German Orthographic Conference of 1901

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The German Orthographic Conference of 1901 (also called the Berlin II Orthographic Conference) was a spelling reform for the German Empire. It was largely based on the Prussian school spelling, but also on the Orthographic Conference of 1876.

The standardized German spelling that resulted from the Conference was used in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland until 1996, apart from the displacement of ß in Switzerland in the 1920s with ss. The conference got rid of numerous existing double and triple forms. Soon after the conference, the reforms were criticized by various people who believed there should be further reform, but it took 95 years until the next change with the German spelling reform implemented in 1996.

See also[edit]


  • Reich Ministry for Science and Education, ed. (1944). Rules for the German spelling words and directory. Berlin: German schoolbook publisher. 
  • Basler, Otto (1948). Rules and glossary. Munich: Leibniz (later Oldenbourg). 
  • Kopke, Wolfgang (1995). Spelling and constitutional reform. Tübingen: Mohr. 
  • Ickler, Theodor (8 June 1998). "The only real spelling reform in Germany". Sueddeutsche Zeitung (129). p. 9. 
  • Hanno Birken-Bertsch and Reinhard Markner: Rechtschreibreform und Nationalsozialismus. Ein Kapitel aus der politischen Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, Göttingen: Wallstein, 2000. ISBN 3-89244-450-1

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