German Type UB III submarine
UB-86 washed ashore 1921
|Builders:||AG Weser, Bremen
Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
AG Vulcan, Hamburg
|Operators:|| Kaiserliche Marine
Imperial Japanese Navy
|Preceded by:||UB II|
|Displacement:||508–555 t (500–546 long tons; 560–612 short tons) surfaced
629–684 t (619–673 long tons; 693–754 short tons) submerged
|Length:||55.3–57.8 m (181–190 ft) o/a|
|Beam:||5.76–5.8 m (18.9–19.0 ft)|
|Draught:||3.67–3.85 m (12.0–12.6 ft)|
6-cylinder diesel engines, 1,060–1,100 ihp (790–820 kW)
electric motors, 788 ihp (588 kW)
|Speed:||13.2–13.9 knots (24.4–25.7 km/h; 15.2–16.0 mph) surfaced
7.4–8 knots (13.7–14.8 km/h; 8.5–9.2 mph) submerged
|Range:||7,120–9,090 nmi (13,190–16,830 km; 8,190–10,460 mi) at 6 kn (11 km/h; 6.9 mph) surfaced
50–55 nmi (93–102 km; 58–63 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||50 m (160 ft)|
|Complement:||3 officers, 31 men|
|Armament:||4 × 50 cm (19.7 in) bow torpedo tubes
1 × stern tube (10 torpedoes)
1 × 8.8 cm or 10.5 cm deck gun
UB III boats carried 10 torpedoes and were usually armed with either an 8.8 cm (3.5 in) or a 10.5 cm (4.1 in) deck gun. They carried a crew of 34 and had a cruising range of 7,200-9,000 miles. Between 1916 and 1918, 96 were built.
The UB III type coastal submarine, despite being a submersible torpedo boat was less akin to UB-II type "attack" (i.e. torpedo-launching) boats that preceded it than the highly successful UC-II type minelaying submarine. The UC-IIs had gained their fearsome reputation by sinking more than 1,800 Allied and neutral vessels. German engineers did not miss the chance of expanding the potential of this capable design by incorporating some of its features into a new submersible torpedo boat.
The UB-IIIs joined the conflict mid-1917, after the United States of America declared war on Germany and the United States Navy was added to the ranks of their enemies. When the convoy system was introduced, it became more difficult to engage enemy merchant shipping without being spotted by destroyer escorts. Nevertheless, the UB-IIIs performed their duties with distinction, sinking 507 ships with a total of 1,212,553 gross register tons (GRT) and 12 warships, including the battleship HMS Britannia before the end of hostilities.
More than 200 UB III boats were ordered, of these 96 were completed and 89 commissioned into the German Imperial Navy. Thirty-seven boats were lost, four in accidents. Surviving boats had to be surrendered to the Allies in accordance with the requirements of the Armistice with Germany, some of these boats served until 1935.
Germany was prohibited from acquiring a new submarine force by the Treaty of Versailles, but German admirals had no intention of allowing their nation to forget how to construct submarines. Germany started to manufacture and to export slightly modified versions of UB-IIs and UB-IIIs. Having kept the skills of their engineers polished by this means, they eventually ordered the construction of a new coastal submarine. The resulting design was an improved UB-III that had the benefit of new, all-welded construction techniques and an array of electronic and electromechanical gadgets: the famous Type VII submarine, the most common U-boat of the Kriegsmarine, was born.
List of Type UB III submarines
There were 95 Type UB III submarines commissioned into the German Imperial Navy.
- Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1922
- Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe, 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.
- Bendert, Harald (2000). Die UB-Boote der Kaiserlichen Marine, 1914-1918. Einsätze, Erfolge, Schicksal (in German). Hamburg: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn GmbH. ISBN 3-8132-0713-7.