List of German queens

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Crown of Constance of Aragon, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of the Romans

German queen is the informal title used when referring to the wife of the ruler of the Kingdom of Germany. The official titles of the wives of German kings were Queen of the Germans and later Queen of the Romans.

There has never been a German queen regnant, as women were prohibited from ruling Germany. However Empress Maria Theresa (1745-1780) is often considered to be a ruler in her own right, as she was Queen regnant of Bohemia and Hungary, and despite her husband being elected as Holy Roman Empire, it was she who ruled the Empire and continued to do so even after the death of her husband before ruling jointly with her son Emperor Joseph II.

German (East Francian) Queens[edit]

With the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the Carolingian Empire was divided. Lothair, the King of the middle Kingdom of Lotharingia or Burgundy, obtained the title of Emperor; Louis obtained Eastern Francia, the area which would become Germany. The wives of that realm's Kings are thus German Queens (or more precisely, East Francian Queens – 'Germany' is historically deemed to have developed with the election of Henry the Fowler), but not always Empresses.

Carolingian[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Hemma.jpg Emma of Altdorf
Queen of the East Franks
Elder Welf 808 827 11 August 843 never Empress 31 January 876 Louis I/II
Luitgarda.jpg Liutgard
Queen of the East Franks
Liudolfing  ? 29 November 874 26 August 876 never Empress 20 January 882 17/30 November 885 Louis II/III
Saint Richardis (fragment of The Ordeal by Fire by Dierec Bouts the Older).jpg Richardis Ahalolfinger c.840 862 20 January 882 12 February 881 As Queen: 11 November 887
husband's deposition as King
As Empress: 13 January 888
husband's death
18 September, 894-896 Charles the Fat
Ota Conradine  ? 888 22 February 896 8 December 899 30 November 903 Arnulf
Picture Name House Birth :) Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Conradine[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Cunigunde of Swabia
Queen of East Francia
Ahalofinger c.870 913 never Empress 23 December 918  ? Conrad I
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

German Queens[edit]

With the elevation of Otto I of Germany in 962 to the Imperial title, the title 'Roman King/Emperor' became inaliably associated with the Kingdom of Germany - although a King of Germany might not bear the Imperial title, it would eventually become impossible to conceive of a Holy Roman Emperor not being King of Germany (a viewpoint reinforced with the equation of King of the Romans with King of Germany from the 12th century). Thus, the following women, though not all Holy Roman Empresses, were all Queens of Germany, and - from the inception of the Hohenstaufen dynasty - all Queens of the Romans.

Ottonian Dynasty[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Mathilde 0 de ringelheim.jpg Matilda of Ringelheim
Queen of the East Franks
Dietrich, Count of Westphalia(Immedinger) c.895 909 23 April 919 never Empress 2 July 936 14 March 968 Henry I
Edita 250.jpg Edith of Wessex
Queen of the East Franks
Edward the Elder of England 910 929 7 August 936 never Empress 26 January 946 Otto I
Adelaide of Italy.jpg Adelaide of Italy Rudolph II of Burgundy
(Welf)
931 951 2 February 962 (Crowned on this date) 7 May 973 16 December 999
Theophanu 0 skleros.jpg Theophanu of Byzantium Konstantinos Skleros 960 14 April 972 14 April 972
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
7 May 973
husband as sole Emperor
Crowned 14 April 972
7 December 983
husband's death
15 June 991 Otto II
Heilige Kunigunde.jpg Cunigunde of Luxembourg Siegfried, Count of Luxemburg c.975 c.1000 17 June 1002 26 April 1014 13 July 1024 3 March 1033 Henry II
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Salian Dynasty[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gisela von Schwaben.JPG Gisela of Swabia Hermann II, Duke of Swabia
(Conradines)
11 November 995 1016 8 September 1024 26 March 1027 4 June 1039
husband's death
14 February 1043 Conrad II
Gunhilda.jpg Gunhilda Knutsdatter of Denmark
Queen of the Germans
Cnut the Great
(Denmark)
c.1020 1036 never Empress 1038 Henry III
Agnes of Poitou.jpg Agnes de Poitou William V, Duke of Aquitaine
(Ramnulfids)
1025 21 November 1043 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 14 December 1077
Bertha of Savoy, Holy Roman Empress.jpg Bertha of Savoy Otto, Count of Savoy
(Savoy)
21 September 1051 13 July 1066 21 March 1084 27 December 1087 Henry IV
Eupraxia of Kiev Vsevolod I, Grand Prince of Kiev
(Rurikids)
1071 14 August 1089 14 August 1089 31 December 1105
husband's deposition
20 July 1109
Constanze
Queen of the Romans
Roger I of Sicily
(Hauteville)
1077–1087 1095 never Empress 1098
husband's deposition
 ? Conrad, King of the Romans
Matylda dcera.jpg Matilda of England Henry I of England
(Normandy)
7 February 1101 7 January 1114 23 May 1125 10 September 1167 Henry V
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Supplinburg[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Richenza von Northeim (Königslutter).jpg Richenza of Northeim Henry the Fat, Margrave of Frisia c.1087/89 c.1100 30 August 1125 4 June 1133 4 December 1137 10 June 1141 Lothair III
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Hohenstaufen (1)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gertrud von Komburg
Queen of the Romans in opposition
Henry, Count of Rothenburg c.1115 1127
husband King in opposition
never Empress c.1130-1131 Conrad III
Gertrude of Sulzbach Berengar II, Count of Sulzbach 1136 7 March 1138 never Empress 14 April 1146
Adelheid of Vohburg Diepold III, Margrave of Vohburg c.1128 1147 4 March 1152 never Empress March 1153
marriage annulled
after 1187 Frederick I
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 032.jpg Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy Renaud III, Count of Burgundy 1148 9 June 1156 15 November 1184
Constance-Sicily.jpg Constance of Sicily Roger II, King of Sicily
(Hauteville)
1154 27 January 1186 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 27 November 1198 Henry VI
Irene Angelina.jpg Irene Angelina Isaac II Angelos, Byzantine Emperor 1177/1181 25 May 1197 6 March 1198 never Empress 21 August 1208 27 August 1208 Philip of Swabia
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Welf[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Wgt Stifterbüchlein 39v.jpg Beatrix of Swabia Philip, King of Germany
(Hohenstaufen)
1198 1209 or 1212 1212 Otto IV
MarieBrabant1190-1260.jpg Marie of Brabant Henry I, Duke of Brabant c.1190 after 19 May 1214 5 July 1215
husband's deposition
May 1260
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Hohenstaufen (2)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
KonstancieAragonska Uhry.jpg Constance of Aragon Alfonso II, King of Aragon 1179 5 August 1209 1211-1212
husband as King in opposition/
5 July 1215
husband unopposed
22 November 1220 23 April 1220
Ceased to
be Queen:
son elected
as King
;
23 June 1222
Ceased to be
Empress upon death
Frederick II
Yolande of Jerusalem.jpg Yolande of Brienne John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem 1212 9 November 1225 never German Queen 9 November 1225 25 April 1228
Empress Isabel.JPG Isabella of England John, King of England 1214 15/20 July 1235 May 1237
Ceased to
be Queen:
husband's second
son elected as King
;
1 December 1241
Ceased to be
Empress upon death
Bianca Lancia a child of Manfred I Lancia (one of his sons, Manfred II or Bonifacio, or one daughter, Bianca) c.1200 c.1244?
Evidence for marriage is dubious
never German Queen c.1244?
evidence for marriage is dubious
c.1244
Margarete von Babenberg.JPG Margaret of Austria
Queen of the Romans
Leopold VI of Babenberg, Duke of Austria c.1204 29 November 1225
Queen by marriage:
husband was King under his father, Frederick II;
23 March 1227
Crowned as Queen
never Empress 4 July 1235 husband dethroned;
12 February 1242 husband's death
29 October 1266 Henry, King of the Romans
Elisabeth von Bayern (1227–1273).jpg Elisabeth of Bavaria
Queen of the Romans
Otto II of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria 1227 1 September 1246 never Empress 21 May 1254 9 October 1273 Conrad IV
Picture Name House Father Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg (1)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gertrud Anna Habsburg Basel Muenster 2008 018.jpg Gertrude of Hohenburg
Queen of the Romans
Burchard V, Count of Hohenburg 1225 1245 29 September 1273 never Empress 16 February 1281 Rudolph I
Pecet Isabela Burgundska.jpg Isabelle of Burgundy
Queen of the Romans
Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy c.1270 6 February 1284 never Empress 15 July 1291
husband's death
c.1323
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Nassau[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Adolf imagina klarenthal.JPG Imagina of Isenburg-Limburg Gerlach IV of Isenburg-Limburg
(Isenburg-Limburg)
1259 1271 5 May 1292 never Empress 23 June 1298 29 September 1313 Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg (2)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Elisabeth Tirol.jpg Elisabeth of Tirol
Queen of the Romans
Meinhard, Duke of Carinthia c.1262 20 December 1274 27 July 1298 never Empress 1 May 1308 28 October 1312 Albert I
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Luxemburg (1)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Margaret of Brabant hlava.jpg Margaret of Brabant
Queen of the Romans
John I, Duke of Brabant 4 October 1276 9 July 1292 27 November 1308 never Empress 14 December 1311 Henry VII
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg (3)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
IsabelaAragonska.jpg Isabella of Aragon
Queen of the Romans
James II of Barcelona, King of Aragon and Sicily 1296 11 May 1314 19 October 1315
husband's election (in opposition)/
5 September 1325
husband recognised as co-King
never Empress 28 September 1322
husband abandons claim/
13 January 1330
husband's death
12 July 1330 Frederick the Handsome
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Wittelsbach (1)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Beatrix of Silesia-Glogau.jpg Beatrix of Świdnica
Queen of the Romans
Bolko I, Duke of Świdnica 1290 1308 20 October 1314
husband's election
never Empress 24 August 1322 Louis IV
Marguerite II de Hainaut.png Margaret, Countess of Hainaut William of Avesnes, Count of Hainaut 1311 26 February 1324 January 1328 11 October 1347 23 June 1356
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Luxemburg (2)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Blanka Valois.jpg Blanche of Valois
Queen of the Romans
Charles of Valois 1316 May 1329 11 July 1346
husband's election (in opposition)
never Empress 1 August 1348 Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Anna von der Pfalz.jpg Anna of Bavaria
Queen of the Romans
Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria
(Wittelsbach)
26 September 1329 4 March 1349 17 June 1349
husband's election (without opposition)
never Empress 2 February 1353
AnnaSvidnicka hlava.jpg Anna of Świdnica Henry II, Duke of Świdnica c. 1339 27 May 1353 5 April 1355
coronation with husband
11 July 1362
Katedrala sv Vita Praha mozaika Alzbeta.jpg Elizabeth of Pomerania Bogislav V, Duke of Pomerania 1347 21 May 1363 1 November 1368
coronation
29 November 1378
husband's death
14 February 1393
Joanna of Bavaria.jpg Johanna of Bavaria
Queen of the Romans
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
(Wittelsbach)
c. 1362 29 September 1370 10 June 1376 never Empress 31 December 1386 Wenceslaus, King of the Romans
ZofieBav2.jpg Sofia of Bavaria
Queen of the Romans
John II, Duke of Bavaria
(Wittelsbach)
1376 2 May 1389 never Empress 20 August 1400
husband's deposition
26 September 1425
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Wittelsbach (2)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Elisabeth von Hohenzollern.jpg Elisabeth of Nuremberg
Queen of the Romans
Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg
(Hohenzollern)
1358 27 June 1374 21 August 1400
husband's election
never Empress 18 May 1410
husband's death
26 July 1411 Rupert of Germany
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Luxemburg (3)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Barbara-von-Cilli.jpg Barbara of Celje Count Hermann II
(Celje)
1390 to 1395 1408 21 July 1411
husband's election
31 May 1433
husband's coronation
9 December 1437
husband's death
11 July 1451 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg (16)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Elisabeth-Boehmen.jpg Elizabeth of Bohemia
Queen of the Romans
Emperor Sigismund
(Luxemburg)
1409 1422 18 March 1438
husband's election
never Empress 27 October 1439
husband's death
25 December 1442 Albert II of Germany
Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 006.jpg Eleanor of Portugal Edward of Portugal
(Aviz)
18 September 1434 16 March 1452 19 March 1452
husband's coronation
3 September 1467 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ambrogio de Predis 002.jpg Bianca Maria of Milan Galeazzo Maria, Duke of Milan
(Sforza)
5 April 1472 16 March 1494 4 February 1508
husband declared "emperor-elect"
31 December 1510 Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Tizian 057.jpg Isabella of Portugal Manuel I of Portugal
(Aviz)
23 October 1503 10 March 1526 24 February 1530
husband's coronation
1 May 1539 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Annajagiello.jpg Anna of Bohemia and Hungary
Queen of the Romans
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
(Jagiello)
23 July 1503 25 May 1521 January 1531
husband's election
never Empress 27 January 1547 Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria of Spain 1557.jpg Maria of Spain Emperor Charles V
(Habsburg)
21 June 1528 13 September 1548 November 1562
husband's election
25 July 1564
husband's ascension
12 October 1576
husband's death
26 February 1603 Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frans Pourbus d. J. 002.jpg Anna of Austria Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria
(Habsburg)
4 October 1585 4 December 1611 1612
husband's election
14 December 1618 Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
Eleonore Gonzaga 1.jpg Eleonore of Mantua Vincenzo I, Duke of Mantua
(Gonzaga)
23 September (23 February?) 1598 4 February 1622 15 February 1637
husband's death
27 June 1655 Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Diego Velázquez 031.jpg Maria Anna of Spain Philip III of Spain
(Habsburg)
18 August 1606 20 February 1631 22 December 1636
husband's election
15 February 1637
husband's ascension
13 May 1646 Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Lorenzo Lippi 005.jpg Maria Leopoldine of Austria Leopold V, Archduke of Austria
(Habsburg)
6 April 1632 2 July 1648 7 August 1649
Frans Luycx 005.jpg Eleanor of Mantua Charles II, Duke of Mantua
(Gonzaga)
18 November 1630 30 April 1651 2 April 1657
husband's death
6 December 1686
Margarita Teresa of Spain Mourningdress.jpg Margaret Theresa of Spain Philip IV of Spain
(Habsburg)
12 July 1651 12 December 1666 12 March 1673 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Giovanni Maria Morandi 001.jpg Claudia Felicitas of Austria Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria
(Habsburg)
30 May 1653 15 October 1673 8 April 1676
Eleonore of Pfalz Neuburg.jpg Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg Philip William, Elector Palatine
(Wittelsbach)
6 January 1655 14 December 1676 5 May 1705
husband's death
19 January 1720
Amalia Wilhelmine von Braunschweig.jpg Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick John Frederick, Duke of Calenburg
(Welf)
21 April 1673 24 February 1699 5 May 1705
husband's ascension
17 April 1711
husband's death
10 April 1742 Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
Elisabeth Christine of Braunschweig Wolfenbuettel.jpg Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
(Welf)
28 August (28 September?) 1691 1 August 1708 December 1711
husband's election
20 October 1740
husband's death
21 December 1750 Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Wittelsbach (3)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Maria AmaliaBayern.jpg Maria Amalia of Austria Joseph I
(Habsburg)
22 October 1701 5 October 1722 24 January 1742
husband's election
20 January 1745
husband's death
11 December 1756 Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg-Lorraine[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Kaiserin Maria Theresia (HRR).jpg Maria Theresa of Austria Charles VI
(Habsburg)
13 May 1717 12 February 1736 13 September 1745
husband's election
18 August 1765
husband's death
29 November 1780 Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Josepha von Bayern.jpg Maria Josepha of Bavaria Charles VII
(Wittelsbach)
30 March 1739 23 January 1765 18 August 1765
husband's ascension
28 May 1767 Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph Grassi 001.jpg Maria Louisa of Spain Charles III of Spain
(Bourbon)
24 November 1745 5 August 1765 30 September 1790
husband's election
1 March 1792
husband's death
15 May 1792 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Teresa di Borbone-Napoli.jpg Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
(Bourbon)
6 June 1772 15 August 1790 5 July 1792
husband's election
6 August 1806
husband's abdication
13 April 1807 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Consorts of disputed Kings[edit]

In addition to the above, the following women were the wives of men who made claim to the Kingship of Germany, but who are not recognised as official Kings:

  • Adelheid of Savoy (d.1080). She was the wife of Rudolf of Rheinfeld, anti-King between 1077 and 1080.
  • Beatrice of Brabant (1225 – 11 November 1288). On 10 March 1241, she became the second wife of Henry Raspe, anti-King between 1246 and 1247.
  • Elizabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg (d.1266). She was the wife of William II of Holland, who was elected as an anti-King of Germany in 1247. He was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen in 1248, and married Elizabeth in 1252. However, he failed to establish sufficient power or recognition as King, and died in battle in 1256. The Interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire is dated not from his death, but from that of his predecessor, Conrad IV, and thus Elizabeth is not recognised as an official Queen.
  • Sanchia of Provence (1225–1261) and Beatrice of Falkenburg (d.1277). They were the second and third (m.1269) wives respectively of Richard of Cornwall, who was elected King of Germany and of the Romans in 1257, in the hope that he would reestablish order in Germany. He was crowned King of the Romans by the Pope at Aachen in 1257; with him was crowned Sanchia. Since he never managed to establish any power in the Empire, Sanchia and Beatrice were Queens of the Romans in name only, and were never Empresses.
  • Violant of Aragon (1236–1301). She was the wife of Alfonso X of Castile, who claimed and was elected as anti-King to the German throne in 1257 as a grandson of Philip of Swabia. Alfonso never visited Germany, held no authority there, and relinquished his claims in 1275.
  • Elisabeth von Hohnstein (died c. 4 April 1380). She was the wife of Günther von Schwarzburg, who was elected King of Germany and of the Romans in place of Louis IV on 30 January 1348, but who was forced to resign his claims by Charles IV on 24 May 1349.

See also[edit]