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Georgism is an economic philosophy holding that the economic value derived from natural resources and natural opportunities should belong equally to all residents of a community, but that people should own the value they create themselves. Any natural resource which is inherently limited in supply can generate economic rent, but the classic example is ground rent, the rent paid for the use of locations. Georgists argue that taxing economic rent derived from land and natural resources is efficient, fair, and equitable. The main Georgist policy tool is a fee assessed on location value, commonly called a land value tax (LVT). Georgists argue that socially captured rents can reduce or eliminate existing taxes on labor and investment that are unfair or inefficient. Some Georgists also advocate for the return of surplus public revenue collected from economic rent back to the people through a basic income or citizen's dividend.
The Georgist paradigm can be described as a model of political economy that offers solutions to social and ecological problems, relying on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice. The philosophical basis of Georgism dates back to early proponents such as John Locke and Baruch Spinoza, but the concept was widely popularized by the economist and social reformer Henry George (1839–1897).
Economists since Adam Smith have known that—unlike other taxes—a land value tax would not cause economic inefficiency. A land value tax would also be a progressive tax, since it would be paid primarily by the wealthy, and reduce economic inequality. It would also increase wages, remove incentives to misuse real estate, and reduce the vulnerability that economies face from credit and property bubbles. Georgist ideas were popular and influential in the earlier part of the 20th century. Political parties, institutions and communities were founded based on Georgist principles during that time. Early followers of George's philosophy called themselves Single Taxers, associated with the idea of a single tax on the value of land. The term Georgism was coined later, and some prefer the term geoism instead.
- 1 Main tenets
- 2 Synonyms and variants
- 3 Influence
- 4 Critical reception
- 5 Notable Georgists
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Henry George is best known for his argument that the economic rent of land should be shared equally by the people of a society rather than being owned privately. George held that people own what they create, but that natural resources, most importantly land, belong equally to all. George believed that although scientific experiments could not be carried out in political economy, theories could be tested by comparing different societies with different conditions and through thought experiments about the effects of various factors. Applying this method, George concluded that many of the problems that beset society, such as poverty, inequality, and economic booms and busts, could be attributed to the private ownership of the necessary resource, land.
In Progress and Poverty George argued: "We must make land common property." He believed there was an important distinction between common and collective property. Although equal rights to land could be achieved by nationalizing land and then leasing it to private parties, George preferred taxing unimproved land value. A land value tax would not overly penalize those who had already bought and improved land, and would also be less disruptive and controversial in a country where land titles have already been granted.
Some Georgists have observed that in modern states, privately created wealth is socialized via the tax system (through income tax, etc.), but socially created wealth from community created land values are privatized and owned by private individuals and corporations. They argue that the opposite would be the case when a single tax on land value is implemented; that socially created wealth is taxed and used by the community, while privately created wealth remains private as no other taxes are levied.
In Georgism, a land value tax is seen as fitting the definition of a user fee instead of a tax, since it is tied to the market value of socially created locational advantage, the privilege to exclude others from locations. Assets consisting of commodified privilege can be viewed as wealth since they have exchange value, similar to taxi medallions, so charging fees for exclusive use of land as a means of raising public revenue is considered a form of progressive taxation tending to reduce economic inequality.
Standard economic theory suggests that a land value tax would be extremely efficient – unlike other taxes, it does not reduce economic productivity. Nobel laureate Milton Friedman described Henry George's tax on unimproved value of land as the "least bad tax", since unlike other taxes, it would not impose an excess burden on economic activity (leading to "deadweight loss"); hence, a replacement of other more distortionary taxes with a land value tax would improve economic welfare.
Ground-rents are a still more proper subject of taxation than the rent of houses. A tax upon ground-rents would not raise the rents of houses. It would fall altogether upon the owner of the ground-rent, who acts always as a monopolist, and exacts the greatest rent which can be got for the use of his ground. More or less can be got for it according as the competitors happen to be richer or poorer, or can afford to gratify their fancy for a particular spot of ground at a greater or smaller expense. In every country the greatest number of rich competitors is in the capital, and it is there accordingly that the highest ground-rents are always to be found. As the wealth of those competitors would in no respect be increased by a tax upon ground-rents, they would not probably be disposed to pay more for the use of the ground. Whether the tax was to be advanced by the inhabitant, or by the owner of the ground, would be of little importance. The more the inhabitant was obliged to pay for the tax, the less he would incline to pay for the ground; so that the final payment of the tax would fall altogether upon the owner of the ground-rent.
Both ground-rents and the ordinary rent of land are a species of revenue which the owner, in many cases, enjoys without any care or attention of his own. Though a part of this revenue should be taken from him in order to defray the expenses of the state, no discouragement will thereby be given to any sort of industry. The annual produce of the land and labour of the society, the real wealth and revenue of the great body of the people, might be the same after such a tax as before. Ground-rents and the ordinary rent of land are, therefore, perhaps, the species of revenue which can best bear to have a peculiar tax imposed upon them.
Income flow resulting from payments for restricted access to natural opportunities or for contrived privileges over geographic regions is called economic rent. Georgists argue that economic rent of land, legal privileges, and natural monopolies should accrue to the community, rather than private owners. In economics, "land" is everything that exists in nature independent of human activity. While the philosophy of Georgism does not say anything definitive about specific policy interventions needed to address problems posed by various sources of economic rent, the common goal among modern georgists is to capture and share (or reduce) rent from all sources of natural monopoly and legal privilege.
Henry George shared the goal of modern Georgists to socialize or dismantle rent from all forms of land monopoly and legal privilege. However, George focused mainly on his preferred policy tool known as land value tax, which targeted a particular form of unearned income called ground rent. George focused on ground-rent because basic locations were more valuable than other monopolies and everybody needed locations to survive, which he contrasted with the less significant streetcar and telegraph monopolies that George also spoke out against at that time. George likened the problem to a laborer traveling home who is waylaid by a series of highway robbers along the way, each who demand a small portion of the traveler's wages, and finally at the very end of the road waits a robber who demands all that the traveler has left. George reasoned that it made little difference to challenge the series of small robbers when the final robber remained to demand all that the common laborer had left. George predicted that over time technological advancements would increase the frequency and importance of lesser monopolies but that ground rent would remain dominant. George even predicted that ground-rents would rise faster than wages and income to capital, a prediction that modern analysis has shown to be plausible, since the supply of land is fixed.
Common ground rent is still the primary focus of Georgists because of its large value and the known diseconomies of misused land. However, there are other sources of rent that are theoretically analogous to ground-rent and are highly debated topics within Georgism. The following are some sources of economic rent.
- extractable resources (minerals and hydrocarbons)
- severables (forests and stocks of fish)
- extraterrestrial domains (geosynchronous orbits and airway corridor use)
- legal privileges tied to location (taxi medallions, billboard and development permits, or the monopoly of electromagnetic frequencies)
- restrictions/taxes on pollution or severance (tradable emission permits and fishing quotas)
- Right-of-way (transportation) used by railroads, utilities, and internet service providers
- issuance of legal tender (see seigniorage)
- privileges that are less location dependent but that still exclude others from natural opportunities (intellectual property)
Georgism and environmental economics
The early conservationist movement of the Progressive Era was inspired by Henry George and his influence extended for decades afterward. Some ecological economists still support the Georgist policy of land value tax as a means of freeing or rewilding unused land and conserving nature by reducing urban sprawl.
Pollution degrades the value of what Georgists consider to be commons. Because pollution is a negative contribution, a taking from the commons or a cost imposed on others, its value is economic rent, even when the polluter is not receiving an explicit income. Therefore, to the extent that society determines pollution to be harmful, most Georgists propose to limit pollution and then capture the resulting rents for public use, restoration, or a citizen's dividend.
Georgism is related to the school of ecological economics, since both propose market based restrictions on pollution. The schools are compatible in that they advocate using similar tools as part of a conservation strategy, but they emphasize different aspects. Conservation is the central issue of ecology, whereas economic rent is the central issue of geoism. Ecological economists might price pollution fines more conservatively to prevent inherently unquantifiable damage to the environment, whereas Georgists might emphasize mediation between conflicting interests and human rights. Geolibertarianism, a market oriented branch of geoism, tends to take a direct stance against what it perceives as burdensome regulation and would like to see auctioned pollution quotas or taxes replace most command and control regulation.
Since ecologists are primarily concerned with conservation, they tend to put less emphasis on the issue of equitably distributing scarcity/pollution rents, whereas Georgists insist that unearned income not be captured by those who hold title to natural assets and pollution privilege. To the extent that geoists recognize the impact of pollution or share conservationist values, they will agree with ecological economists about the need to limit pollution, but geoists will also crucially insist that pollution rents generated from those conservation efforts are not captured by polluters and are instead used for public purposes or to compensate those who suffer the negative effects of pollution. Ecological economists advocate similar pollution restrictions but, placing conservation first, might be willing to grant private polluters the privilege to capture pollution rents. To the extent that ecological economists share the geoist view of social justice, they would advocate auctioning pollution quotas instead of giving them away for free. This distinction can be seen clearly in the difference between basic cap and trade and the geoist variation, cap and share, a proposal to auction temporary pollution permits, with rents going to the public, instead of giving pollution privilege away for free to existing polluters or selling perpetual permits.
Georgists suggest two uses for the revenue from a land value tax. The revenue can be used to fund the state (allowing the reduction or elimination of other taxes), or it can be redistributed to citizens as a pension or basic income (or it can be divided between these two options).
In practice, the elimination of all other taxes implies a very high land value tax, higher than any currently existing land tax. Introducing a high land value tax would cause the price of land titles to decrease correspondingly, but George did not believe landowners should be compensated, and described the issue as being analogous to compensation for former slave owners. Many other geoists disagree on the question of compensation, ranging from complete compensation to only the compensation required to achieve Georgist reform.
Synonyms and variants
Most early advocacy groups described themselves as Single Taxers, and George reluctantly accepted "single tax" as an accurate label for the movement's main political goal—the replacement of all unjust or inefficient taxes with the capture of land-rents, primarily using a land value tax (LVT). In the modern era, some groups inspired by Georgism emphasize environmentalism, while others emphasize its egalitarian free market philosophy; utilitarians and urbanists emphasize the economic and social benefits of efficiently utilizing land.
Some modern proponents are dissatisfied with the name Georgist. While Henry George was well known throughout his life, he has been largely forgotten by the public and the idea of a single tax of land predates him. Some now prefer the term geoism, with the meaning of geo (earth, in Greek) deliberately ambiguous. The terms Earth Sharing, geonomics, and geolibertarianism (see Libertarianism) are also used by some Georgists. These terms represent a difference of emphasis, and sometimes real differences about how land rent should be spent (citizen's dividend or just replacing other taxes); but all agree that land rent should be recovered from its private recipients.
Compulsory fines and fees related to land rents are the most common Georgist policies, but some geoists prefer voluntary value capture systems that rely on methods such as non-compulsory or self-assessed location value fees, community land trusts, and purchasing land value covenants.
Some geoists believe that partially compensating landowners is a politically expedient compromise necessary for achieving reform. For similar reasons, others propose capturing future land value increases instead of all land rent. Though Georgism has historically been viewed as a radically progressive or socialist ideology, some libertarians and minarchists who have been influenced by geoism take the position that limited social spending should be financed with using georgist concepts of value capture, but that not all land rent should to be captured. This conservative adaptation is considered incompatible with true geolibertarianism, which requires that excess rents be gathered and then distributed back to residents. (See Milton Friedman in "Critical reception")
Georgist ideas heavily influenced the politics of the early 20th century. Political parties that were formed based on Georgist ideas include the Commonwealth Land Party, the Justice Party of Denmark, the Henry George Justice Party, and the Single Tax League.
In the UK in 1909, the Liberal Government included a land tax as part of several taxes in the People's Budget aimed at redistributing wealth (including a progressively graded income tax and an increase of inheritance tax). This caused a crisis which resulted indirectly in reform of the House of Lords. The budget was passed eventually—but without the land tax. In 1931, the minority Labour Government passed a land value tax as part III of the 1931 Finance act. However, this was repealed in 1934 by the National Government before it could be implemented.
In Denmark, the Georgist Justice Party has previously been represented in Folketinget. It formed part of a centre-left government 1957–60 and was also represented in the European Parliament 1978–79. The influence of Henry George has waned over time, but Georgist ideas still occasionally emerge in politics. In the 2004 Presidential campaign, Ralph Nader mentioned Henry George in his policy statements.
Several communities were also initiated with Georgist principles during the height of the philosophy's popularity. Two such communities that still exist are Arden, Delaware, which was founded in 1900 by Frank Stephens and Will Price, and Fairhope, Alabama, which was founded in 1894 by the auspices of the Fairhope Single Tax Corporation.
The German protectorate of Jiaozhou Bay (also known as Kiaochow) in China fully implemented Georgist policy. Its sole source of government revenue was the land value tax of six percent which it levied on its territory. The German government had previously had economic problems with its African colonies caused by land speculation. One of the main aims in using the land value tax in Jiaozhou Bay was to eliminate such speculation, an aim which was entirely achieved. The colony existed as a German protectorate from 1898 until 1914, when seized by Japanese and British troops. In 1922 the territory was returned to China.
Georgist ideas were also adopted to some degree in Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan. In these countries, governments still levy some type of land value tax, albeit with exemptions. Many municipal governments of the USA depend on real property tax as their main source of revenue, although such taxes are not Georgist as they generally include the value of buildings and other improvements, one exception being the town of Altoona, Pennsylvania, which only taxes land value.
Institutes and organizations
Various organizations still exist that continue to promote the ideas of Henry George. According to the The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, the periodical Land&Liberty, established in 1894, is "the longest-lived Georgist project in history". Also in the U.S., the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy was established in 1974 founded based on the writings of Henry George, and "seeks to improve the dialogue about urban development, the built environment, and tax policy in the United States and abroad". The Henry George Foundation continues to promote the ideas of Henry George in the UK. The IU is an international umbrella organisation that brings together organizations worldwide that seek land value tax reform.
Richard T. Ely, known as the "Father of Land Economics", agreed with the economic arguments for Georgism but believed that correcting the problem the way Henry George wanted (without compensation) was unjust to existing landowners. In explaining his position, Ely wrote that "If we have all made a mistake, should one party to the transaction alone bear the cost of the common blunder?"
Karl Marx viewed the Single Tax platform as a step backwards from the transition to communism and referred to Georgism as "Capitalism’s last ditch." Marx argued that, "The whole thing is... simply an attempt, decked out with socialism, to save capitalist domination and indeed to establish it afresh on an even wider basis than its present one." Marx also criticized the way land value tax theory emphasizes the value of land, arguing that, "His fundamental dogma is that everything would be all right if ground rent were paid to the state." Fred Harrison replies to these Marxist objections in "Gronlund and other Marxists – Part III: nineteenth-century Americas critics", American Journal of Economics and Sociology, (November 2003).
George has also been accused of exaggerating the importance of his "all-devouring rent thesis" in claiming that it is the primary cause of poverty and injustice in society. George argued that the rent of land increased faster than wages for labor because the supply of land is fixed. Modern economists, including Ottmar Edenhofer have demonstrated that George's assertion is plausible, though not certain, and that was likely more plausible during George's time than today.
Some recent critics, such as Keynesian economist Paul Krugman, agree that land value taxation is the best means of raising public revenue but assert that increased spending has rendered land rent insufficient to fully fund government. Georgists have responded by citing studies showing that land values of nations like the US, UK, and Australia are more than sufficient to fund government.
Anarcho-capitalist political philosopher and economist Murray Rothbard criticized Georgism in Man, Economy, and State as being philosophically incongruent with subjective value theory, and further stating that land is irrelevant in the factors of production, trade, and price systems. Rothbard's economic critique is well recognized as relying on false assumptions and flawed reasoning, even by people who ultimately agree with Rothbard in opposing Georgism.
Chicago school libertarian economist Milton Friedman agreed with "the Henry George argument" as being "the least bad" means of raising whatever public revenue was needed. Georgists agree with Friedman that land titles should remain private and not be socialized. However, Friedman viewed Georgism as partially immoral, due to a difference of opinion about the validity of vested property rights in land. Georgists believe that the private capture of unimproved land-rents is inherently unjust, drawing comparisons to slavery.
Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek credited early enthusiasm for Henry George with developing his interest in economics. Later, Hayek said that the theory of Georgism would be very strong if assessment challenges didn't lead to unfair outcomes, but he believed that they would.
- Harry Gunnison Brown
- John R. Commons
- Raymond Crotty
- Ottmar Edenhofer
- Fred Foldvary
- Mason Gaffney
- Robert J. Gordon
- John Kenneth Galbraith 
- Max Hirsch
- Wolf Ladejinsky
- Philippe Legrain
- Donald Shoup
- Herbert A. Simon
- Robert Solow
- Joseph Stiglitz
- Nicolaus Tideman
- William Vickrey
- Léon Walras
- Philip Wicksteed
Heads of state
- Winston Churchill
- George Grey
- Rutherford B. Hayes
- William Morris Hughes
- Woodrow Wilson
- Sun Yat-sen
- H. H. Asquith & David Lloyd George gave speeches and private statements supporting geoism but later publicly distanced themselves from more radical Georgists.
Other political figures
- Warren Worth Bailey
- Newton D. Baker
- Willie Brown
- J. Frank Colbert
- George F. Cotterill
- John W. Davis
- William Jay Gaynor
- Keir Hardie
- Frederic C. Howe
- Blas Infante
- Tom L. Johnson
- Samuel M. Jones
- Frank de Jong
- Franklin Knight Lane
- Andrew MacLaren
- Raymond Moley
- Hazen S. Pingree
- Philip Snowden
- George Lawrence Record
- Stephen R. Reed
- Linda D. Thompson
- Louis Brandeis
- Clarence Darrow
- Michael Davitt
- Samuel Gompers
- Bolton Hall
- Benjamin C. Marsh
- Mumia Abu-Jamal
- Ralph Nader
- Thomas Mott Osborne
- Amos Pinchot
- Louis Freeland Post
- Samuel Seabury
- Nicholas Shaxson
- Helen Taylor (feminist)
- William Simon U'Ren
- William Bauchop Wilson
- Daniel Carter Beard
- Matthew Bellamy
- Walter Burley Griffin
- James A. Herne
- John Hutchinson
- George Inness
- Emma Lazarus
- Agnes de Mille
- Henry Churchill de Mille
- William C. deMille
- Francis Neilson
- Banjo Paterson
- Will Price
- Frank Stephens (sculptor)
- Frank Lloyd Wright
- Roger Babson
- Albert Einstein
- Henry Ford
- Silvio Gesell
- Theodor Herzl
- Spencer Heath
- Margrit Kennedy
- John C. Lincoln
- Elizabeth Magie
- Edward McGlynn
- Buckey O'Neill
- George Foster Peabody
- Raymond A. Spruance
- Fiske Warren
- Alfred Russel Wallace
- Joseph Fels
- Cap and Share
- Economic rent
- Excess burden of taxation/Deadweight loss
- Community land trust
- Land value tax
- Law of rent
- Optimal tax
- Pigovian tax
- Progress and Poverty
- Prosper Australia (formerly "Henry George League")
- Tragedy of the commons/anticommons
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- George, Henry (1881). The Irish Land Question.
- Andelson, Robert V. (January 2000). "On Separating the Landowner’s Earned and Unearned Increment: A Georgist Rejoinder to F. A. Hayek". American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59 (1): 109–117. doi:10.1111/1536-7150.00016. Retrieved 27 November 2013. Hayek wrote, "It was a lay enthusiasm for Henry George which led me to economics."
- Brown, H. G. "A Defense of the Single Tax Principle." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 183.1 (1936): 63-69.
- Harter, Lafayette G. John R. Commons, His Assault on Laissez-faire. Corvallis: Oregon State UP, 1962. Pages 21, 32, 36, 38.
- "Two Centuries of Economic Thought on Taxation of Land Rents." In Richard Lindholm and Arthur Lynn, Jr., (eds.), Land Value Taxation in Thought and Practice. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1982, pp. 151-96.
- Brue, Stanley (2012). The Evolution of Economic Thought (Supplemental Biography of John Rogers Commons for chapter 19 of the online edition of The Evolution of Economic Thought ed.). Cengage Learning. Retrieved 1 September 2014. "After reading Henry George's Progress and Poverty," Commons "became a single-taxer."
- Crotty, Raymond D. (1988). A Radical's Response. Poolbeg. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Sheppard, Barry. "‘Progress and Poverty’ – Henry George and Land Reform in modern Ireland". http://www.theirishstory.com/. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Edenhofer, Ottmar. "Hypergeorgism: When is Rent Taxation as a Remedy for Insufficient Capital Accumulation Socially Optimal?". Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Edenhofer, Ottmar. "Financing Public Capital Through Land Rent Taxation: A Macroeconomic Henry George Theorem". Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Edenhofer, Ottmar. "The Triple Dividend Climate Change Mitigation, Justice and Investing in Capabilities". Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Fred Foldvary's website
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- Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler". Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Gordon, Robert J. (2 June 2012). "Sustainable Growth". EPS Quarterly 24. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Fisher, John (October 2006). "MY BRUSH WITH JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH". GroundSwell. Retrieved 1 October 2013. "I am not a full devotee of Henry George but there is no one in the social world that I read with more intense interest."
- Airlie Worrall, The New Crusade: the Origins, Activities and Influence of the Australian Single Tax Leagues, 1889–1895 (M.A. thesis, University of Melbourne, 1978).
- Andelson Robert V. (2000). Land-Value Taxation Around the World: Studies in Economic Reform and Social Justice Malden. MA:Blackwell Publishers, Inc. p. 359.
- Philippe Legrain (2010-03-23). "Tax the ground they walk on". Prospect (magazine). Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Pay As You Park: UCLA professor Donald Shoup inspires a passion for parking." (May 2005). Planning Magazine. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Shoup, Donald C. "The Ideal Source of Local Public Revenue." Regional Science and Urban Economics 34.6 (2004): 753-84.
- Washington, Emily. "The High Cost of Free Parking Chapters 19-22". marketurbanism.com. Market Urbanism. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Quotes from Nobel Prize Winners Herbert Simon stated in 1978: "Assuming that a tax increase is necessary, it is clearly preferable to impose the additional cost on land by increasing the land tax, rather than to increase the wage tax – the two alternatives open to the City (of Pittsburgh). It is the use and occupancy of property that creates the need for the municipal services that appear as the largest item in the budget – fire and police protection, waste removal, and public works. The average increase in tax bills of city residents will be about twice as great with wage tax increase than with a land tax increase."
- Herbert Simon. (2014). The Famous People website. Retrieved 12:59, Oct 30, 2014, from http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/herbert-simon-293.php.
- Foldvery, Fred E. (2005). "Geo-Rent: A Plea to Public Economists". Econ Watch 2 (1): pp 106–132. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
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- Tideman, Nicolaus. "Global Economic Justice". Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Bill Vickrey – In Memoriam
- Cirillo, Renato (Jan 1984). "Léon Walras and Social Justice". The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 43 (1): 53–60. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.1984.tb02222.x. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- Barker, Charles A., 1955. Henry George. New York: Oxford University Press
- Stewart, John. "Winston Churchill & Henry George". Ethical Economics. Printed in ‘Land and Liberty’, published by the Henry George Foundation. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Dugan, Ianthe Jeanne (March 17, 2013). "It's a Lonely Quest for Land-Tax Fans, But, by George, They Press On". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- The Life of Henry George, Part 3 Chapter X1
- Hayes, Rutherford B. "Henry George". Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862–1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography: Online Edition.
- WOOLF, S.J. (April 27, 1941). "MORGENTHAU AT 85 RECALLS A FULL LIFE; MORGENTHAU AT 85". New York Times. NY Times Magazine. "At heart [Woodrow Wilson] was a follower of Henry George and strongly objected to private profit accruing through the increase in land values."
- Trescott, Paul B. (2007). Jingji Xue: The History of the Introduction of Western Economic Ideas Into China, 1850-1950. Chinese University Press. pp. 46–48. "The foregoing help to demonstrate why Sun Yat-sen would have regarded Henry George as a very credible guide, and why in 1912 Sun could tell an interviewer, 'The teachings of your single-taxer, Henry George, will be the basis of our program of reform.'"
- McLean, Iain. "Land tax: options for reform". University of Oxford. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- White, James Dundas (J. D.). "Land-Value Policy". Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Miller, Joseph Dana (1902). Land and Freedom: An International Record of Single Tax Progress, Volume 2. Single Tax Publishing Company. pp. 40–41.
- "A Remembrance of Warren Worth Bailey". Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler". Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- Stevens, Elizabeth Lesly (July–August 2012). "The Power Broker". Washington Monthly. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Biographical History of the Georgist Movement". Cooperativeindividualism.org/georgists. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
- "J. Frank Colbert, "Taxation and Prosperity"". Cooperativeindividualism.org/colbert. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
- "Single Tax Loses, But Mayor Favoring This Reform Is Chosen By a Small Vote Margin". The Milwaukee Journal. Mar 6, 1912. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Davis, John W. "Henry George, Original Thinker". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Gaynor, William Jay. Some of Mayor Gaynor's Letters and Speeches. New York: Greaves Pub., 1913. 214-21. http://books.google.com/books?id=-7kMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219#v=onepage&q&f=false
- "Socialism in England: James Keir Hardie Declares That It Is Capturing That Country.". California Digital Newspaper Collection. San Francisco Call. 25 September 1895. Retrieved 4 November 2014. Hardie states, "I was a very enthusiastic single-taxer for a number of years."
- Howe, Frederic C. The Confessions of a Reformer. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1988.
- Arcas Cubero, Fernando: El movimiento georgista y los orígenes del Andalucismo : análisis del periódico "El impuesto único" (1911–1923). Málaga : Editorial Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros, 1980. ISBN 84-500-3784-0
- "Single Taxers Dine Johnson". New York Times May 31, 1910.
- "Henry George". Ohio History Central: An Online History of Ohio History.
- "Frank de Jong: Economic Rent Best Way to Finance Government". Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- "Poster Children of New York’s Happiness Academy – The School Of Practical Philosophy". Observer. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
- "The School of Economic Science". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- Lawson, R (2006). A commonwealth of hope : the New Deal response to crisis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801884063.
- Gaffney, Mason. "What’s the matter with Michigan? Rise and collapse of an economic wonder". Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Cleveland, Polly. "The Way Forward for Detroit? Land Taxes". Washington Spectator. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Gaffney, Mason. "New Life in Old Cities". UC Riverside. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Bryson, Phillip (2011). The economics of Henry George : history's rehabilitation of America's greatest early economist. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 145.
- Moore, Robert (1974). Pit-men, preachers & politics the effects of Methodism in a Durham mining community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 61.
- Brandeis, Louis (1971). Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Vol. 1. State University of New York Press. p. 455.
- Reed, Stephen R. "Stephen R. Reed of Harrisburg addressing the Council of Georgist Organizations". Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Thompson, Linda. "Mayor Linda Thompson Welcomes the Counci of Georgist Organizations". Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Brandeis, Louis (1971). Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Vol. 1. p. 82.
- "101+ Famous Thinkers on Owning Earth". Retrieved 22 October 2013. Brandeis said, "I find it very difficult to disagree with the principles of Henry George... I believe in the taxation of land values only."
- How to Abolish Unfair Taxation: An Address Before a Los Angeles Audience, Delivered March 1913 http://books.google.com/books/about/How_to_Abolish_Unfair_Taxation.html?id=rlOFHAAACAAJ
- Darrow, Clarence. "The Land Belongs To The People". www.umn.edu. Everyman. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "The Centre for Incentive Taxation" 20 (4). August 1994. "Darrow replied about Georgism, "Well, you either come to it or go broke.""
- Lane, Fintan. The Origins of Modern Irish Socialism, 1881–1896.Cork University Press, 1997 (pp. 79, 81).
- Miller, Joseph Dana (1921). "Mr. Samuel Gompers Replies to Our Criticism". The Single Tax Review. 21-22: 42. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Gompers, Samuel (1986). The Samuel Gompers Papers: The making of a union leader, 1850-86, Volume 1. University of Illinois Press. pp. 431–432. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Leubuscher, F. C. (1939). Bolton Hall. The Freeman. January issue.
- Caves, Roger W. Encyclopedia of the City. Abingdon, Oxon, OX: Routledge, 2005.
- Marsh, Benjamin Clarke. Lobbyist for the People; a Record of Fifty Years. Washington: Public Affairs, 1953.
- Justice for Mumia Abu-Jamal[dead link]
- http://schalkenbach.org/the-georgist-news/all/GN2/GN2-2.htm. Retrieved 1 October 2013. Missing or empty
- Alanna, Hartzok. "Lunch and Lecture with Ralph Nader". Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Jorgensen, Emil Oliver. The next Step toward Real Democracy: One Hundred Reasons Why America Should Abolish, as Speedily as Possible, All Taxation upon the Fruits of Industry, and Raise the Public Revenue by a Single Tax on Land Values Only. Chicago, IL: Chicago Singletax Club, 1920.
- Gorgas, William Crawford, and Lewis Jerome Johnson. Two Papers on Public Sanitation and the Single Tax. New York: Single Tax Information Bureau, 1914. http://books.google.com/books?id=v3NHAAAAYAAJ
- Ware, Louise. George Foster Peabody, Banker, Philanthropist, Publicist. Athens: U of Georgia, 1951. http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/ugapressbks/pdfs/ugp9780820334561.pdf
- Young, Arthur Nichols (1916). Single tax Movement in the United States. S.l: Hardpress Ltd.
- Thompson, John (1987). Reformers and war : American progressive publicists and the First World War. Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Post, Louis F. The Prophet of San Francisco: Personal Memories & Interpretations of Henry George. The Minerva Group.
- Mitgang, Herbert (1996). The Man Who Rode the Tiger: The Life and Times of Judge Samuel Seabury. Fordham Univ Press.
- Shaxson, Nick. "On Vince Cable’s speech". Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Shaxson, Nicholas (19 September 2011). "Vince Cable's conference speech: panel verdict". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 December 2013.|Shaxon wrote, "An LVT would be a massive, revolutionary opportunity [...]. It is one of the most efficient, fair, clever and progressive taxes that exists."
- Wenzer, Kenneth (1997). An Anthology of Henry George's Thought (Volume 1). University Rochester Press. pp. 87, 243.
- "Oregon Biographies: William S. U'Ren". Oregon History Project. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
- "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Eisenstein, Charles. "Post-Capitalism". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "The Funeral Procession". New York Times. November 1, 1897. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- Fred Harrison's website
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vviBboUXhuA Fred Harrison speaks at ALTER Spring Conference 2014
- Steuer, Max (June 2000). "REVIEW ARTICLE A hundred years of town planning and the influence of Ebenezer Howard". The British Journal of Sociology 51 (2): 377–386. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Meacham, Standish (1999). Regaining Paradise: Englishness and the Early Garden City Movement. Yale University Press. pp. 50–53. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Purdom, Charles Benjamin (1963). The Letchworth Achievement. p. 1. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Harrison, F. (1989). Aldous Huxley on 'the Land Question'. Land&Liberty. May–June issue.
- Kunstler, James Howard (1998). Home from Nowhere: Remaking Our Everyday World For the 21st Century. Simon and Schuster. pp. Chapter 7.
- Lora, Ronald; Longton, William Henry, eds. (1999). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-century America. Greenwood Publishing, Inc. p. 310. "Thus, the Freeman was to speak for the great tradition of classical liberalism, which [Albert Jay Nock and Francis Nielson] were afraid was being lost, and for the economics of Henry George, which both men shared."
- Norris, Kathleen. "The Errors of Marxism". Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 3 November 2014.Sinclair was an active georgist but eventually gave up on explicitly advocating the reform because, "Our opponents, the great rich bankers and land speculators of California, persuaded the poor man that we were going to put all taxes on this poor man's lot."
- Gaffney, Mason. "Excerpts from The Corruption of Economics". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- A Great Iniquity.. Leo Tolstoy once said of George, "People do not argue with the teaching of George, they simply do not know it".
- Lebrun, Victor. "Leo Tolstoy and Henry George". Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Samuel Brittan. "Tax the ground they walk on". Financial Times.
- Buckley, William F. Jr. "FIRING LINE: Has New York Let Us Down?". http://www.schalkenbach.org/. PBS. Retrieved 6 November 2014.Buckly says, "The location problem is, of course, easily solved by any Georgist, and I am one."
- Kinsley, Michael (Jun 13, 2012). "Inequality: It’s Even Worse Than We Thought". Bloomberg. BloombergView. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Kinsley, Michael. "The Capital-Gains Tax: A Tragedy in Two Acts" (Dec 19, 2012). Retrieved 31 October 2014.Kinsley reiterates that George is his favorite economist and that land taxes are the best source of revenue.
- "The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources". Retrieved 31 October 2014.In The New Republic (February 12, 1992) Kinsley advocates removing all taxes and collecting land rent instead.
- Suzanne La Follette: The Freewoman
- Matthews, Dylan (January 7, 2014). "Five conservative reforms millennials should be fighting for". The Washington Post. Wonkblog. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- https://twitter.com/dylanmatt/status/414149160775204864 Dylan Matthews's verified account states, "I think we've both been Georgists for a while now."
- Salam, Reihan (July 15, 2010). "The Agenda". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Martin Wolf (2010-07-08). "Why we must halt the land cycle". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Merryn Somerset Webb (2013-09-27). "How a levy based on location values could be the perfect tax". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Smith, Charles Joseph (January–February 1941). "Forty Years of the Struggle for Freedom". Land and Freedom XLI (1). Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Filler, Louis (1993). The muckrakers. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
- Miller, Joseph Dana (ed.), 1917. Single Tax Year Book. NY: Single Tax Review Publishing Company
- Worstall, Tim (2012-12-22). "What Michael Kinsley Gets Wrong About Taxation". Forbes. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Matthew, Yglesias. "My Five-Point Plan for Fixing Everything". Retrieved 7 November 2013.
- https://twitter.com/mattyglesias/status/313754546486796288 "WSJ story on Georgism fails to note that it’s clearly correct"
- Smith, Carl (2008). Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman, Second Edition. University of Chicago Press. p. 359.
- Muse return with new album The Resistance "Sure, he has already launched into a passionate soliloquy about Geoism (the land-tax movement inspired by the 19th-century political economist Henry George)".
- Co-founder of the Henry George Club, Australia.
- Williams, Karl. "Walter Burley Griffin". Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Aller, Pat. "The Georgist Philosophy in Culture and History". Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Henry George, our hero in the battle for the right (Songs of the Hutchinsons)". Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- "George Inness (1825–1894)". http://www.metmuseum.org/. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Schor, Esther (2006). Emma Lazarus. Random House. Author of "The New Colossus", on the Statue of Liberty, and the poem "Progress and Poverty", named after George's book, of which she said, “The life and thought of no one capable of understanding it can be quite the same after reading it.”
- Schwartzman, Jack. "A Remembrance of Anna George de Mille and Agnes de Mille". Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. pp. 29 & 47.
- Easton, Carol (1996). No Intermissions The Life of Agnes de Mille. Da Capo Press.
- Louvish, Simon (2008). Cecil B. DeMille: A Life in Art. Macmillan. pp. 40 & 249.
- Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. p. 314.
- "Henry George, The Scholar" – A Commencement Address Delivered by Francis Neilson at the Henry George School of Social Science, June 3, 1940.
- Neilson, Francis (September 1939). "Albert Jay Nock on Henry George – Truth Sets Men Free". The Freeman. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- McQueen, Humphrey. A New Britannia. St. Lucia, Qld.: U of Queensland, 2004.
- Taylor, Mark (2010). Arden. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8.
- Shields, Jerry. "Forgotten Writings of Arden's Frank Stephens". Collecting Delaware Books.
- "Frank Lloyd Wright on Henry George's Remedy". Wealthandwant.com. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
- Carlson, Allan. The New Agrarian Mind: The Movement Toward Decentralist Thought in Twentieth-Century America Transaction Publishers, 2004 (p. 51).
- Buttenheim, Harold S. (March 1934). "The Relation of Housing to Taxation". Law and Contemporary Problems. 1, No. 2 (Low-Cost Housing and Slum Clearance: A Symposium): pp. 198–205. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Butler, Nicholas. "Progress and Poverty". Commencement Speech, Columbia University (1931). Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Daly, Herman (1994). For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future. Beacon Press. pp. 258–259, 328–329.
- "The Life of Leon MacLaren". Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "The School of Economic Science". Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Sklar, Dusty. "Henry George and Zionism". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- Van Parijs, Philippe (1992). Introduction to Arguing for Basic Income. London: Verso. pp. 3–43.
- Sterba, James P. (2013). From Rationality to Equality. Oxford University Press. p. 193.
- Bertrand Russell (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell, 1903–1959. Psychology Press. p. 492.
- Bertrand Russell (1962). Freedom versus Organization. W. W. Norton & Company.
- http://www.cooperativeindividualism.org/russell-bertrand_admiration-for-henry-george-1960.jpg Letter addressed to a Mr. Krumreig
- Vallentyne, Peter. Left-libertarianism: A Primer. In Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel (2000). "Left-libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate". Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Publishers Ltd. "Georgist libertarians—such as eponymous George (1879, 1892), Steiner (1977, 1980, 1981, 1992, 1994), and Tideman (1991, 1997, 1998)—hold that agents may appropriate unappropriated natural resources as long as they pay for the competitive value of the rights they claim."
- Babson, Roger (Aug 20, 1943). "Roger Babson Sees Many Changes To Come After the War Has Ended". The Evening Independent. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- Two lettrs written in 1934 to Henry George's daughter, Anna George De Mille. In one letter Einstein writes, "The spreading of these works is a really deserving cause, for our generation especially has many and important things to learn from Henry George."
- Elazar, Daniel (February 4, 1955). "Earth Is the Lord's". http://www.newspapers.com/. The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- Wilhelm, Donald (September 5, 1942). "Henry Ford Talks About War and Your Future". Liberty Magazine. Retrieved 23 November 2014. Henry Ford says, "[. . .]every American family can have a piece of land. We ought to tax all idle land the way Henry George said — tax it heavily, so that its owners would have to make it productive"
- Onken, Werner. "The Political Economy of Silvio Gesell: A Century of Activism." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.4 (2000): 609-22. Web. 16 Aug. 2014.
- MacCallum, Spencer H. (Summer–Fall 1997). "The Alternative Georgist Tradition". FRAGMENTS 35. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Foldvary, Fred E. (April 2004). "Heath: Estranged Georgist". American Journal of Economics and Sociology 63 (2): pages 411–431. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Kennedy, Margrit. "Money & The Land Grab". YouTube. Share the Rents. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Lincoln, John. "Fighting For Fundamentals". Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Magie invented The Landlord's Game, predecessor to Monopoly
- Dodson, Edward J. "How Henry George's Principles Were Corrupted Into the Game Called Monopoly". Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George Dr. Edward McGlynn & Pope Leo XIII". Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "OFFERS $250,000 FOR SINGLE TAX CAMPAIGN; Joseph Fels Pledges That Sum for Five Years Here and in England. IF THERE IS AN EQUAL FUND Commission of Single Taxers Formed to Raise the Fund -- Roosevelt, Taft, and Hughes Said to be Friendly.". New York Times. May 8, 1909. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Thomas B. Buell (1974). The Quiet Warrior. Boston: Little, Brown.
- "American Single Taxers Invade Tiny Andorra; Fiske Warren Carries Their Gospel to the Republic Hidden for Twelve Centuries in the Pyrenees Between France and Spain". New York Times. April 16, 1916. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Stanley, Buder (1990). Visionaries and Planners: The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community. Oxford University Press. Wallace described Progress and Poverty as “Undoubtedly the most remarkable and important book of the present century.”
- Dudden, Arthur (1971). Joseph Fels and the single tax movement. Temple University Press.