German Type VII submarine

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Type VIIC/41 U-995
U-995 Type VIIC/41 at the German navy memorial at Laboe
Class overview
Name: Type VII
Builders: Neptun Werft, Rostock
Deschimag, Bremen
Germaniawerft, Kiel
Flender Werke, Lübeck
Danziger Werft, Danzig
Blohm + Voss, Hamburg
Kriegsmarinewerft, Wilhelmshaven
Nordseewerke, Emden
F. Schichau, Bremerhaven,[1]
Howaldtswerke AG, Kiel
Operators:

 Kriegsmarine
 Soviet Navy [Note 1]
 Royal Norwegian Navy [Note 2]

 Royal Navy [Note 3]
 French Navy [Note 4]
 Spanish Navy[Note 5]
In commission: 1936–1970 (G-7)
Completed: 703
General characteristics (Type VIIC)
Displacement: 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged[2]
Length: 67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a[1]<
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull[1]
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) (o/a)[1]
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) (pressure hull)[1]
Height: 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)[1]
Draft: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)[1]
Propulsion: 2 × supercharged 6-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engines totalling 2,800–3,200 hp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490[1]
Speed: 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced[1]
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged[1]
Range: 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 kn (19 km/h) surfaced[1]
80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged[1]
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)[1]
Calculated crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)[1]
Complement: 44-52 officers & ratings[1]
Armament: 5 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (4 bow, 1 stern)[1]
14 × torpedoes or 26 TMA or 39 TMB mines
1 × 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun[3] with 220 rounds
Various antiaircraft weaponry

Type VII U-boats were the most common type of German World War II U-boat. The Type VII was based on earlier German submarine designs going back to the World War I Type UB III and especially the cancelled Type UG, designed through the Dutch dummy company Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag (I.v.S) which was set up by Germany after World War I in order to maintain and develop German submarine technology and to circumvent the limitations set by the Treaty of Versailles, and was built by shipyards around the world. The Finnish Vetehinen class and Spanish Type E-1 also provided some of the basis for the Type VII design. These designs led to the Type VII along with Type I, the latter being built in AG Weser shipyard in Bremen, Germany. The production of Type I was cut down only after two boats; the reasons for this are not certain and range from political decisions to faults of the type. The design of the Type I was further used in the development of the Type VII and Type IX. Type VII submarines were the most widely used U-boats of the war and were the most produced submarine class in history, with 703 built.[4] The type had several modifications.

The Type VII was the most numerous U-boat type to be involved in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Type VIIA[edit]

Type VIIA U-boats were designed in 1933-34 as the first series of a new generation of attack U-boats.[5] Most Type VIIA U-boats were constructed at Deschimag AG Weser in Bremen with the exception of U-33 through U-36, which were built at Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft, Kiel. Type VIIA U-boats were generally popular with their crews and much more powerful than the smaller Type II U-boats they replaced, with four bow and one external stern torpedo tubes. Usually carrying 11 torpedoes on board, they were very agile on the surface and mounted the 8.8 centimetres (3.5 in) quick-firing deck gun with about 220 rounds.[5]

Ten Type VIIA boats were built between 1935 and 1937. All but two Type VIIA U-boats were sunk during World War II (famous Otto Schuhart U-29 and U-30 which is the first submarine to sink a ship in World War II, both scuttled in Kupfermühlen Bay on 4 May 1945).[5]

The boat was powered on the surface by two MAN AG, 6 cylinder 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesel engines giving a total of 2,100 to 2,310 brake horsepower (1,570 to 1,720 kW) at 470 to 485 rpm. When submerged it was propelled by two Brown, Boveri & Cie (BBC) GG UB 720/8 electric motors giving a total of 750 horsepower (560 kW) at 322 rpm.[5]

List of Type VIIA submarines[edit]

Type VIIA submarines
Date launched Name of U-boat Date commissioned Ships sunk or damaged Fate
24 June 1936 U-27[6] 12 August 1936 2[7] Sunk September 1939
14 July 1936 U-28[8] 12 September 1936 15[9] sunk in training accident 1944
29 August 1936 U-29[10] 16 November 1936 13[11] scuttled 1945
4 August 1936 U-30[12] 8 October 1936 19[13]
25 September 1936 U-31[14] 28 December 1936 14[15]
25 February 1937 U-32[16] 15 April 1937 25[17]
11 June 1936 U-33[18] 25 July 1936 11[19]
17 July 1936 U-34[20] 12 September 1936 24[21]
24 September 1936 U-35[22] 3 November 1936 5[23]
4 November 1936 U-36[24] 16 December 1936 3[25]

Type VIIB[edit]

The VIIA had limited fuel capacity, so 24 Type VIIB boats were built between 1936 and 1940 with an additional 33 tonnes of fuel in external saddle tanks which added another 2,500 nautical miles (4,600 km; 2,900 mi) of range at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced.[26] They were slightly faster than the VIIA, and had two rudders for greater agility. The torpedo armament was improved by moving the aft tube to the inside of the boat. Now an additional aft torpedo could be carried below the deck plating of the aft torpedo room (which also served as the electric motor room) and two watertight compartments under the upper deck could hold two additional torpedoes giving it a total of 14 torpedoes. The only exception was U-83, which lacked a stern tube and carried only 12 torpedoes.[26]

Prien's VIIB U-47 (model)
Prien's U-47 (model)

Type VIIBs included many of the most famous U-boats of World War II, including U-48 (the most successful), Prien's U-47, Kretschmer's U-99, and Schepke's U-100.[26]

On the surface the boat was powered by two supercharged MAN, 6 cylinder 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels (except for U-45 to U-50, U-83, U-85, U-87, U-99, U-100, and U-102 which were powered by two supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesels) giving a total of 2,800–3,200 metric horsepower (2,100–2,400 kW) at 470 to 490 rpm. When submerged, the boat was powered by two AEG GU 460/8-276 (except in U-45, U-46, U-49, U-51, U-52, U-54, U-73 to U-76, U-99 and U-100 which retained the BBC motor of the VIIA) electric motors giving a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW) at 295 rpm.[26]

List of Type VIIB submarines[edit]

Type VIIB submarines
Name of U-boat Date launched Date commissioned Ships sunk or damaged
U-45[27] 25 June 1938 27 April 1938 2[28]
U-46[29] 10 September 1938 2 November 1938 27[30]
U-47[31] 29 October 1938 17 December 1938 39[32]
U-48[33] 8 March 1939 22 April 1939 55[34]
U-49[35] 24 June 1939 12 August 1939 1[36]
U-50[37] 1 November 1939 12 December 1939 4[38]
U-51[39] 11 June 1938 6 August 1938 6[40]
U-52[41] 21 December 1938 4 February 1939 13[42]
U-53[43] 6 May 1939 24 June 1939 8[44]
U-54[45] 15 August 1939 23 September 1939 0
U-55[46] 19 October 1939 21 November 1939 6[47]
U-73[48] 27 July 1940 30 September 1940 15[49]
U-74[50] 31 August 1940 31 October 1940 7[51]
U-75[52] 18 October 1940 19 December 1940 9[53]
U-76[54] 3 October 1940 3 December 1940 2[55]
U-83[56] 9 December 1940 8 February 1941 8[57]
U-84[58] 26 February 1941 29 April 1941 7[59]
U-85[60] 10 April 1941 7 June 1941 3[61]
U-86[62] 10 May 1941 8 July 1941 4[63]
U-87[64] 21 June 1941 19 August 1941 5[65]
U-99[66] 12 March 1940 18 April 1940 44[67]
U-100[68] 10 April 1940 30 May 1940 30[69]
U-101[70] 13 January 1940 11 March 1940 25[71]
U-102[72] 21 March 1940 27 April 1940 2[73]

Type VIIC[edit]

A cross-section of a Type VIIC U-boat.
miniature model of a Type VIIC.

The Type VIIC was the workhorse of the German U-boat force, with 568 commissioned from 1940 to 1945.[74] The first VIIC boat commissioned was the U-69 in 1940. The Type VIIC was an effective fighting machine and was seen almost everywhere U-boats operated, although its range of only 6,500 nautical miles was not as great as that of the larger Type IX (11,000 nautical miles), severely limiting the time it could spend in the far reaches of the western and southern Atlantic without refueling from a tender or U-boat tanker.[74] The VIIC came into service toward the end of the "First Happy Time"[Note 6] near the beginning of the war and was still the most numerous type in service when Allied anti-submarine efforts finally defeated the U-boat campaign in late 1943 and 1944.[74]

Type VIIC differed from the VIIB only in the addition of an active sonar and a few minor mechanical improvements, making it 2 feet longer and 8 tons heavier. Speed and range were essentially the same. Many of these boats were fitted with snorkels in 1944 and 1945.[74]

They had the same torpedo tube arrangement as their predecessors, except for U-72, U-78, U-80, U-554, and U-555, which had only two bow tubes, and for U-203, U-331, U-351, U-401, U-431, and U-651, which had no stern tube.[74]

On the surface the boats (except for U-88, U-90 and U-132 to U-136 which used MAN M6V40/46s) were propelled by two supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totaling 2,800 to 3,200 hp (2,100 to 2,400 kW) at 470 to 490 rpm.[74]

For submerged propulsion, several different electric motors were used. Early models used the VIIB configuration of two AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors, totaling 750 hp (560 kW) with a max rpm of 296, while newer boats used two BBC GG UB 720/8, two GL (Garbe, Lahmeyer & Co.) RP 137/c electric motors or two Siemens-Schuckert-Werke (SSW) GU 343/38-8 electric motors with the same power output as the AEG motors.[74]

Perhaps the most famous VIIC boat was U-96, featured in the movie Das Boot.[74]

U-flak "Flak Traps"[edit]

The concept of the "U-flak" or "Flak Trap" originated the previous year, on 31 August 1942, when U-256 was seriously damaged by aircraft. Rather than scrap the boat, it was decided to refit her as a heavily armed anti-aircraft boat intended to combat the losses being inflicted by Allied aircraft in the Bay of Biscay. Two 20 mm quadruple Flakvierling mounts and an experimental 37 mm automatic gun were installed on the U-flaks' decks. A battery of 86 mm line-carrying anti-aircraft rockets was tested (similar to a device used by the British in the defense of airfields), but this idea proved unworkable. At times, two additional single 20 mm guns were also mounted. The submarines' limited fuel capacities restricted them to operations only within the Bay of Biscay. Only five torpedoes were carried, preloaded in the tubes, to free up space needed for additional gun crew.

Four VIIC boats were modified for use as surface escorts for U-boats departing and returning to French Atlantic bases. These "U-flak" boats were U-441, U-256, U-621, and U-951. Conversion began on three others (U-211, U-263, and U-271) but none was completed and they were eventually returned to duty as standard VIIC attack boats.

The modified boats became operational in June 1943 and at first appeared to be successful against a surprised Royal Air Force. Hoping that the extra firepower might allow the boats to survive relentless British air attacks in the Bay of Biscay and reach their operational areas, Donitz ordered the boats to cross the bay in groups at maximum speed. The effort earned the Germans about two more months of relatively limited freedom, until the RAF modified their tactics. When a pilot saw that a U-boat was going to fight on the surface, he held off attacking and called in reinforcements. When several aircraft had arrived, they all attacked at once. If the U-boat dived, surface vessels were called to the scene to scour the area with sonar and drop depth charges. The British also began equipping some aircraft with rockets that could sink a U-boat with a single hit, finally making it too dangerous for a U-boat to attempt to fight it out on the surface regardless of its armament.[75] In November 1943, less than six months after the experiment began, it was discontinued. All U-flaks were converted back to standard attack boats and fitted with Turm 4, the standard anti-aircraft armament for U-boats at the time. (According to German sources, only six aircraft had been shot down by the U-flaks in six missions, three by U-441, and one each by U-256, U-621, and U-953.)

Type VIIC/41[edit]

Type VIIC/41 U-995. Laboe Naval Memorial

Type VIIC/41 was a slightly modified version of the VIIC and had the same armament and engines. The difference was a stronger pressure hull giving them a deeper test depth and lighter machinery to compensate for the added steel in the hull, making them slightly lighter than the VIIC. A total of 91 were built; all of them from U-1271 onwards lacked the fittings to handle mines.

Today one Type VIIC/41 still exists: U-995 is on display at Laboe (north of Kiel), the only surviving Type VII in the world.

List of Type VIIC/41 submarines[edit]

There were 91 Type VIIC/41 submarines commissioned.

Views[edit]

Type VIIC/42[edit]

The Type VIIC/42 was designed in 1942 and 1943 to replace the aging Type VIIC. It would have had a much stronger pressure hull, with skin thickness up to 28 mm, and would have dived twice as deep as the previous VIICs. These boats would have been very similar in external appearance to the VIIC/41 but with two periscopes in the tower and would have carried two more torpedoes.

Contracts were signed for 164 boats and a few boats were laid down, but all were cancelled on 30 September 1943 in favor of the new Type XXI, and none was advanced enough in construction to be launched.

It was powered by the same engines as the VIIC.

Type VIID[edit]

The type VIID boats, designed in 1939 and 1940, were a lengthened - by 10 m (32 ft 10 in) - version of the VIIC for use as a minelayer. The mines were carried in, and released from, three banks of five vertical tubes just aft of the conning tower.[76] The extended hull also improved fuel and food storage.

On the surface the boat used two supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke F46 diesels delivering 3,200 bhp (2,400 kW) at between 470 to 490 rpm. When submerged the boat used two AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors giving a total of 750 shp (560 kW) at 285 rpm.[76]

Only one (U-218) managed to survive the war; the other five were sunk, killing all crew members.[76]

List of Type VIID submarines[edit]

Type VIID submarines
Date launched Name of U-boat Date commissioned Ships sunk or damaged
24 July 1941 U-213[77] 30 August 1941 0
18 September 1941 U-214[78] 1 November 1941 6[79]
9 October 1941 U-215[80] 22 November 1941 1[81]
23 October 1941 U-216[82] 15 December 1941 1[83]
15 November 1941 U-217[84] 31 January 1942 3[85]
5 December 1941 U-218[86] 24 January 1942 5[87]

Type VIIF[edit]

The Type VIIF boats were designed in 1941 as supply boats to rearm U-boats at sea once they had used up their torpeodes. This required a lengthened hull and they were the largest and heaviest type VII boats built. They were armed identically with the other Type VIIs except that they could have up to 39 torpedoes onboard and had no deck guns.[88]

Only four Type VIIFs were built. Two of them, U-1062 and U-1059, were sent to support the Monsun Gruppe in the Far East; U-1060 and U-1061 remained in the Atlantic. Type VIIF U-boats used the same engines as the Type VIID class.[88] Three were sunk during the war, the last was scuttled after the war along with the majority of the surrendered U boats

List of Type VIIF submarines
Name of U-boat Date launched Date commissioned Notes
U-1059[89] 12 March 1943 1 May 1943 sunk by Allied aircraft on second supply patrol in support of Far East operations
U-1060[90] 8 March 1943 15 May 1943 completed six supply patrols to Norway before attacked and forced aground by British carrier aircraft. Subsequently bombed by Allied aircraft.
U-1061[91] 22 April 1943 25 August 1943 completed five supply patrols to Norway and was surrendered at end of war
U-1062[92] 8 May 1943 19 June 1943 sunk by US escorts on return from first supply patrol to Far East

Specifications[edit]

Class VIIA[93] VIIB[93] VIIC[93] VIIC/41[93] VIIC/42[93] VIID[93] VIIF[93]
Displacement
surfaced
626 tonnes 753 tonnes 769 tonnes 769 tonnes 999 tonnes 965 tonnes 1084 tonnes
Displacement
submerged
745 tonnes 857 tonnes 871 tonnes 871 tonnes 1099 tonnes 1080 tonnes 1181 tonnes
Length
overall
64.5 m (211 ft 7 in) 66.6 m (218 ft 6 in) 67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) 67.23 m (220 ft 7 in) 68.7 m (225 ft 5 in) 76.9 m (252 ft 4 in) 77.6 m (254 ft 7 in)
Length
pressure hull
44.5 m (146 ft 0 in) 48.8 m (160 ft 1 in) 50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) 50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) 50.9 m (167 ft 0 in) 59.8 m (196 ft 2 in) 60.4 m (198 ft 2 in)
Beam
overall
5.85 m (19 ft 2 in) 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) 6.85 m (22 ft 6 in) 6.4 m (21 ft 0 in) 7.3 m (23 ft 11 in)
Beam
pressure hull
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) 5.0 m (16 ft 5 in) 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Draft 4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in) 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in) 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in) 5.0 m (16 ft 5 in) 5.0 m (16 ft 5 in) 4.9 m (16 ft 1 in)
Power
surfaced
1,700 kW[Note 7] 2,400 kW[Note 8] 2,400 kW[Note 9] 2,400 kW[Note 10] 2,400 kW[Note 11] 2,400 kW[Note 12] 2,400 kW[Note 13]
Power
submerged
560 kW[Note 14] 560 kW[Note 15] 560 kW[Note 16] 560 kW[Note 17] 560 kW[Note 18] 560 kW[Note 19] 560 kW[Note 20]
Surface
speed
17 knots (31 km/h) 17.9 knots (33.2 km/h) 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h) 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h) 18.6 knots (34.4 km/h) 16.7 knots (30.9 km/h) 17.6 knots (32.6 km/h)
Submerged
speed
8 knots (15 km/h) 8 knots (15 km/h) 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h) 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h) 7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) 7.9 knots (14.6 km/h) 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h)
Surface
range
11,470 km (6,190 nmi) 16,095 km (8,691 nmi) 15,170 km (8,190 nmi) 15,725 km (8,491 nmi) 23,310 km (12,590 nmi) 20,720 km (11,190 nmi) 27,195 km (14,684 nmi)
Submerged
range
175 km (94 nmi) 175 km (94 nmi) 150 km (81 nmi) 150 km (81 nmi) 150 km (81 nmi) 130 km (70 nmi) 140 km (76 nmi)
Maximum
operating depth
220 m 220 m 230 m 250 m 270 m 200 m 200 m
Crush depth 230–250 m 230–250 m 250–295 m 275–325 m 350–400 m 220–240 m 220–240 m
Complement 42–46 44–48 44–52 44–52 44–52 46–52 46–52
Deck gun C35 88 mm/L45, with 220 rounds none
Anti-aircraft
guns
C30 20 mm Various 2 × C30 20 mm,
with 4,380 rounds
3.7 cm Flak,
with 1,195 rounds
2 × C30 20 mm,
with 4,380 rounds
Bow tubes 4 [Note 21]
Stern tubes 1 [Note 22]
Torpedoes
(maximum)
11 14 14 14 16 14 14 / 39 [Note 23]
Mines 22 TMA mines
or 33 TMB mines
26 TMA mines 15 SMA mines in
vertical chutes and
either 26 TMA mines or
39 TMB mines
none
Number
commissioned
10 24 568 91 0 [Note 24] 6 4

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ post war; U-1057, U 1058, U 1064, U 1305 as respectively TS-14, S-81S-84
  2. ^ post war - U-995 and two others
  3. ^ U-570 as HMS Graph (P715)
  4. ^ U-471/Mille (S609), U-766/Laubie (S610)
  5. ^ G-7/German submarine U-573
  6. ^ U-boat ace Otto Kretchmer took issue with use of the term "Happy Time." He didn't see how the U-boat war could ever be characterized as having a "Happy Time" when losses of U-boats and crews were running at 50%. (See interview on YouTube.)
  7. ^ 2 MAN, 6 cylinder 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,100 - 2,310bhp. Max rpm: 470-485.
  8. ^ 2 supercharged MAN, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470-490.
  9. ^ 2 supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470-490.
  10. ^ Same as VIIC
  11. ^ Same as VIIC
  12. ^ 2 supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke F46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470-490.
  13. ^ Same as VIID.
  14. ^ 2 Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 322.
  15. ^ 2 AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 295.
  16. ^ Same as VIIA or VIIB, 2 Siemens-Schuckert-Werke GU 343/38-8 electric motors, totalling 750shp and max rpm: 296 or 2 Garbe Lahmeyer RP 137/c electric motors, totalling 750shp and max rpm: 296.
  17. ^ Same as VIIC
  18. ^ Same as VIIC
  19. ^ 2 AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 285
  20. ^ Same as VIID
  21. ^ A small number of VIIC boats were fitted with only two forward tubes
  22. ^ A small number of VIIC boats were fitted with no stern tube
  23. ^ 39 Torpedoes were carried in the transport role
  24. ^ None of the boats were ready by the end of the war

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIIC". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  2. ^ Eberhard Möller, Werner Brack The Encyclopedia of U-Boats ISBN 9781853676239 pp 69-73
  3. ^ Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two ISBN 0-87021-459-4 p.251
  4. ^ "Type VII U-Boat". German U-Boat. Uboataces.com. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIIA". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  6. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-27". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  7. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-27". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  8. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-28". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  9. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-28". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  10. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-29". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  11. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-29". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  12. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-30". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  13. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-30". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  14. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-31". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  15. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-31". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  16. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-32". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  17. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-32". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  18. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-33". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  19. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-33". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  20. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-34". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  21. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-34". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  22. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-35". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  23. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-35". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  24. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-36". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  25. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-36". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  26. ^ a b c d Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIIB". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  27. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-45". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  28. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-45". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  29. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-46". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Rossler, Eberhard (1981). The U-Boat. Annapolis, Maryland (USA): Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-966-9.
  • Stern, Robert C. (1991). Type VII U-boats. Annapolis, Maryland (USA): Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-828-3.

External links[edit]