the Kakheti wine was awarded one silver and one bronze medal. It has been produced since 1948.
- Bodbe is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety in the village of Bodbe in the Magaro microdistrict, one of the most beautiful places of Kakheti. The wine has a light-straw color, a fine aroma of wild flowers and a pleasing tender taste which give the wine piquancy highly estimated by connoisseurs. The ready wine contains 10.5-11.5% alcohol and has 5-7% titrated acidity.
- Dimi is an Imeretian-type white ordinary wine. It is made from the Tsolikauri and Krakhuna grape varieties grown on small areas in Imereti (Western Georgia) by the old local technique consisting in fermenting the grapes pulp to which some quantity of grapes husks is added. The dark-straw color has a pleasant specific bouquet with a fruity flavor, a fresh harmonious taste and savory astringency. Its strength is 10.5-13.0 vol.% and titrated acidity 6.5-8.0%. The wine has been produced since 1977.
- Gareji is a white dry ordinary wine made of the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in Kakheti. The wine has a color ranging from pale-straw to amber, a pleasing bouquet and a full harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.0-12.5 vol. % and titrated acidity 4-7%.
- Ereti is a white dry ordinary wine made from the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties. It has a straw color, a fine fruity bouquet and a full fresh and harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.0-12.5 vol.% and titrated acidity 5-8%.
- Shuamta is a dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties according to the Kakhetian recipe. The wine is of amber or dark-amber color and has a moderately astringent harmonious taste with a fruity aroma. The alcohol content is 10-12%, titrated acidity 4-6 g/l, extractibility over 25 g/l.
- Alazani (white), named after Alazani river, is a mid-straw colored semi-sweet wine made from 100% Rkatsiteli. The climate of the Alazani Valley is slightly warmer than that of other wine-growing Georgian regions, making the local grapes sweeter than the rest. It has won one silver and one gold metal in international competitions.
- Akhasheni is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in the Akhasheni vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district in Kakheti. The wine has a dark-pomegranate color has a harmonious velvety taste with a chocolate flavor. It contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. The wine has been made since 1958. At international exhibitions it was awarded 6 gold and 5 silver medals.
- Khvanchkara is a high-end, naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Alexandria & Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in the Khvanchkara vineyards in Racha, Western Georgia. The wine has a strong, distinctive bouquet and a well-balanced tannin profile with flavors of raspberry. It has a dark-ruby color. Khvanchkara wine is one of the most popular Georgian semi-sweet wines. It contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5.0-7.0% titrated acidity. The wine has been made since 1907. It was awarded 2 gold and 4 silver medals at various international exhibitions.
- Kindzmarauli is a high quality naturally semi-sweet wine of dark-red color. It is made from the Saperavi grape variety cultivated on the slopes of the Caucasian mountains in the Kvareli district of Kakheti. It has a strong characteristic bouquet and aroma, a gentle harmonious and velvety taste. The wonderful taste and curative properties have won Kindzmarauli general recognition. The wine contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5.0-7.0% titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 1942. For its supreme qualities Kindzmarauli was 3 gold, 4 silver & 1 bronze medal at international wine competitions.
- Mukuzani is a dry red wine made from 100% Saperavi in Mukuzani, Kakheti. The wine is sourced from the very best wines of the vintage that have been fermented at controlled temperatures and with selected yeast strains. The wines are then matured for 3 years in oak to give the wine-added complexity and flavor. Mukuzani is considered to be the best of the Georgian Dry Red wines made from Saperavi. It has won 9 gold medals, 2 silver medals and 3 bronze medals in international competitions.
- Ojaleshi is one of the best red semi-sweet wines made from the grape variety of the same name cultivated on the mountain slopes overhanging the banks of the Tskhenis-Tskali river, particularly in the Orbeli village and Samegrelo district (Western Georgia). Odzhaleshi has dark-ruby colour, a gentle bouquet and aroma, a harmonious rich taste with a fruity flavor. It contains 10-12% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has a titrated acidity of 5-6%.
- Pirosmani is a naturally semi-sweet red wine. It is made from the Saperavi grape variety cultivated in the Akhoebi vineyards of the Kardanakhi village in the Alazani Valley. The wine is fermented in clay jars buried in the ground, an ancient Kakhetian wine-making technique. When ready for use, the wine contains 10.5-12% alcohol, 1.5-2.5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity.
- Saperavi is a red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in some areas of Kakheti. It is an extractive wine with a characteristic bouquet, a harmonious taste and pleasant astringency. Its strength is 10.5-12.5% and titrated acidity 5-7%. At the international wine competitions this wine received one gold and one silver medal. It has been produced since 1886.
- Usakhelauri is a naturally semi-sweet wine, which is superior to all other wines of this kind for its gentle and subtle qualities. It is produced from the excellent Usakhelauri grape variety cultivated mostly in the Zubi-Okureshi district in Western Georgia. Vineyards are arranged on the mountain slopes. The wine has attractive ruby color, harmonious sweetness with a wild strawberry flavor. It is noted for a pleasant velvety taste, a delicate bouquet and inimitable piquancy. The wine contains up to 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 1943. The word "Usakhelauri" means "nameless" in Georgia. The wine was so fine that it was hard to find an adequate name for it. At international exhibitions Usakhelauri was awarded 2 gold and 3 silver medals.
- Apsny is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made of red grape varieties cultivated in Abkhazia. The wine of pomegranate color has a pleasant aroma, a full and harmonious taste with gentle sweetness. When ready for use, the wine contains 9-10% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. At an international exhibition the wine received one silver medal.
- Lykhny is a naturally semi-sweet pink wine made of the Izabela grape variety cultivated in Abkhazia. The wine has pink color, a specific aroma and a fresh harmonious taste. When ready for use, the wine contains 8-9% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. At international exhibitions Lykhny was awarded one silver and one bronze medal.
- Mtatsminda is a pink table semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is prepared by the original technology from the Saperavi, Tavkveri, Asuretuli, Rkatsiteli and other grape varieties grown in Tetritskaro, Kaspi, Gori and Khashuri districts. The wine is characterized by a harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful color. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/l.
- Aguna is a pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Saperavi, Cabernet and Rkatsiteli grape varieties grown in East Georgia. The wine has a rich fruity taste. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/l.
- Sachino is a pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made by the original method from the Aleksandreuli, Aladasturi, Odzhaleshi, Tsitska, Tsolikauri and other grape varieties cultivated in West Georgia. The wine is notable for a mild taste, a moderate extractibility, a pure aroma and a beautiful color. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/l.
- Barakoni is a naturally semi-dry red wine made from the unique Alexandreuli and Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in Western Georgia on the steep slopes of the Rioni gorge in the Caucasian mountains. This top quality wine of light-ruby color has a fine fragrance of violets, natural pleasant sweetness and a tender harmonious taste. When ready for use, Barakoni contains 10-12% alcohol, 1.5-2.5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. The wine has been manufactured since 1981.
- Salkhino is a liqueur-type of dessert wine made from the Izabella grape variety with an addition of the Dzvelshava, Tsolikauri and other grape varieties cultivated in the Mayakovski district (Western Georgia). It has characteristic ruby or pomegranate color. The alcohol content is 15%, sugar content 30%, titrated acidity 3-7 g/l. At international competitions the wine received 6 gold medals. It has been produced since 1928
- Alaverdi (White and Red)
- Alazani (Red) is a light red, semi-sweet wine made from a 60% Saperavi, 40% Rkatsiteli blend. It has won 3 gold medals and 3 silver medals at international competitions. The name comes from one of the major river systems of Georgia that borders Georgia with Azerbaijan. The climate is slightly warmer than the rest of the Georgian Wine growing regions and gives rise to much sweeter grapes than those found elseware.
- Rkatsiteli Mtsvani
- Saperavi Dzelshavi
- Kardanakhi is a fortified vintage white wine of the type. It is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district. The wine matures in oak barrels for three years. The amber color wine has a pleasant specific bouquet with a typical port wine flavor and a fine honey fragrance. It contains 18% alcohol, 10% sugar and has 4-6% titrated acidity. It was awarded 8 gold and one silver international medals.
- Anaga is a madeira-type top-quality strong wine made from the Rkatsiteli, Khikhvi and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in the Gurjaani, Sighnaghi and Dedoplistskaro districts. The wine has light-golden to dark-amber color, a strong peculiar bouquet, an extractive harmonious taste with a clearly pronounced Madeira touch. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 4 g/ml, titrated acidity 3 - 7 g/l. The Anaga wine was awarded 1 international silver medal.
- Sighnaghi is an ordinary strong wine of the port type made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety grown in the Sighnaghi district in Kakheti. The amber-color wine has an extractive harmonious taste with a clearly pronounced fruity touch. The alcohol content 3 g/100 ml, titrated acidity 5 g/l.
- Veria is a fortified vintage white port made from the Rkatsiteli, Mtsvane, Chinuri and other commercial grape varieties grown in Eastern Georgia. The amber-color wine has a peculiar aroma and harmonious taste. Its strength is 18 vol.%, sugar content 7%, titrated acidity 3-7 g/1. At an international wine competition it received 1 gold medal. The wine has been produced since 1977.
- Lelo is a port-type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in Zestaphoni, Terjola, Baghdati and Vani districts. The wine has a rich harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful golden color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 6 g/l.
- Marabda is a port-type wine made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety grown in Marneuli and Bolnisi districts. It has a full harmonious taste with a fruity aroma & light-golden color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 6 g/l.
- Kolkheti is a fortified vintage white port is made from Tsolikauri, Tsitska and other commercial white grape varieties grown in Western Georgia. The amber-color wine has a specific bouquet and harmonious taste. Its strength is 18 vol.%, sugar content 7%, titrated acidity 3-7 g/l. At an international competition the wine received one silver medal. It has been produced since 1977.
- Taribana is a port-type wine made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in Kakheti. The wine has a mild oily taste, a low sugar content and a beautiful color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 5 g/l.
- Lelo is a port-type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in Zestaponi, Terjola, Baghdati and Vani districts. The wine has a rich harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful golden color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 6 g/l.
- Akhasheni is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in the Akhasheni vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district in Kakheti, a province of Georgia. The wine of dark-pomegranate color has a harmonious velvety taste with a chocolate flavor. It contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. The wine has been manufactured since 1958.
- Khvanchkara is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Alexandrouli & Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in the Khvanchkara vineyards, near the town of Ambrolauri in the Racha region of western Georgia. It is one of the most popular Georgian semi-sweet wines. Along with Kindzmarauli, it was the favourite wine of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. It is of dark-ruby color. It contains 10.5 - 12.0% alcohol, 3 - 5% sugar and has 5.0 - 7.0% titrated acidity. The wine has been made since 1907.
Wine-producing regions of Georgia
There are five main regions of viniculture, the principal region being Kakheti, which produces seventy percent of Georgia's grapes. Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the name of the source region, district, or village, much like French regional wines such as Bordeaux or Burgundy. As with these French wines, Georgian wines are usually a blend of two or more grapes. For instance, one of the best-known white wines, Tsinandali, is a blend of Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grapes from the micro regions of Telavi and Kvareli in the Kakheti region.
- Kakheti, containing the micro-regions Telavi and Kvareli
- Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti
Georgian Wine Catalogue
The first online Catalogue of Georgian Wine with an independent rating system was launched in 2014. It allows users to enter names of specific wines and get ratings and information about the producer. The catalogue is targeted primarily at consumers who buy Georgian wines in the world's wine stores.
- Old World wine
- Orange wine, a winemaking style believed to have originated in Georgia
- Rtveli, a traditional vintage and rural harvest holiday in Georgia
- Keys, David (2003-12-28). "Now that's what you call a real vintage: professor unearths 8,000-year-old wine". The Independent. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
- Berkowitz, Mark (1996). "World's Earliest Wine". Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 49 (5). Retrieved 2008-06-25.
- Spilling, Michael; Wong, Winnie (2008). Cultures of The World Georgia. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7614-3033-9.
- Georgian Winemaking Makes UNESCO Protected Heritage List RIA Novosti
- Georgia the home of wine
- Georgia: Official Says Position Unchanged On Russian WTO Negotiations April 30, 2007 Radio Free Europe
- Georgia/Russia: Georgian Agriculture Minister In Moscow For Talks On Wine Ban rferl.org April 13, 2006
- "Georgia's long road to Europe". BBC News. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Viticulture in Georgia today". 2005. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- Выросло производство вина в Грузии
- Goldstein, Darra (1958). The Georgian feast: the vibrant culture and savory food of the Republic of Georgia. United States: University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-520-21929-5. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
- Caucasian review. Institut zur Erforschung der UdSSR. 1958. p. 70. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
- Tamara Dragadze. Rural Families in Soviet Georgia: A Case Study in Ratcha Province, Routledge, 1988, ISBN 0-415-00619-8, p. 7
- David R. Farber. Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors, University of Chicago Press, 2002, ISBN 0-226-23804-0, p. 146
- Glenn Randall Mack, Asele Surina. Food Culture In Russia And Central Asia, Greenwood Press, 2005, ISBN 0-313-32773-4, p. 10
- "An Online Buyer's Guide to Georgian Wine is Launched". “EurasiaNet.org” (New York). March 27, 2014.
- "Georgian wine catalogue launched". “Agenda.ge” (Tbilisi). February 1, 2014.
- Appellations of Origin registered in Georgia
- All about Georgian Wine & Food
- Georgian Wine Producers
- Georgian wine today
- Georgian Wines available in the US Market
- "Hvino News" - daily wine news from Georgia in English, industry databases, documentation/laws, forum
- Georgian Wine Catalogue with independent wine rating
- Georgia: Where Wine Was Invented
- Georgian Wine available in the UK