George Gamow (1930)
|Born||Georgiy Antonovich Gamov
March 4, 1904 (O.S. February 20, 1904)
Odessa, Russian Empire
|Died||August 19, 1968
Boulder, Colorado, United States
|Fields||Physicist, science writer|
|Institutions||University of Göttingen
Niels Bohr Institute
The George Washington University
University of California, Berkeley
University of Colorado Boulder
|Doctoral advisor||Alexander Friedmann|
|Doctoral students||Ralph Asher Alpher
|Known for||Gamow factor
Liquid drop model
One Two Three ... Infinity
|Notable awards||Kalinga Prize (1956)|
George Gamow (Russian pronunciation: [ˈɡaməf]; March 4 [O.S. February 20] 1904 – August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Russian: Гео́ргий Анто́нович Га́мов), was a theoretical physicist and cosmologist – notably an early advocate and developer of Lemaître's Big Bang theory. He discovered a theoretical explanation of alpha decay via quantum tunneling, and worked on radioactive decay of the atomic nucleus, star formation, stellar nucleosynthesis and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (which he collectively called nucleocosmogenesis), and molecular genetics.
In his middle and late career, Gamow focused more on teaching, and became well known as an author of popular books on science, including One Two Three ... Infinity, and the Mr. Tompkins ... series of books (1939–1967). Some of his books are still in print more than a half-century after their original publication, and have become classic but still-relevant introductions to fundamental principles of mathematics and science.
Early life and career
Gamow was born in Odessa, Russian Empire (now in Ukraine) to mixed Russian-Ukrainian parents. His father taught Russian language and literature in high school, and his mother taught geography and history at a school for girls. In addition to Russian, Gamow learned to speak some French from his mother, and German from a tutor. Gamow learned fluent English in his college years and later. Most of his early publications were in German or Russian, but he later switched to writing in English for both technical papers and for the lay audience.
He was educated at the Novorossiya University in Odessa (1922–23) and at the University of Leningrad (1923–1929). Gamow studied under Alexander Friedmann for some time in Leningrad, until Friedmann's early death in 1925. He aspired to do his doctoral thesis under Friedmann, but had to change dissertation advisors. At the University, Gamow made friends with three other students of theoretical physics, Lev Landau, Dmitri Ivanenko, and Matvey Bronshtein (who was later arrested in 1937 and executed in 1938 by the Soviet regime). The four formed a group known as the Three Musketeers which met to discuss and analyze the ground-breaking papers on quantum mechanics published during those years. He later used the same phrase to describe the Alpher, Herman, and Gamow "group."
On graduation, he worked on quantum theory in Göttingen, where his research into the atomic nucleus provided the basis for his doctorate. He then worked at the Theoretical Physics Institute of the University of Copenhagen, from 1928 to 1931, with a break to work with Ernest Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. He continued to study the atomic nucleus (proposing the "liquid drop" model), but also worked on stellar physics with Robert Atkinson and Fritz Houtermans.
In 1931 Gamow was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR at age 28 – one of the youngest in the history of this organization. During the period 1931–1933, George Gamow worked in the Physical Department of the Radium Institute (Leningrad) headed by Vitaly Khlopin (ru). Under the guidance and direct participation of Igor Kurchatov, Lev Mysovskii and George Gamow, Europe's first cyclotron was designed. In 1932, George Gamow and Lev Mysovskii submitted a draft design for consideration by the Academic Council of the Radium Institute, which approved it. The cyclotron was not completed until 1937.
In the early 20th century, radioactive materials were known to have characteristic exponential decay rates or half lives. At the same time, radiation emissions were known to have certain characteristic energies. By 1928, Gamow had solved the theory of the alpha decay of a nucleus via tunnelling, with mathematical help from Nikolai Kochin. The problem was also solved independently by Ronald W. Gurney and Edward U. Condon. Gurney and Condon did not, however, achieve the quantitative results achieved by Gamow.
Classically, the particle is confined to the nucleus because of the high energy requirement to escape the very strong nuclear potential well. Also classically, it takes an enormous amount of energy to pull apart the nucleus, an event that would not occur spontaneously. In quantum mechanics, however, there is a probability the particle can "tunnel through" the wall of the potential well, and escape. Gamow solved a model potential for the nucleus and derived from first principles a relationship between the half-life of the alpha-decay event process and the energy of the emission, which had been previously discovered empirically, and was known as the Geiger–Nuttall law. Some years later, the name Gamow factor or Gamow–Sommerfeld Factor was applied to the probability of incoming nuclear particles tunneling through the electrostatic Coulomb barrier and undergoing nuclear reactions.
Gamow worked at a number of Soviet establishments before deciding to flee Russia because of increased oppression. In 1931, he was officially denied permission to attend a scientific conference in Italy. Also in 1931, he married Lyubov Vokhmintseva (Russian: Любовь Вохминцева), another physicist in Russia, whom he nicknamed "Rho" after the Greek letter. Gamow and his new wife spent much of the next two years trying to leave the Soviet Union, with or without official permission. Niels Bohr and other friends invited Gamow to visit during this period, but Gamow could not get permission to leave.
Gamow later claimed that his first two attempts to defect with his wife were in 1932, and involved trying to kayak: first a planned 250-kilometer paddle over the Black Sea to Turkey, and another attempt from Murmansk to Norway. Poor weather foiled both attempts, but they had not been noticed by the authorities.
In 1933 Gamow was suddenly granted permission to attend the 7th Solvay Conference on physics, in Brussels. He insisted on having his wife accompany him, even saying that he would not go alone. Eventually the Soviet authorities relented and issued passports for the couple. The two attended, and arranged to extend their stay, with the help of Marie Curie and other physicists. Over the next year, Gamow obtained temporary work at the Curie Institute, University of London, and University of Michigan.
Move to America
In 1934, Gamow and his wife moved to the United States. He became a professor at George Washington University (GWU) in 1934, and recruited physicist Edward Teller from London to join him at GWU. In 1936, Gamow and Teller published what became known as the "Gamow–Teller selection rule" for beta decay. During his time in Washington, Gamow would also publish major scientific papers with Mário Schenberg and Ralph Alpher. By the late 1930s, Gamow's interests had turned towards astrophysics and cosmology.
During World War II, Gamow did not work directly on the Manhattan Project producing the atomic bomb, in spite of his knowledge of radioactivity and nuclear fusion. He continued to teach physics at GWU, and consulted for the US Navy.
Gamow was interested in the processes of stellar evolution and the early history of the Solar System. In 1945, he co-authored a paper supporting work by German theoretical physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker on planetary formation in the early solar system. Gamow published another paper in the British journal Nature in 1948, in which he developed equations for the mass and radius of a primordial galaxy (which typically contains about one hundred billion stars, each with a mass comparable with that of the sun).
Big Bang nucleosynthesis
Gamow produced an important cosmogony paper with his student Ralph Alpher, which was published as "The Origin of Chemical Elements" (Physical Review, April 1, 1948). This paper became known as the Alpher–Bethe–Gamow theory. Gamow had the name of Hans Bethe listed on the article as "H. Bethe, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York" to make a pun on the first three letters of the Greek alphabet, alpha, beta and gamma. Bethe, who was also known for his sense of humor, had no other role in the α-β-γ paper, but agreed to the addition of his name. Gamow's lifetime interest in playing pranks, punning, and doggerel verse also come across in some of his popular writings, notably his Mr. Tompkins... series of books (1939–1967). The paper was drawn from Alpher's dissertation work, which he defended approximately six weeks after the publication. The majority of his dissertation work appeared in the Physical Review in December, 1948, following his prediction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
The influential Alpher-Bethe-Gamow paper outlined how the present levels of hydrogen and helium in the universe could be largely explained by reactions that occurred during the "Big Bang". This lent theoretical support to the Big Bang theory, although it did not explain the presence of elements heavier than helium (this was later explained by Fred Hoyle). This paper relied heavily on the mathematical prowess of Ralph A. Alpher and his doctoral dissertation, which he defended to an audience of over 300 at The George Washington University. Gamow had invited Hans Bethe to sit on Alpher's doctoral examination committee. At one time he suggested that part of the motive was to head off any objections Bethe might have to this work, and also that the University traditionally paid travel expenses of external examination committee members. However, the form of this April 1, 1948 paper detracted from the original work of Alpher, influencing correct attribution of the work to Alpher and his doctoral dissertation, as well as some of Alpher's significant work to follow. Gamow's stature, high visibility and reputation overshadowed the original work of Alpher. Yet, it was Alpher's work and mathematical sophistication which turned the study of cosmology into a legitimate field of physical science. Very late in his career, Gamow again submitted a paper prior to receiving corrections from first author Alpher.
In the April 1, 1948 paper, no estimate of the strength of the present day residual cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) was made; the subject was a mathematical model of nucleosynthesis of the most abundant elements in the universe. But shortly thereafter, Alpher and his colleague at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Robert Herman, published a prediction that the afterglow of the big bang would have cooled down after billions of years, filling the universe with a radiation 5 degrees above absolute zero. For three years at minimum Gamow opposed the CMB's validity and conceptualization, according to R. Alpher. Having as his doctoral committee chair a man of Gamow's stature, influenced the young Alpher's career, as his work was attributed to Gamow for decades.
Optical astronomers and early radioastronomers were not keen to devote time to detection of this background radiation in the late 1940s and 1950s. Many factors probably influenced this – lack of interest in what had been a branch of philosophy (cosmology) and the immaturity of microwave observation with radiotelescopes. Consequently, Alpher and Herman's prediction in support of the big bang was not substantiated until 1964, when Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson made the accidental discovery, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1978. Their work determined that the universe's background radiation was 2.7 degrees above absolute zero, just 2.3 degrees lower than the 1948 prediction. Historians of science have argued that the 2.7 Kelvin radiation had been observed a number of times, but dismissed because of a lack of interpretive context (i.e., cosmology), or doubts about the signal to noise ratio of early radio astronomical measurements. Two more Nobel prizes in physics were made for work related to accurate observation of the CMB, in 2006, to John C. Mather and George Smoot from data gathered by NASA's Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer (COBE), launched in 1989 with Alpher and Herman in attendance.
DNA and RNA
After the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953 by Francis Crick, James D. Watson, and Rosalind Franklin, Gamow attempted to solve the problem of how the order of the four different kinds of bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine) in DNA chains could control the synthesis of proteins from amino acids. Crick has said that Gamow's suggestions helped him in his own thinking about the problem. As related by Crick, Gamow suggested that the twenty of the combinations of four DNA bases taken three at a time corresponded to twenty amino acids used to form proteins. This led Crick and Watson to enumerate the twenty amino acids which are common to most proteins. Gamow's contribution to solving the problem of genetic coding was to give rise to important models of biological degeneracy.
The specific system proposed by Gamow (known as "Gamow's diamonds") was incorrect, as the triplets were supposed to be overlapping (so that in the sequence GGAC (for example), GGA could produce one amino acid and GAC another) and non-degenerate (meaning that each amino acid would correspond to one combination of three bases – in any order). Later protein sequencing work proved that this could not be the case; the true genetic code is non-overlapping and degenerate, and changing the order of a combination of bases does change the amino acid.
In 1954, Gamow and Watson co-founded the RNA Tie Club, a discussion group of leading scientists concerned with the problem of the genetic code. In his own autobiographical writings, Watson later acknowledged Gamow's ideas and colorful personality as a "zany", card–trick playing, limerick–singing, booze–swilling, practical–joking "giant imp”.
Late career and life
Gamow worked at George Washington University from 1934 until 1954, when he became a visiting professor at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1956, he moved to the University of Colorado Boulder, where he remained for the rest of his career. In 1956, Gamow became one of the founding members of the Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC), which later reformed teaching of high school physics in the post-Sputnik years. Also in 1956, he divorced his first wife. Gamow later married Barbara Perkins (an editor for one of his publishers) in 1958.
In 1959, Gamow, Hans Bethe, and Victor Weisskopf publicly supported the re-entry of Frank Oppenheimer into teaching college physics at the University of Colorado, as the Red Scare began to fade (J. Robert Oppenheimer was the older brother of Frank Oppenheimer, and both of them had worked on the Manhattan Project before their careers were derailed by McCarthyism).:130 While in Colorado, Frank Oppenheimer became increasingly interested in teaching science through simple hands-on experiments, and he eventually moved to San Francisco to found the Exploratorium.:130-152 Sadly, Gamow would not live to see his colleague's opening of this innovative science museum, in late August 1969.:152
In his 1961 book The Atom and its Nucleus, Gamow proposed the novel idea of representing the periodic system of the chemical elements as a continuous tape, with the elements in order of atomic number wound round in a three-dimensional helix whose diameter increased stepwise (corresponding to the longer rows of the conventional periodic table).
Gamow continued his teaching at the University of Colorado Boulder, and focused increasingly on writing textbooks and books on science for the general public. After several months of ill health, surgeries on his circulatory system, diabetes and liver problems, Gamow was dying of liver failure, which he had called the "weak link" that could not withstand the other stresses.
In a letter written to Ralph Alpher on August 18, he had written, "The pain in the abdomen is unbearable and does not stop". Prior to this, there had been a long exchange of letters with his former student in which he was seeking a fresh understanding of some concepts used in his earlier work, with such scientists and Paul Dirac. He relied on Alpher for his deeper understanding of mathematics.
On August 19, 1968, Gamow died at age 64 in Boulder, Colorado, and was buried there in Green Mountain Cemetery. The physics department tower at the University of Colorado Boulder is named after him.
Gamow was a highly successful science writer, with several of his books still in print more than a half-century after their initial publication. As an educator, Gamow recognized and emphasized fundamental principles that were unlikely to become obsolete, even as the pace of science and technology accelerated. He also conveyed a sense of excitement with the revolution in physics and other scientific topics of interest to the common reader. Gamow himself sketched the many illustrations for his books, which added a new dimension to and complemented what Gamow intended to convey in the text. Wherever it was essential, he was unafraid to introduce mathematics, but he tried to avoid scaring off potential readers with too many equations that did not illustrate essential points.
Gamow was working on a textbook entitled Basic Theories in Modern Physics, with Richard Blade, but it was not completed before he died. He also had worked on a book entitled My World Line: An Informal Autobiography, which was published posthumously in 1970.
- The Birth and Death of the Sun (1940, revised 1952)
- The Biography of the Earth (1941)
- One Two Three ... Infinity (1947, revised 1961), Viking Press (copyright renewed by Barbara Gamow, 1974), Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-25664-2, illustrated by the author. Dedicated to his son, Igor Gamow, it remains one of the most well received ever in the popular science genre. The book winds from mathematics to biology, to physics, crystallography, and more.
- The Moon (1953)
- Gamow, George; Stern, Marvin (1958). Puzzle-Math. Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-333-08637-7.
- Biography of Physics (1961)
- Gravity (1962) Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-42563-0. Profiles of Galileo, Newton, and Einstein
- A Planet Called Earth (1963)
- A Star Called the Sun (1964)
- Thirty Years That Shook Physics: The Story of Quantum Theory, 1966, Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-24895-X.
- My World Line: An Informal Autobiography (1970) Viking Press, ISBN 0-670-50376-2
Mr. Tompkins series
- Mr. Tompkins in Wonderland (1940) Originally published in serial form in Discovery magazine (UK) in 1938.
- Mr. Tompkins Explores the Atom (1945)
- Mr. Tompkins Learns the Facts of Life (1953), about biology
- Mr. Tompkins in Paperback (1965), combines Mr. Tompkins in Wonderland with Mr. Tompkins Explores the Atom, Cambridge University Press, 1993 Canto edition with foreword by Roger Penrose
- Mr. Tompkins Inside Himself (1967), A rewritten version of Mr. Tompkins Learns the Facts of Life giving a broader view of biology, including recent developments in molecular biology. Coauthored by M. Ycas.
- The New World of Mr. Tompkins (1999), coauthor Russell Stannard updated Mr. Tompkins in Paperback (ISBN 9780521630092 is a hardcover)
- The Constitution of Atomic Nuclei and Radioactivity (1931)
- Structure of Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Transformations (1937)
- Atomic Energy in Cosmic and Human Life (1947)
- Theory of Atomic Nucleus and Nuclear Energy Sources (1949) coauthor C. L. Critchfield
- The Creation of the Universe (1952)
- Matter, Earth and Sky (1958)
- Physics: Foundations & Frontiers (1960) coauthor John M. Cleveland
- The Atom and its Nucleus (1961)
- Mr. Tompkins Gets Serious: The Essential George Gamow (2005). edited by Robert Oerter, Pi Press, ISBN 0-13-187291-5. Incorporates material from Matter, Earth, and Sky and The Atom and Its Nucleus. Notwithstanding the title, this book is not part of the Mr. Tompkins series.
- Радиевый институт имени В. Г. Хлопина. Для молодёжи (Radium Institute named after V. G. Khlopin. For young).
- He was expelled from the Academy in 1938, but his membership was restored posthumously in 1990.
- The youngest corresponding member elected to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was the Armenian mathematician Sergey Mergelyan, elected at age 24.
- V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute. History / Memorial and History / Chronology. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Interview with George Gamow by Charles Weiner at Professor Gamow's home in Boulder, Colorado, April 25, 1968. (In the transcript Kochin is spelled Kotshchin.)
- Z. Physik 51, 204 (1928) G. Gamow, "Zur Quantentheorie des Atomkernes"
- R. W. Gurney and E. U. Condon, "Quantum Mechanics and Radioactive Disintegration" Nature 122, 439 (1928); Phys. Rev 33, 127 (1929)
- Friedlander, Gerhart; Kennedy, Joseph E; Miller, Julian Malcolm (1964). Nuclear and Radiochemistry, 2nd edition. New York, London, Sydney: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 225–7. ISBN 978-0-471-86255-0.
- Gamow's derivation of this law
- My World Line G. Gamow, Viking Press, 1970, chap. 5 The Crimean campaign
- Gamow, G.; Hynek, J. A. (1 March 1945). "A New Theory by C. F. Von Weizsacker of the Origin of the Planetary System". The Astrophysical Journal 101: 249. Bibcode:1945ApJ...101..249G. doi:10.1086/144711.
- Ralph A. Alpher; Physicist Published Theory of Big Bang Washington Post obituary, 14 August 2007
- Segrè, Gino (2000-03-30). "The Big Bang and the genetic code". Nature 404 (6777): 437. doi:10.1038/35006517. PMID 10761891.
- "DNA: An "Amateur" Makes a Real Contribution". Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- Crick, Francis "What Mad Pursuit" (Basic Books 1998), Chap.8 The Genetic Code
- Mason, P.H. (2010) Degeneracy at multiple levels of complexity, Biological Theory: Integrating Development, Evolution and Cognition, 5(3), 277-288.
- Mason, P.H. (2014) Degeneracy: Demystifying and destigmatizing a core concept in systems biology. Complexity. doi: 10.1002/cplx.21534
- Watson, J. D. (2002). Genes, Girls, and Gamow: After the Double Helix. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-41283-2. OCLC 47716375.
- Cole, K.C. (2009). Something Incredibly Wonderful Happens: Frank Oppenheimer and the World He Made Up. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-15-100822-3.
- ANDERSON: "What, uh, one thing I’m fascinated with is, of course, George Gamow left the university in ’59 , and Edward Teller had left in 1946  and went to the University of Chicago. But do you have any recollections of maybe some of the, anything between Dr. Marvin and Dr. Gamow, as far as, just before he left and went to Colorado?" NAESER: "Ah, no, I don’t know of any. I know Gamow made no, never did hide the fact that he was an atheist, but whether that came into the picture, I don’t know. But the story around the university was that Gamow and Mrs. Gamow were divorced, but they were in the same social circles some of the time, he thought it was better to get out of Washington. That’s why he went to Ohio State." The George Washington University and Foggy Bottom Historical Encyclopedia, Gamow, George and Edward Teller, October 23, 1996.
- Grote Reber. "The Big Bang Is Bunk". 21st Century Science Associates. p. 44. Retrieved 28 May 2012. "After the initial mathematical work on relativity theory had been done, the Big Bang theory itself was invented by a Belgian priest, Georges Lemaitre, improved upon by an avowed atheist, George Gamow, and is now all but universally accepted by those who hold advanced degrees in astronomy and the physical sciences, despite its obvious absurdity."
- Simon Singh (2010). Big Bang. HarperCollins UK. ISBN 9780007375509. "Surprisingly, the atheist George Gamow enjoyed the Papal attention given to his field of research."
- Interviews with Ralph A. Alpher and Robert C. Herman conducted by Martin Harwit in August, 1983, for the Archives at the Niels Bohr Library, American Institute of Physics, College Park, Maryland.
- "Ralph A. Alpher, Robert C. Herman, and the Prediction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation," Physics in Perspective, 14(3), 300–334, 2012, by Victor S. Alpher.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: George Gamow|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Gamow.|
- Memorial Lecture Series (University of Colorado Boulder)
- Biographic sketch (in PDF)
- Gamow Books
- Annotated bibliography for George Gamow from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
- Gamow memorial at George Washington University
- Oral History interview transcript with George Gamow – a lengthy interview, a few months before Gamow died; includes reminiscences about his family, education, career, and writing.
- Gamow 25 April 1968, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
- Bowley, Roger; Merrifield, Michael; Padilla, Antonio (Tony). "αβγ – The Alpha Beta Gamma Paper". Sixty Symbols. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham.