Georgios Hatzianestis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Georgios Hatzianestis
Chatzanestis Georgios.JPG
Georgios Hatzianestis
Born 15 December 1863
Athens
Died 28 November 1922 (aged 58–59)
Goudi, Athens
Allegiance Greece Kingdom of Greece
Service/branch Army
Years of service 1884–1922
Rank GR-Army-OF8-1912.svg Lieutenant General
Commands held 5th Infantry Division, Army of Thrace, Army of Asia Minor
Battles/wars Greco-Turkish War (1919–22): Battle of Sakarya

Georgios Hatzianestis (Greek: Γεώργιος Χατζηανέστης, 15 December 1863 – 28 November 1922) was a Greek artillery and general staff officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General. He is best known as the commander-in-chief of the Army of Asia Minor at the time of the Turkish August 1922 offensive, which he failed to stop. Relieved, he was later tried and condemned in the Trial of the Six as one of the main culprits of the Greek defeat in the Asia Minor Campaign, and executed.

Life[edit]

He was born in Athens on 3 December 1863 (O.S.).[1] His father was Nikolaos Hatzianestis, the Prefect of Attica and Boeotia, and his mother was Maria Pitsipios, daughter of the scholar Iakovos Pitsipios.

He graduated from the Hellenic Military Academy as an Artillery Second Lieutenant on 25 July 1884 (O.S.) and continued his military studies in Imperial Germany.[1] After a period of service in the newly founded Hellenic Military Geographical Service, in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 he served as a staff officer of the 3rd Brigade under Col. Konstantinos Smolenskis, before assuming command of the 2nd Mountain Artillery Battery on 27 April 1897 (O.S.).[1] In 1904, he was one of the first members admitted to the Staff Officers Corps, but resigned following the Goudi coup in 1909.[1] In 1912 he returned to service as a Major of the Reserves and participated in the First Balkan War (1912–13) against the Ottoman Empire as chief of staff of the 6th Infantry Division and the 5th Infantry Division, returning to the 6th Division as chief of staff in the Second Balkan War against Bulgaria.[1]

Following the Balkan Wars, by special law he was restored to his seniority, disregarding his period of absence form the army, being promoted to the rank of Colonel and becoming Director of the Hellenic Military Academy in August 1914.[1] With the Greek mobilization in 1915, he was placed in command of the 5th Infantry Division at Drama, but after a mutiny among his troops in early 1916 he was shifted to command the 15th Infantry Division.[1]

As a royalist, he was dismissed from the army by the Venizelists in 1917–1920, spending the period abroad, but was recommissioned following the Venzelist electoral defeat in November 1920.[1] In April 1922 he was named commander of the Army of Thrace, and on 19 May (O.S.) as commander of the main Greek military force, the Army of Asia Minor.[1] Proving himself unable to respond effectively to the Turkish August 1922 offensive, and was replaced on 24 August (O.S.) by Lt. General Georgios Polymenakos.[1]

He was the only military leader to be prosecuted during the Trial of the Six for his role in the Asia Minor Catastrophe. Found guilty of high treason, Hatzianestis was executed by firing squad, along with five politicians, on 15 November 1922 (O.S.).[1] Hatzianestis himself said "my only shame is that I commanded an army of deserters" ("Η μόνη εντροπή μου είναι ότι υπήρξα αρχιστράτηγος φυγάδων") implying that the soldiers under his command were cowards. By the last stages of the trial, he had developed serious mental problems and depression.

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Μεγάλη Στρατιωτική και Ναυτική Εγκυκλοπαιδεία. Τόμος Στ′: Σαράντα Εκκλησίαι – Ώχρα [Great Military and Naval Encyclopedia. Volume VI] (in Greek). Athens. 1930. p. 573.