Geraldine Jewsbury

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Geraldine Endsor Jewsbury (22 August 1812 – 23 September 1880) was an English novelist, woman of letters, and reviewer for English publishers.

Description[edit]

From her small stature with reddish hair and brown eyes, Geraldine might not have seemed very intimidating to her peers. However, Geraldine did not lack power in expressing herself and did not disguise her opinions or world views. She was a heavy talker, devout smoker, and prominent literary figure of the Victorian era. There were many female novelists in the Victorian era and it was estimated in the "Temple Bar" publication that 2/3 of published novels were from women. They were praised for showing everyday life and portraying that in an interesting story. Jewsbury was one of the female writers who gained popularity during that period. She also took it upon herself to encourage other women to reach their full potential.[1][2]

Originally interested in journalism, Jewsbury turned towards novels instead. She is best known for her popular novels such as Zoe: the History of Two Lives and her reviews for the Athenaeum, a leading literary magazine at the time. Although Jewsbury never married, she had many friends and social acquaintances. Her closest relationship appears to have been with Jane Carlyle, a fellow letter-writer married to essayist Thomas Carlyle. Jewsbury felt a romantic connection towards her, and the complexity of their relationship is reflected in Jewsbury's writing.[3]

Early life and family[edit]

Jewsbury was born in 1812 at Measham, then in Derbyshire, now in Leicestershire. She was the daughter of Thomas Jewsbury (d. 1840), a cotton manufacturer and merchant, and his wife Maria, née Smith, (d. 1819). Her paternal grandfather, Thomas Jewsbury Sr. (d. 1799), was an unprofessional surveyor of roads, an engineer of canal navigation, and studied philosophy. Upon his death he left the family four cottages, a warehouse, a piece of land in Measham, and a large sum of money.[4]

Maria Jane Jewsbury was the eldest of the children, born in 1800. Thomas was after in 1802, then Henry in 1803. Geraldine in 1812, Arthur in 1815, and Frank in 1819.[5]

Geraldine's father worked as the master of a cotton factory. However, the War of 1812 hurt England's markets and thus the cotton business as well. The family moved to Manchester on George Street in 1818, after her father's business failed. Geraldine's mother then died just one month after giving birth to Frank, the youngest of the Jewsbury children. Maria Jane, then 19, took on the motherly role for the household so Mr. Jewsbury could keep working. Maria Jane took care of the children for about 13 years after their mother's death.[6]

Geraldine was educated at a boarding school kept by the Misses Darbys at Alder Mills near Tamworth, and continued her studies in French, Italian, and drawing in London in 1830–31. When she was finished with school, Geraldine went back to the family home in Manchester to help with the housekeeping. Her father went into the insurance business and was an agent for the West of England Insurance Company. She took care of her family for a long time, but in the latter part of the 1830s, Geraldine went into a depressive state. She questioned her interest in life and also expressed religious doubt. This phase in her life gave inspiration to her first novel, Zoe: the History of Two Lives.

As for her siblings, each took on a different path of life.[7][8]

Maria Jane Jewsbury[edit]

Maria Jane Jewsbury (1800–1833) was also born in Measham and was a writer and literary reviewer. While the sisters shared literary interests, they also shared personality qualities. Both were considered unfeminine because of their self-assurance. Their writing also had a masculine quality while also being contemporary and sometimes satirical. Maria Jane was educated at a school in Shenstone, Staffordshire and later (through ill health) at home. While bringing up her younger siblings after their mother died in 1819, she read avidly, and began to contribute to the Manchester Gazette and other journals in 1821. She wrote letters to her sister in 1828 while Geraldine was in school as Misses Darby's. Under the title Letters to the Young, Maria Jane wrote to Geraldine, already aspiring to be a writer, about the dangers of fame. Maria Jane warns her younger sister that fame brings unhappiness and the only true happiness one can find is in religion. These letters were written after Maria Jane had a spiritual crisis in 1826, but Geraldine still did not take her advice. The younger sister always had a passion for writing and fame. Maria Jane's first book was Phantasmagoria (1825) and contained poetry and prose. The book attracted the attention of William Wordsworth and Dorothy. She paid a visit to the Wordsworths in Lancashire in July 1825. Another close friend was Felicia Hemans, with whom she stayed in Wales in the summer of 1828. Through acquaintance with the editor of the Athenaeum, Charles Wentworth Dilke, she began to write for it in 1830. Against the wishes of her father, she was married on 1 August 1832 to Rev. William Kew Fletcher (d. 1867), at Penegoes, Montgomeryshire. The couple set out for India, where she continued to write poetry and a journal. She died of cholera at Poona on 4 October 1833. Maria Jane had brought to India many of her works, and after her death many were published anonymously.[9][10][11]

Thomas Jewsbury[edit]

Thomas helped out his father with the insurance business and then married Miss Francess Ham in October 1839. It seems that Geraldine was never fond of her sister in-law because she was the cause of some dissent within the Jewsbury family. It is rumoured Frank had wished to marry Miss Ham, but seeing that he was too young, she married Tom instead.[12]

Henry Jewsbury[edit]

Not long after moving to Manchester, Henry took on an apprenticeship with Mr. J.W. Gaulter. A fellow apprentice named Whitlow teamed with Henry for a business partnership. They sold prescription drugs, perfumes, and soda and were very successful. He married his partner's sister, Miss Whitlow, in 1832. From there he moved out of the house in Manchester.[13]

Arthur Jewsbury[edit]

In 1830 Arthur went to sea to work as a sailor. He became something along the lines of a captain's servant which prevented him from writing home often. The father of the Jewsbury family cut Arthur off from the family although it is unknown what Arthur did to lead his father to a wrathful decision.[14]

Frank Jewsbury[edit]

The youngest, Frank, went into partnership with his father. Geraldine had been taking care of the household since she had finished school and still took care of Frank and her father even when they were the only other two members left to take care of. Their father eventually died in 1840, a few days after Geraldine's 28th birthday. Geraldine continued to take care of Frank and the house until his marriage in 1854. After Frank's marriage, Geraldine moved to Chelsea, London.[15]

Place in literature[edit]

Jewsbury has earned a place in literature in three respects: as a novelist, as a critic and publisher's reader, and as a figure in London literary life.

Novels[edit]

Jewsbury was primarily a novelist of ideas and moral dilemmas. She often made her female characters wiser and better able than male characters.[16] Her first novel, Zoe: the History of Two Lives (1845), was an immediate success. Jewsbury had begun writing in 1842 with the help of Jane Carlyle. The novel was published by Chapman and Hall in three volumes. Originally, Geraldine's publisher tried to persuade her to write something else, considering that the book was unfit to be read. Thomas Carlyle intervened and convinced the publisher otherwise. Outwardly a romantic tale, it concerns "the predicament of a gifted and aspiring woman in a society that dictates gender roles, and the mental agonies of a conscientious [male] thinker" who lapses from Catholicism. The story is about a half-Greek girl who feels marriage is her inevitable choice in life. She falls in love with a Catholic priest named Everhard Burrows. Everhard begins to doubt his faith and soon resigns from the priesthood, falling in love with Zoe. However, Everhard dies in poverty soon after and Zoe takes on another lover. Zoe is a "novel of doubt" (similar attempts being made by Charlotte Yonge, Mrs Humphrey Ward and others) and alongside the "female novels" of the Brontës, Mrs Gaskell and George Eliot.[17]

The books' linkage of sexual feelings with spiritual anguish has invited comparison with George Sand. The novel as a whole is about the scepticism in faith and life. Jewsbury drew from her personal experiences from when in the 1830s she had an issue with depression. As Jewsbury wrote to Jane Carlyle, the protagonist Zoe is demanding, "What are we sent into this world at all for? What ought we to do with our life?"[18] Although the novel had boosted Geraldine to success, Zoe still received mixed reviews. In the Athenaeum (the literary magazine Jewsbury would soon work for herself), H.F. Chorley reviewed Jewsbury's first novel on 1 February 1845. Chorley was concerned how much Jewsbury had drawn from personal experience with her novel and how much she relied on creative instinct. Other reviewers, such as one for the Manchester Examiner, thought highly of Jewsbury's first novel and wrote that it was "striking" and "clever".[19][20][21]

Jewsbury's next novel, The Half Sisters (1848), which the author thought her best, contrasts the life of a businessman's wife (Alice) with the more meaningful one of her actress half-sister (Bianca). This again raised an issue that was controversial in its time (cf. Madame de Staël's Corinne and Sand's Consuelo). The novel mainly tackled the "woman question" of the Victorian time era, challenging the role of women in society and their employment opportunities. The main character, Bianca, works for the sake of others rather than herself. First, to take care of her insane mother and second, to win over her love. Bianca's character is based on one of Geraldine's close friends, Charlotte Cushman, an actress supporting her own family from a young age. It is said that the lesser of the two women characters, Alice, is based on Jane Carlyle. Alice serves as the more conventional woman of this period – accepting life as a wife and mother, a role which Geraldine saw as an unhappy one. Jane helped to edit the novel, but when it came to publication, she asked the publisher to omit her name from the dedication. Once the publisher had deleted a few passages about a woman's right to love, Jane withdrew her objection.[22][23] Furthermore, Jewsbury's second novel shows the benefits of women's work and depicts Bianca as a modern heroine. Lord Melton, her husband, serves as the ideal husband, seeing his wife as an equal. Through this character and her novel, Jewsbury reveals her insights into marriage equality, an ideal husband, and women in the workplace.[24]

Jewsbury's third novel, Marian Withers (1851), had an industrial setting and was serialised in the Manchester Examiner and Times. Many critics did not like its fragmentary structure. The novel tells several different stories, all connected by analogy. As a whole, Jewsbury focuses on the love for invention and the love for doing something you enjoy. While exploring the love for occupation, Jewsbury uses her characters to explore the struggle of work and status among male and female characters. Mirian, the main female character, explores the choices of women in the current era, a topic Jewsbury felt passionate about. She felt that women marrying for the benefit of status were wasting their lives. She also believed women should offset bad choices with good works (such as philanthropic work). Along with the theme of women's places in society, Jewsbury uses Marian Withers to explore the relationship between the working class and the upper classes. Being more of a Realist writer, Jewsbury uses her novel to show the deceptive lure of Romantic ideals and how aiming for self-control and education is more beneficial. Unlike her first two novels, Marian Withers did not have a character which resembled Jane Carlyle. The novel was also a bolder step as she drew on her knowledge of industrial Manchester and her own father's experiences there.[25][26]

Three further novels aimed at adults (Constance Herbert, 1855; The Sorrows of Gentility, 1856; Right or Wrong, 1859) attracted less interest.[27] She also wrote two novels for children, The History of an Adopted Child (1852) and Angelo, or, The Pine Forest in the Alps (1855).[18]

Reviewing[edit]

Jewsbury began by contributing to Douglas Jerrold's Shilling Magazine in 1846.

She went on to be a regular contributor to the weekly Athenaeum, where she is thought to have reviewed up to 2300 books from 1849 onward. The reviews appeared anonymously between 1849 and 1880, as was the custom. Only from old editor notes can it be known how many and which books she reviewed. Athenaeum aimed at putting a full coverage of current fiction in their publication, hiring many reviewers such as Jewsbury. Jewsbury refused to rank novelists due to the fact not everyone had a specific classification system. Her first review was submitted in 1849. During that time, novels were seen as something for only the working-class people. It wasn't until 1854 that Jewsbury started to contribute to the magazine regularly. She reviewed not only novels, but children's books, memoirs, biographies, histories, cook books, and household management books. Since the magazine chose to keep all writers anonymous, there was a lot of speculation of who was doing the writing. Oftentimes Geraldine's co-worker, John Cordy Jefferson, was pegged as the one giving harsh reviews when mostly it was Geraldine. Editor Charles Wentworth Dilke would not allow the breaking of anonymity. Once it had been learned it was Geraldine who was doing the heavy criticism, Rhoda Broughton took it upon herself to get revenge. Geraldine had written a harsh review of Broughton's Cometh Up as a Flower which resulted in a mean caricature of Jewsbury in Broughton's novel The Beginner in 1894. When reviewing, Jewsbury took the morality of a novel seriously. Morality was seen as the highest quality in a novel for Jewsbury, but also to be entertaining. Jewsbury's definition of morality in a novel was the characters' ability to distinguish between right and wrong. She also wasn't a fan of the fallen woman theme Victorian literature often exhibited. Jewsbury did not think novels should be focusing on a sinner as a female heroine or that women should pay for the mistakes they make in life. Further criticisms came from Jewsbury over novels with extravagant lifestyles. She believed women should suffer for falling from society, remaining shunned. Geraldine was not completely against love plots, but she was heavily critical of physical love scenes in novels or any situation where an older man was pining for a younger woman. She was always in favour of the construction of good characters rather than the construction of a good plot. Furthermore, she rarely criticised the narration of a novel, rather the readability. Her reviews can be seen as the common view of Victorian citizens. During this period, many novels were read at family times. Jewsbury's reviews reflect the view of the normal Victorian family. The second half of the 1850s was her most active period for Athenaeum. She was entrusted with the "New Novels" section, one of the most popular sections. Also during this period came the rise of domestic novels of the trials and triumphs for women keeping house. She did not comment much on such domestic fiction written by women for women. However, the genre gave way in the early 1860s to the rise of the "sensation novel". Popular authors Jewsbury reviewed included Anthony Trollope, George Eliot, George Meredith and Wilkie Collins. By the 1870s, her eyesight was failing and she confined herself largely to reviewing children's books.[28]

Dickens commissioned 17 stories from Jewsbury between 1850 and 1859, for his periodical Household Words.[29] He once wrote to her: "Dear Miss Jewsbury, – I make no apology for addressing you thus, for I am a reader of yours, and I hope that I have that knowledge of you which may justify a frank approach....if I could induce you to write any papers or short stories for [Household Words] I should, I sincerely assure you, set great store by your help, and be much gratified in having it."[30]

In a magazine essay entitled 'Religious Faith and Modern Scepticism', she saw spiritual problems as "the beginning of a wider and deeper insight – a larger faith and increased knowledge."[31] Meanwhile she also worked as a publisher's reader for Hurst and Blackett, and from 1859 for Bentley, recommending for instance that it publish Ellen Wood's best-selling East Lynne (1861), although turning down such later successful authors as Rhoda Broughton, M. E. Braddon, and Ouida.[18]

For Bentley, Jewsbury worked has a reader from 1858 to 1880, putting together 609 reports.[32] She often used her place with Bentley to boost the careers of other female writers. She aided the careers of such friends as Margaret Oliphant and Frances Power Cobbe.[33] Other publishers she worked for were Hurst and Blackett. She once wrote to John Blackett about a book her then admirer, Walter Mantell, could possibly write about New Zealand. The deal never went through, mostly because Mantell became angry with Jewsbury for her persistence.

Letters[edit]

Jewsbury wrote many letters between herself and her friends. Most letter are to Jane Carlyle, Geraldine's best friend. However, Jewsbury first began corresponding with Jane's husband, Thomas Carlyle. Geraldine had read Thomas's essays around 1840 and started to write to him out of gratitude. She was also interested in pursuing writing opportunities, but her first letter to Thomas in 1840 only expressed her frustrations in terms of religious doubt. Eventually Thomas invited Geraldine out to Cheyne Row, where Jane and himself resided. Thomas once quoted Jane was "one of the most interesting young women I have seen for years, delicate sense and courage looking out of her small sylph-like figure."[34]

Jewsbury then turned her attention to Jane and took up correspondence with her. Geraldine often expressed her anger over the suffering of women and their self-surrendering to marriage. In March 1841, Jewsbury admitted to Jane she wanted to be a writer.[35][36]

Friends and romances[edit]

Geraldine was known as a very sociable lady with many friends and literary partnerships. When her literary work became popular, her circle grew even wider. She was known as a personable woman who easily found common ground with people of any class. Even the servants of her friends grew to like her. Jewsbury's growing literary prominence and startling, unconventional personality (smoking and wearing men's clothes like Sand) soon brought her a place in literary society. Her friends included the Huxley, Kingsley, Rossetti, and Browning families, W. E. Forster (with whom she visited revolutionary Paris in 1848), John Bright, John Ruskin and G. H. Lewes. She helped the elderly Sydney, Lady Morgan with her memoirs (1862).

Jane Carlyle[edit]

Geraldine's longest friend was Jane Welsh Carlyle – a friendship lasting over from 1840 to 1866. Their friendship began as a passionate love, grew to a literary partnership, and then developed into a daughter-mother relationship. There are letters between the two women, especially from Geraldine, expressing their passion, but there is no evidence they were lesbian lovers.

Geraldine originally started corresponding with Jane's husband, Thomas, for possible writing opportunities. Jewsbury wanted to establish a professional community with Jane and Thomas so she could use their social position and literary guidance. As time went on, Geraldine treated Jewsbury as a mother figure, but still pushed her friend to become a writer. Jane had shown literary talent and was once thought to have originally written Jane Eyre. However, she was always a dutiful wife and never fully acted upon her literary skills. Geraldine still pushed her friend through their relationship, but she could not even convince Jane to write a book together. Geraldine also told her friend to gain more experiences, seeing that she did not have many as a wife. Jewsbury also encouraged Jane not to turn to her husband for sympathy or other guidance, but to turn to her instead. Her reasoning could be from her views on marriage or the fact she felt more of a romantic connection to Jane and could have been jealous of her friend's marriage. Although Geraldine had some influence over Jane, they often disagreed about social issues—mainly the place of men in women's lives and the overall purpose of women. From this their friendship had many ups and downs, where at times they would have big disagreements and send heated rather than friendly letters.

As a literary partner, Jane helped edit Jewsbury's novels Zoe: the History of Two Lives and The Half Sisters. Jane was often burdened with helping her friend so much, however. Another burden was how often Geraldine stayed with the Carlyles. Thomas and Jane would often invite their friend out to Cheyne Row, where they resided. But being single and having no real occupation, Geraldine would often overextend her stay. Jane often took it upon herself to look for a husband for Geraldine although when Geraldine did become romantically involved with anyone, Jane would show emotions of jealousy rather than happiness.

When Jane started to sicken towards the end of her life, Geraldine spent a good amount of time taking care of her. However, Jane had periods of better health and would not need her friend to tend to her. When Jane felt like her normal self, she would turn to her husband for company rather than Jewsbury.

Although they had their rough periods, Geraldine was usually the one to apologise. She was more forgiving and open to her friend, perhaps because she wanted to withstand their literary partnership or perhaps she didn't want to lose someone she felt a strong romantic connection towards. Jane also had feelings of jealousy towards any of Geraldine's companions, male or female. Jane was inclined to involve herself in Geraldine's emotional dilemmas and had a difficult time accepting how social Geraldine was. Geraldine still had a strong affection for Jane, however. She once wrote to Jane she loved her, but Jane did not reciprocate. Then, Walter Mantell, one of Geraldine's serious romantic partners, arrived in Jewsbury's life in 1857. The new romantic relationship caused the two friends to become very distant. When they did write letters, they were mostly filled with quarrels.

The two remained friends until Jane's death in 1866. There is a surviving collection of 126 letters between them.[18] Their unique relationship was recognised by their peers and other literary scholars. Virginia Woolf based her article "Times Literary Supplement" on Geraldine's letters to Jane.[37][38][39]

Charlotte Saunders Cushman[edit]

Geraldine became friends with Charlotte as a result of her literary success. As Geraldine's fame rose, she acquired more and more friends, especially those who had acquired fame as well. Charlotte Cushman was an actress supporting her family from a young age. She made her fame by having more manly attributes rather than womanly. She had a lack of womanly beauty and a hefty build, but to Geraldine she was the embodiment of protection and strength. Charlotte served as inspiration for Jewsbury's character Bianca in her novel The Half Sisters. Their close relationship made Jane upset and jealous. Geraldine admired Charlotte for her many experiences and her rise to fame where Jewsbury condemned Jane for having too few experiences.[40]

Sydney, Lady Morgan[edit]

Sydney Owenson, also known as Lady Morgan, was a friend of Jewsbury's who decided to enlist her friend's literary talents. Before Lady Morgan's death in 1859, Geraldine helped write and compile her friend's memoirs. They first became friends in 1853 when Geraldine came to London. Lady Morgan showed kindness to her friend and helped her live the single life. Lady Morgan was often criticised by her peers, but Geraldine gave her friend's life purpose when writing her memoirs and also wrote about her friend in a gender-less way. Geraldine gave value to her friend, but on a masculine scale, rather than adhere to a feminine scale which was already too low in Geraldine's opinion.[41]

John Stores Smith[edit]

John was a business man whom Geraldine met in 1848. He expressed his support for feminism often which led to a strong relationship with Geraldine. Upon her death, Jewsbury left all of her papers to John.[42]

Walter Mantell[edit]

Jewsbury had proposed to at least three men in her lifetime, all of which refused. One of those proposals was to her most serious romantic relationship with Walter Mantell. Jewsbury met Mantell when he was 36 and she was 44. Mantell was newly arrived to England. He had been in New Zealand trying to get the indigenous Maori people to cheaply sell their land to England. Mantell was uncomfortable with trying to dupe the indigenous people into selling their land less than it's value, so he departed from New Zealand in 1856. When Jewsbury and Mantell formed a relationship, she gave him the nickname "Matara"—which means chief in Maori.

When in England, Mantell had a difficult time finding work. He became restless at home and also became a hypochondriac. Jewbury encouraged him to write a piece for the Westminster Gazette. She always encouraged Walter to write in general since she had connections within the literary realm. Walter often grew tired of her advice and her persistence. By the summer of 1858, Geraldine was very wrapped up in Walter's life. When Walter expressed his consideration for returning to New Zealand, Jewsbury was extremely upset. In September 1858 the two drifted apart. By 1859 Walter had withdrawn from Geraldine completely and as a result she suffered deeply. She tried multiple times to win his love through letters and also proposed marriage, but she stopped her efforts in August 1859. Walter admitted sometime afterwards he would never have married a superior woman.[43]

Death[edit]

Geraldine never married.[44][18] She moved to Sevenoaks, Kent after the death of Jane Carlyle in 1866, but contracted cancer in 1879 and died in a private London hospital in 1880 and was buried in Brompton Cemetery.[44] Jewsbury was writing up until the very end of her life. The last report she wrote for Bentley is dated 9 September 1880.[45]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fryckstedt, Monica Correa (1986). Geraldine Jewsbury's "Athenaeum" Reviews: A Mirror of Mid-Victorian Attitudes to Fiction. Stockholm: Almqvist Och Wiksell. 
  2. ^ Carney, Karen. "The Publisher's Reader as Feminist: The Career of Geraldine Endsor Jewsbury". jstor.org. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  3. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  4. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  5. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  6. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  7. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  8. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  9. ^ ODNB entry by Joanne Wilkes: Retrieved 3 August 2012. Pay-walled.
  10. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  11. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  12. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  13. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  14. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  15. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  16. ^ Carney, Karen. "The Publisher's Reader as Feminist: The Career of Geraldine Endsor Jewsbury". jstor.org. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  17. ^ Shirley Foster: Introduction. In: Zoe (London: Virago Press, 1989), p. 7.
  18. ^ a b c d e Wilkes 2004.
  19. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  20. ^ Wolff, Robert Lee (1977). Gains and Losses: Novels of Faith and Doubt in Victorian England. New York: Garland Publishing. pp. 402–404. 
  21. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  22. ^ Cruikshank, Margaret. "Geraldine Jewsbury and Jane Carlyle". JSTOR. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  23. ^ Carney, Karen. "The Publisher's Reader as Feminist: The Career of Geraldine Endsor Jewsbury". jstor.org. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  24. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  25. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  26. ^ Bodenheimer, Rosemarie (1988). The Politics of Story in Victorian Social Fiction. Ithaca: Cornell UP. 
  27. ^ Shirley Foster, p. 5.
  28. ^ Fryckstedt, Monica Correa (1986). Geraldine Jewsbury's "Athenaeum" Reviews: A Mirror of Mid-Victorian Attitudes to Fiction. Stockholm: Almqvist Och Wiksell. 
  29. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  30. ^ Jewsbury, Geraldine (1994). The Collected Writings of Geraldine Jewsbury. Wiltshire: Adam Matthew Publications. 
  31. ^ Westminster Review No. 52, January 1850.
  32. ^ Fryckstedt, Monica Correa (1986). Geraldine Jewsbury's "Athenaeum" Reviews: A Mirror of Mid-Victorian Attitudes to Fiction. Stockholm: Almqvist Och Wiksell. 
  33. ^ Carney, Karen. "The Publisher's Reader as Feminist: The Career of Geraldine Endsor Jewsbury". jstor.org. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  34. ^ Jewsbury, Geraldine (1994). The Collected Writings of Geraldine Jewsbury. Wiltshire: Adam Matthew Publications. 
  35. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  36. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  37. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  38. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  39. ^ Cruikshank, Margaret. "Geraldine Jewsbury and Jane Carlyle". JSTOR. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  40. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  41. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  42. ^ Howe, Susanne (1935). Geraldine Jewsbury, Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  43. ^ Clarke, Norma (1990). Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love: The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge. 
  44. ^ a b Pettitt 1999.
  45. ^ Carney, Karen. "The Publisher's Reader as Feminist: The Career of Geraldine Endsor Jewsbury". jstor.org. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
Attribution

External links[edit]